Short-Term Visual Memory

Top PDF Short-Term Visual Memory:

The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement in elementary-school children

The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement in elementary-school children

The relationship of short-term visual memory to written spelling : in average fifth-grade readers when sequential and simultaneous presentation is.. compared A.[r]

112 Read more

Cognitive and Mood Functioning in Borderline and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

Cognitive and Mood Functioning in Borderline and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

Research suggests many shared clinical features across individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), including problems with attention/ executive functioning and mood. Therefore, aspects of these areas of functioning were compared in SPD and BPD to better characterize their respective difficulties. BPD, SPD, and healthy control (HC) participants were administered measures of cognitive and mood functioning. Compared with healthy controls, SPD patients performed significantly worse on aspects of the Delayed-Matching- to-Sample task, a measure of short-term visual memory abilities; however, the individuals with BPD did not differ from healthy controls. Neither of the patient groups differed from HC’s on mea- sures of processing speed or planning. With regard to mood functioning, the BPD group exhibited significantly higher levels of affective disturbance (e.g., sadness, fear, anger) compared with the SPD patients and HCs. Overall, findings suggest different patterns of fronto-subcortical weakness in each patient group. While SPD patients exhibited relative weakness with short-term memory, BPD patient performance on such measures did not reveal relative weakness compared with HCs but did implicate problems with mood.
Show more

8 Read more

Brain information sharing during visual short-term memory binding yields a memory biomarker for familial Alzheimer's disease

Brain information sharing during visual short-term memory binding yields a memory biomarker for familial Alzheimer's disease

By applying the analysis of a novel connectivity method to EEG data collected during VSTM binding performance from carriers of the mutation E280A-PSEN1 who inevitably develop FAD we have identified electrophysiological signatures of the impairment found in this memory function. This is the first study confirming the role of brain information sharing in VSTM binding functions and the disruption of such mechanisms as the underlying physiopathology of integrative memory deficits found in FAD. Such a disruption may be informed either by patterns of increased or decreased connectivity. They appear to account for poor task performance at different stages of the disease process. This biological evidence further strengthens the theory supporting this novel memory task and confirms its potential value as a memory biomarker for AD.
Show more

46 Read more

Visual short-term memory deficits associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson's disease.

Visual short-term memory deficits associated with GBA mutation and Parkinson's disease.

Given that visual working memory/short-term memory deficits have been reported in early Parkinson’s disease (Owen et al., 1992, 1993, 1997; Muslimovic et al., 2005) and in patients with GBA-positive Parkinson’s disease (Alcalay et al., 2012), we focused on VSTM in GBA-positive individuals with and without Parkinson’s disease, as well as sporadic (GBA-negative) cases of Parkinson’s disease to investigate whether the pattern of VSTM deficit associated with GBA and Parkinson’s disease pathology is dissociable. We used a relatively new experimental method of measuring VSTM that, unlike conventional clinical measures of memory ‘span’, examines the resolution with which items are maintained and later recalled. In tasks similar to the one we used, participants are asked to remember visual features and reproduce the exact qualities of those features when, after a retention period, they are probed to recall an item (Bays et al., 2009; Gorgoraptis et al., 2011; Zokaei et al., 2011; Pertzov et al., 2013).
Show more

10 Read more

Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

However, it remains to be demonstrated that DVN disrupts performance on visual working memory tasks other than those that involve imagery mnemonics. Whereas studies of irrelevant speech effects in verbal working memory used verbal memory span or serial recall tasks, DVN effects have only been reported in visual imagery rather than short-term memory tasks. Baddeley conceptualised the visuo-spatial sketchpad as “a temporary visuo-spatial store … that is capable of retaining and manipulating images” (1986, p. 143) and Logie, Zucco and Baddeley (1990) confirmed that visuo-spatial imagery and short-term memory tasks compete for modality-specific resources. However, subsequent research has questioned the assumption that identical processes underlie imagery and short-term memory (see Pearson, 2001, for discussion). For example, Morton and Morris (1995) reported a patient, MG, who showed a dissociation between normal spatial short-term memory (Corsi blocks) and impaired image transformation (e.g., mental rotation). It is therefore important to demonstrate effects of DVN on visual short-term memory before drawing general conclusions about interference with working memory.
Show more

50 Read more

Phonological, visual, and semantic coding strategies and children's short-term picture memory span

