Swell Index

Top PDF Swell Index:

To determine if there is a correlation between the shrink swell index and atterberg limits for soils within the Shepparton Formation

To determine if there is a correlation between the shrink swell index and atterberg limits for soils within the Shepparton Formation

As this project is only determining if there is a correlation between the atterberg limits and shrink swell index it is envisaged that this will not have a major impact on the general public. For people who currently use atterberg limits to classify residential building sites and are prepared to utilise a correlation factor to estimate the shrink swell index of a soil it may improve living standards. People’s living standards may improve because they may not have to spend money on remedial works on their dwelling resulting from ground movement which was not designed for. By not spending money on these works they are able to utilise this money in other areas.

216 Read more

Performance Evaluation of Waste Kota Stone Slurry Powder Mixed with Black Cotton Soil

Performance Evaluation of Waste Kota Stone Slurry Powder Mixed with Black Cotton Soil

soils causes various problems to the civil engineers not only during the time of construction but also throughout the life of the structures, it reduces the serviceability of the structures also. Problematic soils create problems to the structures, it forced to the researchers to search appropriate methods for improvement in the soils. Therefore, the treatment of BC soil is required to avoid such a situation. Stabilization is a technique to improve the properties of natural soil by using chemical or physical means. The aim of this study is to improve the geotechnical properties of BC soil economically. To determine the improvement in geotechnical properties of BC soil, plasticity index, the standard proctor test, shrinkage limit, specific gravity, swell index, swell pressure, CBR value and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests are conducted with mixing of different percentage of waste Kota stone slurry powder in the black cotton soil in dry state at required conditions in laboratory.

10 Read more

EFFECT OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON PLASTICITY AND SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

EFFECT OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON PLASTICITY AND SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Hence in this paper the effect of certain industrial effluents on Plasticity and Swelling behaviour of an Expansive Soil has been presented. The soil used in this investigation is classified as “SC” as per I.S. Classification system. It is highly expansive nature as the Differential Free Swell Index is about 255%.In this Investigation tests on Consistency Limits and Swelling Characteristics are conducted on the soil treated with Textile, Tannery and Battery effluents at different percentages from 20 to 100% in increment of 20%.In order to compare the results of admixed soil, tests are also conducted on untreated soil. There is decrease in Plasticity and Swelling characteristics of soil when the soil is treated with Tannery and Textile effluents whereas an increase Plasticity and Swelling characteristics are observed with Battery effluent.

8 Read more

A STUDY ON THE ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF EXPANSIVE SOIL STABILIZED WITH HIGH VOLUME RICE HUSK ASH

A STUDY ON THE ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF EXPANSIVE SOIL STABILIZED WITH HIGH VOLUME RICE HUSK ASH

Expansive soils in India are popularly named as Black Cotton Soils which are spread over Deccan Plateau region. These are rich in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and some parts of Tamilnadu. These soil possess volume change characteristics when they have moisture variations. These are strong in dry seasons and soft in wet seasons. Katti(1979) 10 has given properties of Black cotton soils which have Liquid limit 40%-100%, Plastic limit 20%-60%, Differential Free Swell index 20%-100%.Structures located on these soils subjected to differential settlements due to moisture variations (Bala Subramanyam et.al 1989) 2 .However these soils easily available at low cost and frequently used for construction purposes (Bell 1988) 3 .Soil stabilization is one of the techniques to control volume characteristics by addition of stabilizers like cement, lime and Industrial wastes like Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash etc and improvement in volume change characteristics can be studied in terms of Index properties, Swell and Strength properties.

6 Read more

Effect of coffee husk ash on geotechnical properties of expansive soil

Effect of coffee husk ash on geotechnical properties of expansive soil

Bell (1999) investigated damage due to the shrink–swell characteristics of soils on civil engineering infrastructures and estimated that it costs billions of dollars. Due to a large extent of damage and an increase in a construction project cost, engineers and researchers carried out many investigations to figure out the possibility of using an increasing amount of solid waste to improve the soil’s properties [Ehammed, 2004]. Nyankson et al. (2013) explored the effect of lime contained in eggshell and its application in the stabilization of shrink–swell soils and the sample mixed with 8% eggshell powder showed a decrease in the plasticity index (PI) and free swell index (FSI) and a high silt/clay fraction. Mousa et al. (1998) reported the possibility of using olive waste, finding that the addition of 2.5% by weight of burned olive waste increases the unconfined compressive strength and the maximum dry density, while the addition of 7.5% olive ash by weight minimizes the swelling pressure of the soil. Haji Ali et al. (1992) found that the addition of rice husk ash (RHA) enhances not only the strength development but also the durability of lime-stabilized residual soil. Stabilized soil with the optimum RHA content suffers the least detrimental effects of saturation.

