This research was focused on sunfloweroil. Five litres of oil from a batch available on the market trade was used. It was purchased in 5 containers of 1 litre each, the contents of which were than poured into one container and mixed. The obtained mixture was called raw sunfloweroil. The oil was heated in the container to temperature enabling proper frying of chips made of raw potatoes. They had shape and size similar to frozen potato chips which can be found in trade. After frying and separation of potato chips, the oil was left in the container at room temperature for 24 h, following which a sample was collected and marked as frying I. After 24 h the remaining oil was heated again and all actions described above were repeated – yielding another sample marked as frying II. The whole process of heating, cooling and sampling was repeated until it yielded samples marked with numbers III, IV, V, VI and VII. In order to investigate the effect of frying on properties of sunfloweroil, similar cycles of heating and cooling, but without frying chips, were conducted yielding samples marked as heating I-VII.
(Kreps et al., 2014) and carotenoids around 77% of the ini- tial value (Rade et al., 2004). The decreases in total toco- pherol contents due to bleaching step have been largely stud- ied (Alpaslan et al., 2001; Ergönül and Köseoˇglu 2014; Kreps et al., 2014; Tasan and Demirci, 2005). The average reduc- tion is approximately 8% (Alpaslan et al., 2001; Kreps et al., 2014; Tasan and Demirci, 2005). Tasan and Demirci (2005) showed declines of 7.2 and 7.6% in total tocopherol contents for chemical and physical refining process respectively but there is no indication of the bleaching conditions used. Al- paslan reported the lowest percentage of losses during physical process but also the bleaching conditions were no described. Ergönül and Köseo ˇglu, 2014 (90 ◦ C, 20 min, 1% of activated earth w/w) showed 6% losses. Kreps et al. (2014) reported losses of 14.9% in HOSO and 15.8% in regular sunfloweroil during this refining step without change in the composition of tocopherol isomers. Naz et al. (2011) reported the highest losses of 38.2% of the total tocopherol content (with unspec- ified bleaching conditions). These reductions during the pro- cess of bleaching are due to the complexation of tocopherols with molecules of bleaching clay. The alkalinity and acidity of bleaching clay may damage tocopherol molecules. It has been demonstrated that acid activated bleaching clay can cat- alyze tocopherol esterification. The acid can also play a role in protonation of tocopherol to produce oxonium ions (McMurry, 2004; Taylor, 2005).
This manuscript was designed to determine the influence of extracted oil of Cuminum Cyminum (green cumin) on the peroxide value of reused edible oil, sunfloweroil (main edible oil on Sudan). Green cumin oil was extracted from its mature seeds, season 2017 production, by water-steam distillation process. The chemical profile of cumin oil was detected by using GC-MS. The analysis showed that the main chemical constituents of cumin oil were monoterpens and oxygenated monoterpens. Three samples of fresh and two reused oils (taameia and fish frying oil) were subjected to assess the effect of cumin oil on the reused oil by determination of peroxide value. Peroxide value property was investigated before and after addition of cumin extract. The cumin oil had positive effect on the peroxide value which was decreased it and there was significant difference (P ˂ 0.05). The study was attributed the clear impact of extracted cumin oil on the peroxide value mainly due to antioxidant compounds such as monoterpens and oxygenated monoterpens in the cumin oil.
