suggested to increase the number of reading texts in science textbooks. These texts may have positive effects on students' learning by attracting interest from the students. Besides, it can be suggested that the texts can be in different genres and taken from different sources. Thus, students can contribute to more effective learning by seeing different types of texts in the teaching-learning process and using different sources. It is also important to point out the sources of the reading texts. At this point, students can deepen their knowledge about the subject by going to the sources they are interested in. Finally, the process of making sense of the students can be contributed by supporting the reading texts visually. Thus, students can make more concrete and meaningful learning.
In this paper, we will discuss the preliminary stage of an on- going research which aims to design teaching and learning materials through an analysis of a corpus of texts taken from Science textbooks for Primary One students in Malaysia. The topic of our research is ‘EST Teaching and Learning Materials via WWW Based on Corpus Analysis of Mathematics, Science and English Text Books in Malaysian Primary Schools’. This paper, however, only focuses on the use of the frequency list and corpus of Science texts to develop teaching and learning materials for English language learners of Primary One students.
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terms of the incorrect information given. In Ogan-Bekiroglu’s (2007) study, how much textbooks were appropriate for teaching and learning was searched. Lastly, Ceken and Ayas (2010) studied on the learning goals in science and technology curriculum and determination of which can be adapted according to the geographic conditions of the region in which the program is applied. Within this context, studies that analysed science (also physics, chemistry, biology) textbooks in terms of different perspectives were often encountered. However, in the literature, there is no study on the examination of textbooks in relation to daily life. Considering that one of the main objectives of science programs is to gain the ability to relate to daily life, it is interesting that there is no study on this subject. As Unsal and Gunes (2003) stated the basic principle in the preparation of the textbooks was that textbooks should contain the behaviours determined in the curriculum. In other words, the activities that would enable gaining knowledge, skill, and characteristics and also textbooks should have the quality to guide these activities. In science curriculums, the relation with daily life or the use of the context-based approach is actually going back many years. It can be said that the first examples of this issue started in the field of chemistry with the name of “Salter’s story” in England and this content was adopted by many countries such as Belgium, China (Hong Kong), New Zealand, Russia, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland and the USA (Bennett & Lubben, 2006). Similarly, it is seen that the context-based approach was embraced with ChemCom: Chemistry in the Community in America (Schwartz, 2006). At this point, in Turkey and many countries considering the fact that one of the basic aims of the science program is relating with daily life, it is thought that the analysis of the science textbooks in this respect will be important in terms of literature. In the studies taking place in the literature although relating to daily life takes place as a sub-dimension, a study, in which relating with daily life issue in textbooks is analysed deeply, cannot be found. Within this context, in the study, it is aimed to analyse the relating to daily life case of the cell subject in 6 th grade science textbook.
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Regarding the mainstream multicultural and scientific fields of thought, teachers from primary school to university in Taiwan currently still have the culture-free myth of science. Most science teachers failed to perceive that students’ cultural backgrounds and science learning are closely related (Wang, 2013). If science teachers failed to perceive cultural differences, they may retain a mainstream scientific belief with certain teaching methods and evaluation standards. In this circumstance, minority students might face learning inequality (Aikenhead & Lima, 2009). Addressing the policy of multiethnic science education with the focus of multicultural literacy for science teachers, this study explores the possibility, depth and width for developing Multicultural Science Education (MSE) in Taiwan, especially when Taiwan is becoming a multicultural and multiethnic society nowadays. MSE questions “science as a western institution” and “science as a modern culture” in order to provide an alternative standing point for rethinking the science-culture relations. This paper aims to present science teachers’ views on Science, Science textbooks, science
In this paper we argue that analyzing logical connectives usage offers an important step in understanding the variation and challenges inherent in the language that students encounter in textbooks. To this end, we focused on the use of overt logical connectives in middle school textbooks. Examining the role of logical connectives in science texts problematizes the question of whether science teachers are content teachers or teachers of content, language and literacy. Building on the growing interest in developing subject-specific literacy strategies, this study compared discourse-connective usage across two subject areas –science and social studies– asking how often sentences contained logical connectives and what variation existed among these logical connectives. Although science textbooks were the focus of our analyses, we decided to use social studies textbooks, a non-STEM area as a comparison group. The main aims of our study were to investigate claims about the uniqueness of the language of science, to provide a snapshot of language registers (i.e., clusters of linguistic features) used in two subject areas, and to discuss how having accurate descriptions of these linguistic features can impact the reading comprehension of science texts.