6 Read more

Soil Improvement By Fine Fraction Residue From Recycling Construction And Demolition Waste

Soil Improvement By Fine Fraction Residue From Recycling Construction And Demolition Waste

Abstract— Reutilizing the wastes as a construction material protects natural assets, saves energy, decreases solid waste, diminishes water and air toxic substance and cuts large quantities of greenhouse gases. The civil engineering construction industry has the potential to reuses and gets benefited through utilizing wastes and its recycled materials. Due to the rapid rise in the construction industry produces more wastes, which creates environmental concerns about the toxic threat. A cost-effective practice of reducing this waste is to reuse waste materials instead of new materials. The main motivation of this study is to examine the potential use of construction demolished waste (CDW) on Expansive Soil. CDW is Mixed with Expansive soil at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and tested for its Consistency limits, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Free Swell Index (FSI), California Bearing Ratio (CBR), and Swell Pressure test were conducted. Test outcomes exhibit that there is a great increment in UCS value and CBR value and reduction in FSI and Swell Pressure of stabilized soils. Microstructural images revel the bonding between CDW and clay by showing white lumps and filling the void gaps.

5 Read more

Behavior of Black Cotton Soil with Addition of Sodium Carbonate and Calcium Carbonate

Behavior of Black Cotton Soil with Addition of Sodium Carbonate and Calcium Carbonate

The soil used for this investigation is obtained from Balupalli near Chinthakomma Dinne (Mandal), Kadapa. The soil is collected at 1.5m depth below the natural ground level. It is dried and pulverized and sieved through a sieve of 4.75mm size to eliminate gravel fraction, if any. This dried and sieved soil is stored in airtight bags ready for use for mixing. The soil is classified as ‘CH’ as per IS Classification (IS 1498:1978) that it is inorganic clay of High Plasticity. Its degree of expansiveness is very ‘High’ as the Differential Free Swell Index (DFSI) is 90%.

7 Read more

Hotspot swells and the lifespan of volcanic ocean islands

Hotspot swells and the lifespan of volcanic ocean islands

The filtering method we used is designed to optimize the parti- tioning of short- and long-wavelength features of the bathymetry, which we expect relate uniquely to volcanic loading and swell uplift. However, if these processes act over similar spatial scales, the regional bathymetry we isolate might be biased by the presence of large volcanic surface loads. A particular concern is broad regions of thickened oceanic crust. Unfortunately, the depth of the Mohorovičić dis- continuity has only been determined in a few hotspot island locations, so we lack sufficient information to account for crustal thickening in our calculations. Crustal thickening could produce shallow ba- thymetry surrounding ocean hotspots (43), but the onset of seafloor shallowing is typically hundreds of kilometers upstream of hotspot volcanism, and the existence of drowned island volcanoes in many hotspot chains argues against crustal thickening as the primary cause for shallow bathymetry. Isostasy calculations show that crustal thick- ening is insufficient to explain shallow seafloor depths near the Galápagos hotspot (44). The correspondence between filtered swell bathymetry and broad, coherent regions of shallow bathymetry visible in our unfiltered maps of anomalous seafloor depth suggests that the swell bathymetry we extract is not an artifact of our filtering technique. The frequent occurrence of volcanoes atop “normal” or even anom- alously deep seafloor also suggests effective separation of short- and long-wavelength features (fig. S2). Swell uplift associated with oceanic hotspots is a robust feature of the bathymetry, analogously expressed in gravity anomaly data and seismic observations.

9 Read more

Improving the Geotechnical Property of Expansive Soil through Marble Dust and Lime for Road Construction Projects

Improving the Geotechnical Property of Expansive Soil through Marble Dust and Lime for Road Construction Projects

grounds which cause extensive damage in civil engineering structure; mainly on the building, shallow foundation or other lightly loaded structure including roads, airport pavement, and pipelines. This type of soil occurs in many parts of the world, Ethiopia is one of those countries. In the Wolaita Sodo areas there is a large coverage of the expansive soil. Soil stabilization is one of the techniques to improve the physical and mechanical behavior of poor soil. The study conducted field investigation to identify the expansive soil and experimental work. Free swell test was carried out to identify the level of expansiveness. The stabilization occurred fixing the lime percent in (1-3) % increasing the percentage of marble dust with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%. The laboratory tests carried out to evaluate Atterberg limits, free swell, and compaction and CBR tests. The result indicated that the addition of marble dust with small percentage dosage of lime showed significant improvement on the geotechnical properties of both selected expansive soil samples. It reduces plasticity index, swelling, and OMC with an increase in MDD and CBR values with all combinations. Therefore, using lime and marble dust in a combined way further improved the geotechnical property of soil and the materials can be used as stabilizing agent for expansive soils.

