acquisition that females enjoy a rate advantage, initially at least. It is possible, however, to cite a few SLA studies that have reported sex-relateddifferences incidental to their main focus. For example, Farhady (1982) found that female subjects significantly outperformed male subjects on a listening comprehension test in his study of 800 university students who were obliged to take a placement test. Eisenstein (1982) also showed that females performed significantly better than males on a dialect discrimination task and in the extent to which they could recognize dialects of greater or lesser prestige. (See Anne Brooks, 2009; Basturkment et al., 2004; Beare & Bourdages, 2007).
The population of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the southern Weddell Sea is in a unique position on the continental shelf edge, with vast shelf waters to the south, and deep Southern Ocean to the north. We describe sex-relateddifferences in the winter distribution of this population, from data collected by 20 conductiv- ity-temperature-depth satellite relay data loggers deployed in February 2011 at the end of the annual molt. The regional daily speed was calculated, and a state-space model was used to estimate behavioral states to positions along individuals’ tracks. GLMMs estimated that males and smaller individuals, diving in shallower water, traveled less far per day of deployment (males 14.6 2.26 km/d, females 18.9 2.42 km/d), and males were estimated to dive in shallower water (males 604 382 m, females 1,875 1,458 m). Males and smaller individuals were also estimated to be more resident; males spent an average 83.4% 7.7% of their time in a resident behavioral state, compared to females at 74.1% 7.1%. This evidence that male and female Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea are adopting different strate- gies has not been shown elsewhere along their circumpolar distribution.
Sex-relateddifferences with respect to sleep are a very con- temporary concern. A recent meta-analysis provided evi- dence about polysomnographic parameters in healthy adult men and women, also considering the effects of age. 23 Biological sexdifferences with respect to prevalence of sleep disorders 24 and with respect to sleep-related daytime symptoms in OSA 9 have also been suggested by previous reports. Likewise, Chervin et al 24 also suggested in an untreated OSAS sample that women report higher levels of sleepiness, fatigue, tiredness and “ lack of energy ” . The for- mer clinical studies, investigating sex-related effects in day- time symptoms, do often not provide full polysomnography- derived data 9 and are mainly, if not solely, focused on SRBDs such as OSA. 9,24 Systematic and structured symptom assess- ments in larger patient cohorts, covering several diagnostic categories, remain sparse. Consequently, the primary aim of our study was to extend and con ﬁ rm sex-relateddifferences with respect to sleep parameters and daytime complaints in a clinical sample addressed to a general sleep center. Overall, the most striking result here is that, irrespective from post hoc diagnosis and controlling for age and BMI, women with sleep-related complaints report higher symptom intensities (on any scale) than males. These differences are particularly pronounced for fatigue (ie, physical and mental rest propen- sity) and for anxiety symptoms.
Results: The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-relateddifferences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences between trends at national and international levels.
Patients who experience functional pain disorders such as IBS experience a myriad of symptoms including som- atic and/or visceral hyperalgesia. Our data identifies ELS in rodents as a relevant tool for the study of both som- atic and visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood that de- velops as a result of early adverse experience. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies investigating the effect of MS on mechanical somatic sensitivity, and therefore, this series of experiments provides a greater understanding of pain-related consequences in adult ani- mals. Previously, somatic allodynia following ELS was in- vestigated in the LN model to fully explore sex-relateddifferences in somatic withdrawal responses in adult- hood using Sprague Dawley rats . In the current study, following MS and LN exposure, adult male rats exhibited somatic allodynia, while female rats exposed to the same ELS paradigms displayed similar responses to non-separated or normal nested controls. Having shown that MS and LN induced male-specific alterations in somatic sensitivity, we expanded our observations by in- vestigating visceral sensitivity within these models. The current data set confirmed the development of visceral hypersensitivity in male animals following MS exposure  but