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In the science textbooks which will be used in the future that some significant characteristics such as the amount of the materials to be used, their type, how to use them are given in a required manner. It is significant that some of the learning activities included in the textbooks should be designed taken into consideration the processes out of school environment. In the textbooks used in 2013 it was found that there was inconsistency between the picture of the material to be used in the activity and its visual representation in some of the learning activities. Arrangements can be made again for the solution of this problem in the science textbooks. Mismatch between the materials to be used in activities with the image itself. It is suggested that safety sembols can be used cautiously in every activities and experiments in the science textbooks. There is no workbook for the textbooks used in 2013 as a result of the decision of MEB mentioned above. The lack of study guides is a disadvantages for students. Because such guides provide the students with the opportunity to consolidate their learning through various learning activities. So it is suggested that workbooks can be prepared which has activities and experiments for science textbooks.
Additionally there are a few studies conducted on Turkish science curriculum (e.g., Erdogan & Köseoglu, 2012; Sardag et al., 2014; Ozden & Cavlazoglu, 2015). Erdogan and Koseoglu (2012) analyzed some curricula documents published in 2008 including TNSES and grade level expectation (GLEs) for high school biology, physics and chemistry. Their findings showed that while science as accumulation of knowledge aspect was highlighted in the chemistry curriculum, the aspect of science as inquiry was mostly emphasized in biology and physics curricula. However, their findings also showed that none of the three curricula emphasized science as a way of thinking. Similarly, Sardag et al. (2014) analyzed the GLEs in high school biology, physics and chemistry curricula published in 2013 by Turkey‟s NME. Their findings also showed that the representations of aspects of NOS were not adequate in these documents; moreover, none of these documents represented imagination and creativity in science aspects. Lastly, Ozden and Cavlazoglu (2015) analyzed middle school science curricula published in 2005 and 2013 to compare their inclusions of NOS aspects and approaches to teaching NOS. Their findings showed that both 2005 and 2013 middle school science curricula did not support explicit approaches of NOS. They also found that although the experimentation in science, scientific method, and socio-cultural embeddedness of science aspects were included within the standards of each curricula, they were not included within the GLEs. Interestingly, they indicated that the 2005 curriculum was more successful than 2013 curriculum in terms of NOS because the standards in 2005 curriculum explicitly provided detailed knowledge about NOS while the 2013 curriculum did not provide any knowledge within its standards. All the three studies (i.e., Erdogan & Köseoglu, 2012; Sardag et al., 2014; Ozden & Cavlazoglu, 2015) merely utilized the TNSES and GLEs within the science curricula. However, textbooks are still the main sources that teachers use to shape their instruction (Weiss et al., 2001). Thus, a more comprehensive analysis including the TNSES, the GLEs, and science textbooks need to be taken into account to illustrate how the Turkish science curriculum and science textbooks support teachers and students in teaching and learning NOS.
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Interval scales are those where the values measured are not only rank-ordered, but are also equidistant from adjacent attributes. For example, the temperature scale (in Fahrenheit or Celsius), where the difference between 30 and 40 degree Fahrenheit is the same as that between 80 and 90 degree Fahrenheit. Likewise, if you have a scale that asks respondents’ annual income using the following attributes (ranges): $0 to 10,000, $10,000 to 20,000, $20,000 to 30,000, and so forth, this is also an interval scale, because the mid-point of each range (i.e., $5,000, $15,000, $25,000, etc.) are equidistant from each other. The intelligence quotient (IQ) scale is also an interval scale, because the scale is designed such that the difference between IQ scores 100 and 110 is supposed to be the same as between 110 and 120 (although we do not really know whether that is truly the case). Interval scale allows us to examine “how much more” is one attribute when compared to another, which is not possible with nominal or ordinal scales. Allowed central tendency measures include mean, median, or mode, as are measures of dispersion, such as range and standard deviation. Permissible statistical analyses include all of those allowed for nominal and ordinal scales, plus correlation, regression, analysis of variance, and so on. Allowed scale transformation are positive linear. Note that the satisfaction scale discussed earlier is not strictly an interval scale, because we cannot say whether the difference between “strongly satisfied” and “somewhat satisfied” is the same as that between “neutral” and “somewhat satisfied” or between “somewhat dissatisfied” and “strongly dissatisfied”. However, social science researchers often “pretend” (incorrectly) that these differences are equal so that we can use statistical techniques for analyzing ordinal scaled data.