Sunfloweroil is extensively used in frying in Algeria as an alternative to olive oil due to its low cost. However, the high level of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) contained in sunfloweroil enhances its susceptibility to oxidation. In our study, the sunfloweroil was heated at 99±2°C with incorporation of 9 L of oxygen/second for 52 h continuously in the absence of foodstuff. Heating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the presence of air causes a greater degree of lipid peroxidation. The oil oxidation degree was monitored through several physicochemical analyses. The products of thermal oxidation were monitored using UV- spectrophotometric method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Compared to fresh oil, the free-fatty acid contents, peroxide value, density and moisture of the thermally oxidized sunfloweroil increased. In addition, the iodine and saponification values decreased during thermal treatment. The treatment applied had a negative effect on FA composition; the most significant effects were on C18:2, C18:1 and C16:0 contents. Analysis of chromatographic profile of thermoxidized sunfloweroil showed a reduction in linoleic acid (LA) and an increase in oleic and palmitic acids; decrease of linoleic acid content is used as an indicator of lipid oxidation. Moreover, during the early stages, conjugated dienes (CDs), absorbing at 233 nm, were formed upon decomposition of hydroperoxides. In our study, the early stages of lipid oxidation were measured by UV-spectrophotometric method. Hydroperoxides broke down into secondary products and were revealed by FT-IR; these scission products are generally odoriferous by nature. The C=O stretching band at 1739-1724 cm -1 of the aldehydes was much more intense. Formation of conjugated double bond systems and the isomerisation of cis to trans double bonds was observed in the C=C stretching region at 980 to 965 cm -1 . The results obtained reveal that even fresh oil contains products of peroxidation and isomerization of C18:2, n-6; indeed, CDs can be produced during the refining process of oil. The treatment applied increased the rate of these products and conferred a marked rancid taste and a thick texture to the thermoxidized sunfloweroil.
Proper storage of vegetable oil has a shelf life ranging from 6-12 months. Heat applied during processing de- stroys enzymes in raw materials, and also any contami- nating microorganisms, which would cause rancidity. Additionally, the oil may be heated after extraction to remove as much water as possible; this lessens the oc- currence of microbial spoilage during storage. Correct packaging and storage conditions slow down chemical changes caused by light and heat, which may lead to rancidity . The storage of raw sunfloweroil in four different packaging materials viz., plastic, tin, hindolium and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches . The effect of heat treatment on storability of oil under airtight and non-airtight conditions was also studied. In the case of heat treatment, the oil was heated up to 120C for 90 minutes in order to inactivate the lipase enzyme completely. It was observed that during storage, different packaging materials and heat treatment affected the colour, odour, free fatty acids and iodine value of oil. The airtight HDPE pouches (120 gauge) with heat- treated oil were found to be the best packaging materials for storage of oil up to a period of 16 weeks.
Sunfloweroil is characterized by its high content of tocopherols (up to 935ppm) higher than those of other oils such as soybean and peanut to mention a few. It is considered to have the highest stability due to its high content in natural antioxidants [Shahidi, (2005); Bramley et al., (2000)]. Crude sunfloweroil obtained by extraction is not edible, because, it contains many undesirable materials, such as free fatty acids, colour pigments, minerals, gums, waxes, phosphates, and odoriferous materials, which must be removed to yield a stable product with a bland or pleasant taste. Thus, in modern society, consumers can not use crude oils directly without proper processing due to the unacceptable colour and odour. This has led to, efficient industrial processing which involves removing these unpleasant impurities with the least possible effect on the desired components ( tocopherols, phenols, sterols) with the minimum losses of oil [Verhe´ et al., (2006)]. The elimination of free fatty acids from oils by distillation (steam refining) without using alkali is known as physical refining and consists of degumming, bleaching, winterizing and, finally, deodorizing (steam distillation) stages. Chemical refining includes degumming, neutralizing, bleaching, winterizing and deodorizing stages [Tasan and Demirci, (2005); Dumont and Narine, (2007)]. On the other hand winterization stage is not required for all oils for example soybean oil because it is not contains waxes. Physical refining has several advantages compared to the chemical refining. The process is a more economical (improved yield, lower investment cost, less chemicals used) and an environmentally friendly process (no soap stock to be treated) but has more effect on oil desirable components and oil stability [Kovari et al., (2000)]. While the chemical refining (decreased yield, higher investment cost, high chemicals used and higher waste but has less effect on oil desirable components an oil stability .