Phonological, visual, and semantic coding strategies and children's short-term picture memory span

difficult/complex to deal with than short words (e.g. spoken duration or differences in phonological complexity – see Hulme, Neath, Stuart, Shostak, Surprenant & Brown, 2006; Lewandowsky & Oberauer, 2008; Mueller, Seymour, Kieras & Meyer, 2003; Romani, McAlpine, Olson, Tsouknida & Martin, 2005). Word length effects in picture span tasks emerge at 7-9 years (Halliday et al., 1990; Henry, Turner, Smith & Leather, 2000; Hitch, Halliday, Dodd & Littler, 1989; Hitch et al., 1991), although there is debate about the precise cognitive processes responsible for this development in relation to verbal rehearsal and verbal output (Cowan, Day, Saults, Keller, Johnson & Flores, 1992; Henry, 1991; Henry et al., 2000; Yuzawa, 2001). Others doubt that word length effects require articulatory processes (e.g. Hulme et al., 2006; Romani et al., 2005), but for current purposes, word length effects were examined as an additional indication of phonological coding.
Show more

45 Read more

Phonological, visual and semantic coding strategies in short-term picture memory span: How do they develop?

Phonological, visual and semantic coding strategies in short-term picture memory span: How do they develop?

difficult/complex to deal with than short words (e.g. spoken duration or differences in phonological complexity – see Hulme, Neath, Stuart, Shostak, Surprenant & Brown, 2006; Lewandowsky & Oberauer, 2008; Mueller, Seymour, Kieras & Meyer, 2003; Romani, McAlpine, Olson, Tsouknida & Martin, 2005). Word length effects in picture span tasks emerge at 7-9 years (Halliday et al., 1990; Henry, Turner, Smith & Leather, 2000; Hitch, Halliday, Dodd & Littler, 1989; Hitch et al., 1991), although there is debate about the precise cognitive processes responsible for this development in relation to verbal rehearsal and verbal output (Cowan, Day, Saults, Keller, Johnson & Flores, 1992; Henry, 1991; Henry et al., 2000; Yuzawa, 2001). Others doubt that word length effects require articulatory processes (e.g. Hulme et al., 2006; Romani et al., 2005), but for current purposes, word length effects were examined as an additional indication of phonological coding.
Show more

45 Read more

Visual processing during short-term memory binding in mild Alzheimer's disease

Visual processing during short-term memory binding in mild Alzheimer's disease

Notwithstanding these knowledge gaps, the results presented here suggest that eye movements may be a sensible approach to collect subjects' performance when analyzing visual information, from the encoding through the retrieval stages of memory. AD patients and controls had longer and similar fixations when encoding UC targets (see Figure 3), being our results compatible with previous evidence about relatively preserved feature processing in mild AD patients [42]. Parra et al. [40] showed that processing BC demanded more cognitive resources than the UC, and that this seems to be true regardless of age [58]. However, previous evidence suggests that AD selectively impairs feature binding [40]. Interestingly, our study shows that gaze duration follows a pattern of impairment similar to that observed through other behavioral measures of STM performance (e.g., percentage of correct recognition), thus suggesting a strong link between these two neurocognitive responses.
Show more

30 Read more

Impaired visual short term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm born adults

Impaired visual short term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm born adults

Finke, K., Neitzel, J., Bäuml, J.G., Redel, P., Müller, H.J., Meng, C., Jaekel, J., Daamen, M., Scheef, L., Busch, B., Baumann, N., Boecker, H., Bartmann, P., Habekost, T., Wolke, D., Wohlschläger, A., Sorg, C., 2015. Visual attention in preterm-born adults: specifically impaired attentional sub-mechanisms that link with altered intrinsic brain networks in a compensation-like mode. NeuroImage 107, 95-106.

30 Read more

Allocentric versus egocentric spatial memory in autism spectrum disorder

Allocentric versus egocentric spatial memory in autism spectrum disorder

Similarly to Feigenbaum and Morris (2004), we expected that participants in both groups would show learning across trials for all conditions and that adults with ASD would show particular difficulties in allocentric navigation, leaving egocentric navigation intact. Further, we expected a similar pattern of results for the two added conditions with individuals with ASD showing difficulties in allocentric 2 but not egocentric 2 compared to the TD group. In addition to the Morris Water Maze task, three tasks to assess participants’ visual short-term memory and mental rotation were administered (Feigenbaum and Mor- ris 2004). This was to explore whether people with ASD show difficulties with the temporary storage and manipu- lation of spatial information per se, which would point to additional difficulties related to functions based outside the hippocampus, for example involving parietal brain regions (Silk et al. 2006; Tadi et al. 2009; Zacks 2008). Following the relational binding account (Bowler et al. 2011), we did not expect differences between groups on tests of visual short-term memory and mental rotation.
Show more