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course is textbooks. Through the textbooks, the current curriculum is reached at first hand . Besides, teachers complete the points they think they are incomplete about the curriculum or the expression of a chapter with the help of textbooks. Textbooks are the main help in terms of presenting the objective of the course, doing practices on the subject, using education strategies, and practicing with homework included in books . In the choice of resources for the course, preparation of textbooks in the direction of curriculum seems important [32, 33]. In addition, textbooks are important in terms of bringing information on many different sources together in terms of lecturing, sample problem solving and exercises. It is crucial to examine the resources that teachers use in every field in terms of different variables. In this context, many studies have been carried out on textbooks. When studies on physics textbooks are examined, it is found that these studies generally focus on subjects such as imagery evaluation, content-program adaptation [34, 35, 36]. However, when the function of textbooks is considered, studies on different fields are needed to be carried out. One of these fields is mathematical knowledge included in physics textbooks. The not encountering of any research on mathematical knowledge, which is very important in terms of physics, can be seen as a sign of an important deficiency in this area.
two case–studies: 1) the role played by dialectic of mathematics–physics relationship to show that Galileo wrote Theoremata – compared to the mechanical works cited – strictly following the archimedean idea of experimentation and method of composition and de– composition and not as a primitive cognitive process on the improbable theory of a system of bodies. he used archimedes’ method compositing circumscribed and inscribed figures, each of which has its own centre of gravity. then, the centre of gravity of the figure made by Galileo is found, in fact, through an algebraic–geometric result obtained by calculating the ratio. 2) the complex net of relations which, in Mysterium, tides the experimental part of astronomy with theoretical and, in case of Kepler, the metaphysical one. after the descriptive part we would like to understand why Kepler reached such a strange, genial and original connection between “practice” and “theory”. thus, didactic and foundational aims are to give a contribution to the study of the relation between physics–mathematics–metaphysics and between experiments– observations–theory in two scientists, as Galileo and Kepler, who were two of the “fathers” of modern science.
Much research in education has been done on the study of different language teaching methods. However, there has been little investigation using computational analysis to compare such methods in terms of readability or complexity progression. In this paper, we make use of existing readability scoring techniques and our own classifiers to ana- lyze the textbooks used in two very different teaching methods for English as a Second Language – the grammar-based and the communicative methods. Our analysis indicates that the grammar-based curriculum shows a more coherent readability progression com- pared to the communicative curriculum. This finding corroborates with the expectations about the differences between these two methods and validates our approach’s value in comparing different teaching methods quantitatively.
172 hold alternative conceptions even when they are presented with scientifi c explanations (Osborn & Freyburg, 1985). Students’ conceptual understandings of earth science have been studied broadly in domestic context, especially regarding the shape of the Earth and Earth’s gravity (Baxter, 1989; Mali & Howe, 1979; Nussbaum, 1979; Sneider & Pulos, 1983), the reasons for day and night (Atwood & Atwood, 1995; Vosniadou & Brewer, 1994), the science of seasons (Atwood &Atwood, 1996), and logical explanations of moon phases (Trundle, Atwood, & Christopher, 2002), rock cycles (Ford, 2005 ), and geological time scales (Dodic & Orion, 2003; Trend, 1998). These studies gave insight to science educators about prevalent alternative conceptions and proposed meaningful instructional interventions to promote scientifi c literacy. However, these studies usually were all conducted do- mestically. Therefore, cross-national studies comparing curriculum applications are needed to build a bridge between the large-scale international assessments and the domestic contexts.
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Paying attention to mathematics textbooks does not mean sticking to textbooks. The “Compulsory Education Mathematics Curriculum Standards (2011 Ver- sion)” clearly states that in teaching activities, mathematics teachers have to use materials in mathematics textbooks creatively in addition to using teaching ma- terials in mathematics textbooks reasonably and effectively . Mathematics textbooks are special texts written based on the general situation of our country, so it is impossible for mathematics textbooks to include all the teaching content and fully consider the actual situation of every school, every class, every teacher and every student. Therefore, in order to give full play to the educational and teaching value of mathematics textbooks, it is necessary to use mathematics textbooks creatively. We can do as follows: creating teaching situation flexibly according to the actual teaching situation, arranging class hours rationally, adapting examples and exercises in mathematics textbooks, adding or deleting mathematics textbooks content appropriately.