also identified a previously unexplored sex dif- ference in Long Evans rats, wherein female animals ex- hibit pain thresholds for visceral or somatic assessments consistent with controls. The effects of MS on pain re- sponses in adulthood complement our previous work showing that LN exposure induces male-specific changes in adult visceral sensitivity, while female animals were seemingly unaffected . The male-specific effect of LN shown previously was mirrored in the current study using the Long Evans strain of rat. In the OAL model of ELS, the assessment of somatic sensitivity revealed no differences in mechanosensitivity following ELS in male or female animals compared to odor-only controls. As confirmed in the current study, our laboratory has previ- ously shown a female-specific increase in visceral pain perception that is context dependent following OAL Table 2 Somatic sensitivity in adult female animals following
A strong body of evidence suggests that girls are at higher risk for AIC than boys (Table 1). In a cohort of 150 patients who were treated with anthracyclines (65 girls and 85 boys, 7 to 29 years of age), Silber et al. first reported that girls are at increased risk of cardiac dys- function than boys . In this early study, the odds ra- tio (OR) for having an abnormal test result was 3.2 for females vs. males. The tests included resting and exer- cise gated nuclear angiography, using the standard elec- trocardiographic gating technique, and exercise testing using standard cycle geometry with ECG monitoring . These findings were corroborated in a landmark study when Lipshultz et al. studied 120 children and adults who had been treated with DOX in childhood (58 males and 62 females). Significant sex-relateddifferences were observed in this cohort. Increased LV dimensions and reduced LV mass were more predominant in female subjects, while reduced LV contractility, wall thickness, and fractional shortening were observed in both males and females . The authors concluded that female sex is an independent risk factor for cardiac abnormalities after treatment with DOX in childhood cancer . Al- though the mechanism of this sexual dimorphism was not identified, both studies proposed that differences in body composition between girls and boys may have contributed to the observed sexual dimorphism [20, 21]. They rea- soned that girls have higher fat than boys leading to differ- ences in DOX distribution in the body. Since DOX does not distribute to fat tissues, relatively higher DOX concen- trations can be achieved in other tissues such as the heart [20, 21]. Of interest, sexual dimorphism in fat patterning was significant even in pre-pubertal 5 – 7-year-old children , which may contribute to the sex difference in AIC even in pre-pubertal pediatric cancer patients. In agree- ment with this notion, the clearance of doxorubicinol, the cardiotoxic metabolite of DOX, was lower in children with > 30% body fat . However, in argument against this notion, DOX pharmacokinetic parameters were not different between boys and girls [24, 25]. In future studies, body composition, DOX, and doxorubicinol pharmaco- kinetics should be considered as confounding factors in multi-variate analysis to predict risk factors for AIC.
Other researchers have investigated joint or segment co- ordination based on vector coding technique, which is a dynamic system approaches and reported that coordin- ation information allows a more sensitive measure of joint mechanism . Altered joint or segment coordination results from a change in either the relative timing or amp- litude of motion, and this has been suggested to be a cause of running injuries . For example, compared with healthy runners, injured runners demonstrate altered co- ordination between the thigh and shank . Moreover, coordination between the shank and rearfoot differs be- tween men and women runners . Taking this into con- sideration, coordination among the foot joints may be altered between men and women during running, since the incidence of ankle/foot injuries between men and women is different. However, the influence of sex-relateddifferences on coordination among the foot joints remains unclear.
We compared serum gastrin concentrations and gastric acid secretion basally and in response to a mixed meal in age-matched women and men. Women had significantly higher basal serum gastrin concentrations (P < 0.01) and two- to threefold higher food- stimulated serum gastrin concentrations (P < 0.001) than men. Basal and food-stimulated serum gastrin concentrations in women did not fluctuate significantly during the menstrual cycle. Sex-relateddifferences in food-stimulated serum gastrin concentrations were not due to differences in antral pH because pH after the meal in women and men had been kept constant at 5.0 by in vivo intragastric titration with sodium bicarbonate.