12 Read more

Rehearsal in the visuospatial sketchpad : spatial sequence memory and central executive process

Rehearsal in the visuospatial sketchpad : spatial sequence memory and central executive process

The alternative model of short-term, now termed 'working memory' introduced by Baddeley and Hitch was proposed to consist of three main components; the articulatory loop and visual-spati[r]

139 Read more

Neuropsychological Profile of Anti NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Neuropsychological Profile of Anti NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a life-threatening disorder that often occurs as a paraneoplastic encephalitis and usually begins with neuropsychological or psychiatric symptoms. We report a case of NMDA receptor encephalitis due to an ovarian teratoma, which began with severe and progressive amnesia and behavioral changes, reversed after surgical treatment and plasmapheresis. Using a battery of cognitive tests, its neuropsychological profile before treatment showed a complete alteration of the short and long term memory of both verbal and visual fixation, with clear improvement with cues and with intrusions, and saving other cognitive domains, such as working, episodic and semantic memory, executive, visuospatial, praxical thinking and language functions. These deficits reverted to normalcy with treatment. So, we can conclude that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare entity that can be po- tentially serious depending on early management and diagnosis. We must suspect this entity in children or young people presenting with behavioural disturbances and crisis, with a cognitive pattern of complete alteration in short and long term memory improving with cues, and respecting other cognitive domains.
Show more

6 Read more

Impaired visual short term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm born adults

Impaired visual short term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm born adults

Froudist-Walsh, S., Karolis, V., Caldinelli, C., Brittain, P., Kroll, J., Rodriguez-Toscano, E., Tesse, M., Colquhoun, M., Howes, O., Dell’Acqua, F., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Murray, R., Williams, S., Nosarti, C., 2015. Very early brain damage leads to remodelling of the working memory system in adulthood: a combined fMRI/tractography study. Journal of Neuroscience 35 (48), 15787-15799.

30 Read more

Task rules, working memory, and fluid intelligence

Task rules, working memory, and fluid intelligence

Abstract Many varieties of working memory have been linked to fluid intelligence. In Duncan et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology:General 137:131–148, 2008), we described limited working memory for new task rules: When rules are complex, some may fail in their control of behavior, though they are often still available for explicit recall. Unlike other kinds of working memory, load is de- termined in this case not by real-time performance demands, but by the total complexity of the task instructions. Here, we show that the correlation with fluid intelligence is stronger for this aspect of working memory than for several other, more traditional varieties—including simple and complex spans and a test of visual short-term memory. Any task, we propose, requires construction of a mental control program that aids in segregating and assembling multiple task parts and their controlling rules. Fluid intelligence is linked closely to the efficiency of constructing such programs, especially when behavior is complex and novel.
Show more

8 Read more

A bilateral advantage in controlling access to visual short-term memory

A bilateral advantage in controlling access to visual short-term memory

The results of Experiment 1 support the notion that selecting targets from distracters can promote a BFA in a memory task. However, in order to support this claim two outstanding possibilities need to be addressed. Firstly, since the distracter conditions required memory for two targets whereas the no distracter conditions required memory for four or six targets, it can be suggested that the BFA can be explained due to the processing of two target stimuli rather than attentional selection. Secondly, since the BFA was observed when the targets were cued, it is possible that the BFA is the result of the attentional orienting effects of pre-cues rather than the selection of targets from distracters. Experiment 2 addresses these possibilities using a filtering task without spatial pre-cues, requiring the selection of targets from distracters on the basis of a salient feature difference (shape). In addition, a condition with two target stimuli in the absence of distracters was included. If the BFA is due to the aforementioned possibilities then no evidence of a BFA should be observed when participants select targets from distracters on the basis of shape, however a BFA may be observed when processing two target stimuli in the absence of distracters.
Show more