Abstract: In the newfangled world, electrical energy is the most important thing, and we cannot live without it. The recent research has predominated that petroleum by-products are available only for a few hundred years. This paper is especially clear to meet out that. After some years, the mineral oil in the transformer needs to be changed due to its degradation of insulation. The mineral oil used in the transformer acts as insulation as well as cooling purpose. The used mineral oil can be recycled by adding some additives for reuse purpose. In this paper, the oil chosen is neem oil, sunfloweroil and mahua oil and it is treated with antioxidants and nano powders. “Breakdown voltage, flash point, fire point, acidity, and viscosity are measured in consonance with standards”. To reduce the oxidation stability natural and synthetic antioxidants are preferred, and Nano powders are also used for improving the properties of the oil. Synthetic antioxidants such as Beta Carotene and TBHQ and selenium are preferred as natural antioxidants. Selenium is used. Before and after the addition of antioxidants and nano powders the measurements were done. By doing this analysis, the transformer oil is used for reuse purpose and it has a longer lifetime. After antioxidants and Nano powders are added, the property of the transformer oil is increased.
Abstract: Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells. An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. This study was designed to determine the effect of coriander extract on the chemical properties of fresh and storage sunfloweroil. Coriander oil was extracted by water steam distillation process, then GC-MS was used to determine the chemical profile of coriander oil which revealed that the coriander seeds oil contains 24 compounds were; Heptanal, α-Thujene, α-Pinene, Camphene, β-Phellandrene, β-Pinane, p-Cymene, γ- Terpinene, 1-Octanol, Linalool, Camphor, Trimethy-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, Decanal, Cuminaldehyde, cis-2-Decenal, Thymol, 1-Propanol, 2-Methyl-1-phenyl, trans-2-Dodecenal, Tetradecanoic acid, Phthalic acid, Dibutyl phthalate, Tetradecanoic acid, Diisobutyl phthalate and Palmitic acid. The chemical properties (peroxide, acid and saponification value) of sunfloweroil were examined for both fresh and storage sample. The storage sample was tested during five interval period along 75 day. The coriander oil was appeared significant clear effect (p ˂ 0.05) on chemical properties of sunfloweroil, so the study revealed that the coriander oil had clear influence on the chemical properties of the sunfloweroil and mainly on the reused edible oil sample. The study could be attributed that to the coriander extract is richly oil in antioxidants such as monoterpens and sesquiterpenes which serves to decline the high autoxidation of sunfloweroil.
pipetted out into a 2ml centrifuge tube, ready for HPLC analysis. To prepare the feed solutions at various pH concentrated phosphoric acid was diluted 1000 fold to prepare the diluted phosphoric acid. Then, a few drops of this diluted phosphoric acid were added in to the 5 ml caffeine solution to obtain pH values of 5, 4, 3 and 2. For the organic phase desired, concentrations of carrier (Amberlite LA-2/Aliquat 336) were added into the solvent (sunfloweroil/ oleic acid) to make up 5 ml of the organic phase.
The sunflower plant originated in western North America. Sunflowers are botanically classified as Helianthus annuus. They are a yield plant which are grown throughout the world because of their relatively short growing season. Sunfloweroil is characterized by its high content of tocopherols (up to 935ppm) which is higher than those of other oils such as soybean and peanut. It is considered to have high stability due to its high content in natural antioxidants [Suliman et al., (2013); Bramley et al., (2000)]. Tocopherols (α, β, γ, and δ) are potential natural antioxidants that could prevent the oils from rancidity during storage and, thus, increasing the shelf life of edible oils [Aluyor and Ori-Jesu, (2008)]. Additionally, tocopherols play an important role in the prevention of many types of diseases (such as Parkinson’s disease, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency, and various cancers). Also, the enhancement body immunity and the reducing cellular aging [Bramley et al., (2000); Zingg, (2007)]. The tocopherol content and pattern of oils are differ greatly which is depend on plant genotype, climatic conditions of growth and harvest, polyunsaturated fatty acid content of oil, and processing and storage conditions [Tasan and Demirci, (2005)].
The Waste SunflowerOil is a large source for the production of Bio diesel. After the multiple times of use of oil, it have been disposed by restaurants, houses, cottage industries etc. By collecting the oils from such sources, India can easily tap its potential and produce biodiesel in a large scale. Using straight vegetable oils as a fuel substitute is an option, but in future more advanced engines may be required to cope up with these crude oils. However at the current time and for a transition period to a cleaner fuel system biodiesel is a viable option. Biodiesel will not incur large costs for a new infrastructure as the storage and distribution will be the same as the diesel infrastructure. The process for the production of biodiesel is not very complicated and initial investment is also very less. The cost of biodiesel production is directly related to the cost of the seed, expelling cost, seed cake sale, biodiesel production cost and cost recovery from glycerol sale.