Our results revealed a significant sex-related difference in waist circumference and BMD, such that the negative correlation between waist circumference and lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD was greater in males than in females. The reasons for this are not entirely clear, although hormonal differences may be an important factor underlying this effect. However, sex-relateddifferences in the relationship between body fat and BMD are controver- sial. Katzmarzyk et al.  found no sex-related difference
being widowed (45.5% vs 12.2%) or single (18.2% vs 7.3%) compared to men (p<0.01 for both) (Figure 1). Men were 2.3 times more likely to be married (68.3% vs 29.6%). As shown in Table 3, compared to men, women were less likely to have any caregiver present (18.1% of the women were alone vs 2.4% of the men, p<0.01). Comparing caregiver types, 70.7% of men identi ﬁ ed a spouse, partner, or signi ﬁ cant other serving as a caregiver compared to only 27.3% of women (p<0.01). There was no signi ﬁ cant difference among those who identi ﬁ ed an adult child (p=0.08), other family members (p=1.00), or a neighbor/friend (p=1.00) as their primary caregivers. Many subjects endorsed having home health aides (HHAs), with 48.2% having a part-time HHA and 21.2% having a full-time HHA, without statistically signi ﬁ cant sex-relateddifferences (p=0.10, p=0.43, respectively). Most visits were conducted in the home of the patient
This study has certain limitations. First, the investigation was conducted in clinical settings. Therefore, participants were patients who actively sought medical care for their shoulder pain. Physical therapy may somewhat affect their pain assessments. Second, the sample was heterogeneous consisting of distinctly different musculoskeletal conditions. Third, convenience sampling was adopted, through which more female patients were enrolled. Although this may chal- lenge the obtained sex-relateddifferences, the study neverthe- less provides a favorable clinical picture that musculoskeletal pain, including shoulder pain, is generally highly prevalent in women. 17 Finally, pain descriptors might be country-,
The overall conclusion from this research was that the older cohort exhibited decreased shoulder strength, lon- ger endurance times, and signs of slower progression of muscular fatigue, suggesting type I fibre dominance in aged muscles. Females exhibited higher endurance times and slower progression of muscular fatigue than the males. The importance of this work is that it identified that the groups with increased fatigue resistance (older age & females) are indicated to be those typically with lower muscle strength in the working population. A key inference from the study is that when controlling for ex- posure, the trends in age and sex-relateddifferences in shoulder MSD prevalence might not primarily be due to muscle fibre type relateddifferences, but rather differ- ences in muscle strength.
ences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12–13 and 14–17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18–32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important for the development of specific training programs.
proportionately greater number of subjects of one sex in each group for which this was examined. This factor limits interpretation of the lack of sex effect in similarly sized brains in their study. It is well estab- lished that, as a group, men have a greater cerebral volume than women (47, 48). The literature contains evidence for differences in cerebral structure (49–51) and function (13, 52, 53) between the sexes, after investigators account for differences in brain size. Investigators also question the validity of comparing women having a larger cerebral volume with men having a smaller cerebral volume, as these variances may represent different subpopulations within their group. This concern led us not to perform a similar statistical analysis, although, in our study, men with larger brains do not consistently have a smaller cal- losal area; conversely, women with smaller brains did not have a larger callosal area (Fig 2A). The study by Ja¨ncke et al differs from ours on two important meth- odologic points: First, their study population was re- cruited from a medical school rather than from the general population. Second, their method of image analysis was not based on a consistently defined mid- sagittal image of the corpus callosum. This may ex- plain the lack of a significant sex difference in the absolute callosal area in their data. Comparison of our data with theirs reveals a different distribution of callosal area across subjects, with a similar range of brain sizes. In addition, although the range and mean cerebral volumes in the two studies are comparable, a greater overlap in cerebral volumes was observed between the sexes in their study than in our study. This finding may again reflect differences in the study populations. We also differ in interpreting the strength of the correlation between callosal area and cerebral volume, and we would not regard their data as showing a “strong” relationship (r 2 ⫽ 0.18) between the two. In