Table. 2 shows that number and operation which is the most widely analyzed by research- ers in mathematics textbooks. They focused on integer operations (addition and subtraction). Some of researchers explained it was a basic knowledge for the textbook’s purpose to introduce the problems especially related to perspective on learning students (Jitendra & Buchman 2005). PS, MF and Others in number and operation subject got the high result, it’s mean in number and operation three part of them have important thing for contributed to students achievement such as encourage and challenge student to solve the problems, gave the student opportunities for explained their idea with single step or multi-step. That were the reasons for some researchers have chosen them in number and operation. Meanwhile, geometry got the small frequencies. Due to the limitations in problems represented on textbooks about it. The other reasons, it was introduced at the higher secondary level (Junior High school).
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whose work is to explain the basic chemistry of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to a bemused public and befuddled consumers, who like you and me, cannot see saturated fat or cholesterol. These are invisible substances, like the Holy Ghost. But everybody has been told about ‘the bad fats’ as in the cartoon from the American Heart Association (above, right), with its jocular images of ‘the bad guys’. Now though, the joke is on conventional nutrition science. After half a century of demonising cholesterol, and thus whole foods including eggs and shellfish, it turns out that dietary cholesterol is practically harmless. The implications of this fiasco question the entire business of conventional nutrition as taught and practiced.
In conformance to the National Curriculum Framework (2005) 8 , the teaching of science should be realistic and relatable to the learner. The image of scientists is one of the aspects that make science either relatable or not. Scientists should not be viewed as an idealistic, out-of-the-world person. Instead the students should be able to comprehend that scientists are from amongst them and that with hard work and determination they too can grow up to be scientists. To develop such realistic images we need teachers who themselves hold a realistic image of science and scientists, so that they can interact with students and help them understand the same.
It is through corpus studies like this that teachers and material writers would be able to check and understand the differences in Scientific and Mathematical English from the general English language and be able to apply this knowledge to the teaching of Science and Math in English and the creation of better Science and Math textbooks. Corpora studies have allowed researchers, teachers and learners to use great amounts of real data in their study of language, instead of having to rely on intuition and made- up examples. This study proves that there is a need for small corpus studies to be carried out, especially on language for specific purposes, as these types of studies provide insights which would help in the production of better learning materials and in the teaching and learning process.
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In light of the above, it is clear that the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent a quantum leap for global science education projects and trends. In addition, these standards worked to avoid the practical problems of past trends such as the STEM approach. Therefore, it was important to verify the compatibility of science courses in Saudi Arabia with these standards especially with the rareness of studies aimed to evaluate the courses according to NGSS. Previous studies that aimed to evaluate science courses have examined one field of NGSS while the researcher discovers that working on one field of the science standards does not provide a suitable opportunity for comprehensive and in-depth insight into the extent to which the standards are included. It is worth mentioning that some previous studies worked on investigating one field of NGSS, focused only on the secondary stage while there were no studies on the middle stage which is represented as a major starting point of the formation of the learner’s scientific mindset and the most skilled preparation of the specia- lized scientific study as well as the preparation of the learner for the future labor market skills.
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“The new world is the world of the brand, not the universe of the product” (Naomi Klein, 2002). The usage of advertising images to illustrate the contents of primary school textbooks highlights the role that brand names are playing in today's western society. Brands must be examined attending to their target consumer and their function as identity markers, as they represent much more than an utilitarian object. As markers, goods and products become extensions of an individual, defining behaviour and lifestyles (Giddens, 2001), socially stratifying and consolidating inclusion in, or exclusion from a peer group. The choices made become signifiers, making a statement about their social agents. They contribute to the social reproduction of specific consumer practices, the possession of certain brands, the use of particular services and the shared iconography of given images. Brand choices are value-laden perceptions of differentiation representing references encoded in collective representations of the semantic memory. Contemporary social values are in permanent flux between the spheres of communication and consumption. The paradigm of social identity encompasses both seeing and having.
Handanhal Ravinder has been an associate professor in the Information and Operations Management department in the School of Business at Montclair State University since Fall 2012. Prior to that, he spent 12 years in the healthcare industry in various market research and business analytics positions. Dr. Ravinder received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin and taught for many years at the University of New Mexico. His research interests are in operations management, healthcare supply chain, and decision analysis. He has published in Management Science, Decision Analysis, and Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, among others. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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