Common synthetics lubricant show low biodegradability of 70% to 95% compare to vegetable oil which is 80% to 95%. For century, synthetic oils have predominant lubrication and today the environmental issue start to arise as synthetic oil is not readily biodegradable. Vegetable oil composes good physical properties to replace synthetics oil but its performance is questionable. At the end of semester, a full report will be submitted. All these step of methodology is illustrated as a flow chart shown in Appendix A. In addition, Gantt charts for the research are shown in Appendix B.
battered squid rings was investigated by Llorca et al. (2001). They reported that the pre-fried and deep-fried foods had different internal structure. In pre- fired product, an interconnected structure was observed between the batter layer and the squid ring. However, no interconnected structure was found between the food substrate and batter in the deep-fried food. In another study, connection between the batter ingredients and food surface has been studied by (Mukprasirt et al., 2000). The objective of currents study was to evaluate the fat content of breaded and non-breaded fried black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) using SEM method. Since the fat content in the fried foods can be affected by the types of frying oils, two different oils, including sunfloweroil (un-saturated oil) and palm olein (saturated oil) were compared for their impact on the fat- uptake in fried samples.
Generally, the peroxide values decreased over time (Figure 2). Peroxide values on day 1 of the assay were substantially higher when compared to the remaining days (Figure 2) and practically around or slightly superior to the maximum allowed by EEC Regulation (1991). On the first day and for sunfloweroil, frying cow meat triggered the forma- tion of hydroperoxides more extensively than oil alone and more in oil with T. capitata essential oil addition. On the last sampling date, cow meat fried in sunfloweroil plus essential oil had the lowest peroxide value, in contrast to that registered at the beginning (Figure 2b). Sunfloweroil plus essential oil heating alone induced a higher accumulation of hydroperoxides than the remaining treatments, particularly in the last three days of the experiment. In olive oil samples, these differences were not so evident despite the decrease of the peroxides over time (Figure 2a). This diminution of the peroxides did not mean that heating or frying prevented the primary oxidation because, when p-anisidine was evaluated in our assay, it was possible to record the increase of these values over time, while that of peroxide diminished (Figure 3). In fact, the peroxide value is related to the hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products, which are unstable under heating or deep-fat frying conditions and readily decompose into mixtures of mainly volatile aldehyde compounds (Vieira & Regitano D’arce 1999; Yaghmur et al. 2001; Farhoosh & Moosavi 2009).
applications such as automotive lubricant, biofuel, hydraulic oil, grease and metalworking fluids. Bio-based oils from soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, palm oil and coconut have been extensively studied for lubricant applications. Erhan et al.  studied the lubricant properties of soybean and high oleic sunfloweroil. The crucial problem occurred in bio-based oils is low temperature and lack of oxidative stability which can be improved through chemical modification and mix with additives. Similarly, Shashidara and Jayaram showed that soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oil have a potential to be used as MWFs. The authors concluded that oil performances can be improved by additive mixtures, chemical modification of crude oil and genetic modification of the seed oil. This is supported by Wu et al.  which reveals that the modified rapeseed oil provides better lubrication properties by reducing friction and extreme pressure ability than the crude oil.