The evidence from the largest population sample (Pickford, 1947) suggests that there is no difference between males and females in colour discrimination when X-linked heterozygote female carriers as well as male and female colour deficient observers are excluded from comparisons. Using a rotating disk experiment, Pickford (1947) measured red-green and yellow-blue sensitivities in 191 men and 185 women with normal colour vision. No significant gender differences were found in yellow-blue thresholds. However, a higher proportion of women than men had more than twice the modal red-green threshold range, although the modal threshold was the same for both sexes. The number of women with twice the modal red-green matching range was similar to the number of heterozygote women expected in the random population sample. About 13.57% of the 185 women in the sample were expected to be heterozygous for sex-linked defects based on the 7.31% prevalence of red-green defectives among men in the region of Glasgow and western Scotland (Vernon & Straker, 1943). Pickford, therefore, concluded that ‘if you control for heterozygotes, women are just as good judges as men’. However, he assumed that all red-green heterozygotes have poorer red-green thresholds than normal males because of slight red-green weaknesses due to incomplete recessive inheritance. This assumption, however, has not been supported by a recent study. Hood et al. (2006) argue that chromatic discrimination along the red-green axis is impaired in female carriers of deutan deficiencies (a condition that reflects abnormality or absence of the M-pigment), but not in carriers of protan deficiencies (which reflects
Interestingly when the rodent Holochilus brasiliensis was used in S. mansoni experimental infections with a wild strain, females showed less severe hepatic le- sions, when compared with male rodents . In this sense, several studies with human population and murine models describe that there is a clear relationship between sex and susceptibility/resistance in relation to different infections, and there is a general consensus that males are more susceptible than females re- garding viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections .
Our results suggest the existence of intracardiac hemodynamic differences between male fetuses and female fetuses measurable from 30 weeks gestation onwards. This phenomenon is also observed in later life and could explain the differences in cardiovascular risk profiles between men and women at various age categor- ies. Premenopausal women exhibit a lower incidence of CVD and hypertension compared with age-matched men . The overall change in risk after menopause suggests a regulatory role for estrogens in the maintenance of vascular function and structure. This is confirmed by studies showing a normalizing effect of ovariectomy- induced high blood pressure after 17β-estradiol replace- ment and studies that show differences in female vascular function in relation to menstrual cycle and estrogen con- centrations . Furthermore, studies using rat castration models show that castration reduces hypertension and that this effect is reversed by testosterone replacement. This suggests an important role for both male and female sex hormones on vascular function . The vascular endothelium is important in the control of vascular tone and in the regulation of peripheral blood pressure . It maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of active vasodilators encompassing nitric oxide (NO), pros- tacyclin, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Previously, it was shown that testosterone in- hibits the function and production of these vasodilators with a decrease in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation [26–28]. Reyes et al.  were able to measure differences in testosterone in the serum of 46 male fetuses and 33 female fetuses delivered by hysterotomy from already 10 weeks gestation onwards. From this, we hypothesize that our observed differences in cardiovascular function between male fetuses and female fetuses could, at least par- tially, be caused by a testosterone-mediated-endothelium response. In this respect, Chinnathambi et al.  showed that prenatal testosterone exposure leads to an increase in blood pressure associated with blunting of endothelial cell- associated relaxation. However, it might also be that the hypothesized differences in endothelial function are sec- ondary to arterial pressure alterations.
Results: A total of 539 male and 190 female patients with UCC underwent TUR-BT. Approxi- mately 75% were non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Females evidenced significantly higher rates of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC; P=0.04). Carcinoma in situ (CIS) was significantly more common among males (P=0.01). Recurrence and progression rates showed no significant sexdifferences – only in the small subgroup of EAU low-risk NMIBC females, we found a significantly higher progression rate (P=0.03). In a Cox proportional hazards model, we found for MIBC, an HR for progression of 6.5 (95% CI, 1.29–33.2; P=0.02) after a median follow-up of 56 months. Use of PDD or IVC showed no significant differences in recurrence and progression between females and males.
lar surface of the first metatarsal head was more common in female patients, and two parameters for assessing the first ray hypermobility showed that the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform joint is more lax in female patients than in male patients. Such differences between the sexes may underlie the predisposition of the female foot to develop hallux val- gus deformity and may also be the reason why the mean postoperative HVA was significantly greater in female pa- tients in our study. Women are more likely to wear high-heel shoes postoperatively than men. This may also be another reason why the mean HVA correction of the male patient group was significantly greater than that of the female pa- tient group.