21 Read more

Visual short-term memory and the bilateral field advantage

Visual short-term memory and the bilateral field advantage

The BFA appears to be contingent on the complexity or difficulty of the task. Many studies have revealed that the BFA increases, or simply becomes apparent, as the difficulty of the task increases (Banich & Belger, 1990; Belger & Banich, 1992, 1998; Delvenne et al., 2011a; Merola & Liederman, 1990; Norman et al., 1992; Reuter-Lorenz et al., 1999; Weissman & Banich, 2000; Weisman et al., 2000; Zhang & Feng, 1999). For example, in our visual enumeration task, the BFA was only observed when more than four dots had to be enumerated (Delvenne et al., 2011a). Moreover, when the task is relatively simple and does not require many processing resources, a unilateral field advantage can sometimes occur (Banich & Belger, 1990; Butcher & Cavanagh, 2008; Hayes, Swallow, & Jiang, 2010; Weisman et al., 2000). For instance, using a letter-matching task, Banich and Belger (1990) observed that when the two letters to be-matched were perceptually identical (e.g., A & A), performance was better for unilateral than bilateral arrays. By contrast, when the letters were perceptually dissimilar (A & a), or when the number of letters displayed on the screen is increased to five (Belger & Banich, 1992), the task difficulty increased and performance was better for bilateral than unilateral arrays. Consistent with these findings, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that computationally complex tasks often produce more bilateral activities than do simpler tasks (e.g., Awh, Smith, & Jonides, 1995; Klingberg O “ ‘ , 1997; Pollman, Zaidel, & von Cramon, 2003). In sum, a large body of research, especially over the last two decades, has shown that (1) the two cerebral hemispheres have, at least to some extent, their own independent resources for processing visual information; (2) the independent, parallel processing provides a gain in efficiency if the task is sufficiently demanding and if it recruits both cerebral hemispheres; (3) in most visual tasks, the benefits of this initial hemispheric independence outweigh the cost of exchanging and integrating information between the hemispheres.
Show more

24 Read more

The influence of spatial pattern on visual short term memory for contrast

The influence of spatial pattern on visual short term memory for contrast

In the first experiment, we tested the effects of delay duration on contrast VSTM performance using two- dimensional (2-D) noise patterns. The results from this exper- iment showed that the contrast is not perfectly stored over extended durations. Three causes may lead to the loss of contrast memory with increasing time between the compari- son and test stimuli: (1) Contrast information decays over time. (2) The neuronal representation of contrast becomes increasingly noisy, even though contrast storage is still intact. (3) Different contrast levels converge onto an average con- trast. Lee and Harris (1996) looked at possible reasons for contrast decay. They performed a delayed contrast discrimi- nation task similar to ours, but measured the point of subjec- tive equality (PSE) and found no change with increasing delay, suggesting that the memory representation of contrast becomes noisier over time, leading to higher discrimination thresholds, rather than being the product of a systematic bias in the remembered contrast.
Show more

8 Read more

The processing of images of biological threats in visual short-term memory

The processing of images of biological threats in visual short-term memory

The key finding is that images are better remembered when they differ in emotional valence from the other to-be-remembered (tbr) images with which they are presented. A central conclusion therefore is that the mechanisms that underpin performance in the task are highly sensitive to the emotional valence of the visual input but in ways that are not captured by claims about negative emotional memory enhancement. Moreover, the effects cannot readily be explained by visual encoding mechanisms because we have shown that the visual salience of the targets fails to account for the basic pattern of findings (see Experiment 2). In turn, the findings do not support an attentional bias towards negatively charged images because (i) the effects depend on both the type of target and the type of background images, and, (ii) the effects are essentially identical across consistent mapping (Experiment 2) and varied mapping (Experiment 1) conditions. On these grounds, we take it that the locus of the effects resides elsewhere.
Show more

34 Read more

Splitting attention across the two visual fields in visual short-term memory

Splitting attention across the two visual fields in visual short-term memory

The ability to maintain visual information in an accessible state is a critical aspect of our cognitive capacities as it allows us to interact successfully in the visuo-spatial world. Because our visual short-term retention system (i.e., visual short-term memory - VSTM) is extremely limited in storage capacity (Luck & Vogel, 1997), only a subset of information from our extrapersonal world can be transferred into this limited memory space at any one time. The selection of this subset of information is made by attentional mechanisms that can be voluntarily or involuntarily oriented to particular locations or objects. For example, when spatial attention is cued to a particular location of the visual field, the object that occurs at that location will be more likely transferred into VSTM as compared to the other objects (Makovski & Jiang, 2007; Schmidt, Vogel, Woodman, & Luck, 2002).
Show more

17 Read more

Two good reasons to say 'change!'  ensemble representations as well as item representations impact standard measures of VWM capacity

Two good reasons to say 'change!' ensemble representations as well as item representations impact standard measures of VWM capacity

visual short-term memory, working memory capacity, change detection, change localisation,... ENSEMBLE REPRESENTATIONS BIAS CAPACITY ESTIMATES 1.[r]

52 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...