flower seed or sunfloweroil) nor by fish oil (Table 10). Absolute values for para- meters of NDF degradation were although lower than those observed in non- supplemented cows from another grazing study using a similar pasture . In this later experiment, adding 2 kg of sunflower seed increased the rate of pasture NDF degradation from 7.5%/h to 9.1%/h (p < 0.02) without any effect on the degradable NDF fraction between control (89.02%) and sunflower seed (81.98%) supplemented cows . Experimental data concerning the effects of fat sup- plementation on rumen digestion in grazing trials are scarce. In the five experi- ments revised by  no negative effects of supplemental saturated and unsatu- rated fat on ruminal NDF digestion were observed. The in situ grazing experi- ments performed at INTA Balcarce showed that the rate of digestion and the ef- fective degradability of pasture NDF were not affected by saturated or unsatu- rated fat supplements . Those results agree with the observation that negative effects are minimal in diets with a high proportion of forage . The high rate of passage from dairy cows grazing high quality pastures  and the high levels of calcium of these pastures  could alleviate any negative effect of fat supple- ments. The soluble CP fraction of pasture was increased when fish oil was added to diets whereas the degradable fraction of CP tended to be lower (Table 10) without changes in rate of CP digestion. A higher undegradable protein balance may have contributed to alleviate the detrimental effects on milk protein content often observed when fish oil is fed to dairy cows. The targeted nutritional ap- proaches used here (sunfloweroil or sunflower seed with or without the addition of fish oil) showed no detrimental effects in parameters of forage NDF and CP degradation in late lactation dairy cows grazing a fresh high quality forage.
However, it must be mentioned that these were estimates, and components with similar structures may be mistaken. The peak at 22.5 minutes was found to be an octadecanoic acid methyl ester. This was at an accuracy of 70%. Other components were found in the biodiesel sample which included methyl group and chlorine. The methyl is due to the reactant methanol and traces that remained, and the chlorine may be a result of the washing process, where warm salt water was used. The solvent, which evaporated at the initial stages of the analysis, as it was chosen due to its low evaporating temperatures, also contained chlorine, and may have influenced this. However, the solvent was only used in the diluted samples. The reduced density in the biodiesel from its initial state as sunfloweroil is justifiable, since the triglyceride is indicated to have broken down to methyl esters of chains of approximately 19 carbons in length. The broken down structure also contributes to the pH number in biodiesel, though slightly acidic, not largely variant from that of ULSD. This break down in structure will improve biodiesel properties in terms of higher calorific values than pure sunfloweroil, as was established using the bomb calorimeter. The energy content may have been influenced by some unsaturated bond still contained in the biodiesel, justified by the structure of the oleic acid methyl ester, seemingly having unsaturated bonds.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - In this paper, we have produced biodiesel from papaya, watermelon seed oil and sunfloweroil by transesterification process using methanol and KOH (catalyst) and a new biodiesel blend was so produced. The new blend consists of WP oil which are in a ratio of 1 :1 and the final blend has 2:1 ratio of sunflower to WP oil mixture. The final blend was amalgamated with conventional Diesel to give B20 blend i.e. 20% of Biodiesel blend and 80 % of diesel. Then performance and emission test were performed with B20 blend to compare the same with conventional diesel.
Background and Aims: Infant massage could potentially benefit both physiological and psycholog- ical health. This study aims to determine the effect of massage with oils on the growth of full-term infants, which is given by their mothers. Study Design: This is a double-blind randomized con- trolled trial which was conducted on full term infants visited in the nine Public Health Centers of Shahrekord, Iran in 2010. Material and Methods: This study included 217 infants. Inclusion crite- ria for the infants were age scale between 10 to 15 days, full term gestation, birth weight of 2500 grams at least, Apgar score of 7 or above, no resuscitation after the birth, exclusive breastfeeding during the study, medically stable condition without any need for drugs, nulliparous. The infants were randomized into four groups: massage with sunfloweroil, massage with sesame oil, massage without oil, and no massage (control group). Massage was given by mothers twice a day for 4 weeks, starting from the 10 - 15 th day of life. Weight and height were measured weekly. At last,
In a 16 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-con- trolled study, Nemets et al.  found a significant dif- ference from the placebo (sunfloweroil or olive oil) in the CDI score, CDRS and clinical global impression after 8 weeks of intervention with a fish oil capsule (1000 mg containing 400 mg EPA and 200 mg DHA or two 500 mg capsules with 190 mg EPA and 90 mg DHA) in 20 chil- dren diagnosed with major depression (5/10 drop-out in placebo and 3/10 in Omega-3 group). Seven out of 10 patients from the Omega-3 group experienced a greater than 50% reduction in CDRS, compared to none in pla- cebo group with four meeting the criteria for remission.