8 Read more

Behaviour of Crude Oil Contaminated Clayey Sands

Behaviour of Crude Oil Contaminated Clayey Sands

Abstract-- The study has been carried out with two broad objectives – to observe the effect of crude oil contamination on plasticity, unconfined compressive strength, some swelling and chemical properties of soil and to predict the change in the properties in the form of mathematical correlation. Naturally available clayey sands (SC) were used for this study. Laboratory tests were conducted on uncontaminated soil samples and soil samples contaminated at different level of contamination. Mathematical correlation between the soil property and the level of contamination was determined. Change in the properties of crude oil contaminated soil was observed. Liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, free swell index, differential free swell index and pH value increases linearly whereas unconfined compressive strength and electrical conductivity decreases linearly with the increase in the percentage of crude oil contamination. Change in liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, unconfined compressive strength, pH value and electrical conductivity is not statistically significant

6 Read more

Self Induced Rotary Sloshing Caused by an Upward Off Centered Jet in a Cylindrical Container

Self Induced Rotary Sloshing Caused by an Upward Off Centered Jet in a Cylindrical Container

is of p ffiffiffi 3 : 1 and, then, the ratio is almost identical with the computed value of 2:33 : 1:85. In Fig. 8, experimental photograph shows the larger area of the illuminated surface swell than the computation because the illuminated horizon- tal plane was set around a little below of the peak point.

6 Read more

Presaturation method for diminishing soil swelling potential

Presaturation method for diminishing soil swelling potential

found that the swelling was significantly reduced for a compacted soil 4% above the optimum humidity. For a free swell test it was found that a compacted soil with optimum humidity obtained a swell pressure of 240 kN/m 2 whereas the same soil with humidity 4% above the optimum point, obtained a swell pressure of 60 kN/m 2 . Other researches such as Justo et al. (1984) reported significant expansions in low suction values. Abduljauwad et al., (1984) mention that the soil’s swell pressure is dependenton its initial suction. Day (1992) discovered that for different compacted clay samples, the secondary expansion ended when it reached a grade of saturation of 87.9% to 99.99%. Concluding that, the initial vacuum relation and compacting energy, influence on the soil’s swell pressure.

5 Read more

Voltage Quality Improvement Using DVR Based on Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

Voltage Quality Improvement Using DVR Based on Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

The modeling and simulation of a DVR using MATLAB/SIMULINK has been presented. And simulation analysis is presented for the voltage disturbances like voltage Sag, voltage Swell, multiple Sags and multiple Swells and the voltage Sag and Swell conditions .From the Simulation analysis, the DVR based on Synchronous Reference Frame theory (SRF) is able to detect different types of power quality problems without an error and injects the appropriate voltage component to correct immediately any abnormality in the terminal voltage to keep the load voltage balanced and constant at the nominal value. Simulation results show that, the proposed DVR successfully protects the most critical load against balanced and unbalanced voltage sags and swell.

9 Read more

Multicarrier modulated multi level inverter based DVR and 
		DSTATCOM for mitigating swell

Multicarrier modulated multi level inverter based DVR and DSTATCOM for mitigating swell

The use of sophisticated electrical and electronics equipment such as computers, variable speed drives etc. demand high quality power supply. Power quality issues such as swells, sags and harmonics affect the performance of the sensitive loads. New technologies have introduced flexible controllers to mitigate the power quality problems. A voltage swell is an increase to the value between 1.1 to 1.8 PU in RMS value at power frequency for durations less than 1 minute.

8 Read more

Improving the Geotechnical Property of Expansive Soil through Marble Dust and Lime for Road Construction Projects

Improving the Geotechnical Property of Expansive Soil through Marble Dust and Lime for Road Construction Projects

grounds which cause extensive damage in civil engineering structure; mainly on the building, shallow foundation or other lightly loaded structure including roads, airport pavement, and pipelines. This type of soil occurs in many parts of the world, Ethiopia is one of those countries. In the Wolaita Sodo areas there is a large coverage of the expansive soil. Soil stabilization is one of the techniques to improve the physical and mechanical behavior of poor soil. The study conducted field investigation to identify the expansive soil and experimental work. Free swell test was carried out to identify the level of expansiveness. The stabilization occurred fixing the lime percent in (1-3) % increasing the percentage of marble dust with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%. The laboratory tests carried out to evaluate Atterberg limits, free swell, and compaction and CBR tests. The result indicated that the addition of marble dust with small percentage dosage of lime showed significant improvement on the geotechnical properties of both selected expansive soil samples. It reduces plasticity index, swelling, and OMC with an increase in MDD and CBR values with all combinations. Therefore, using lime and marble dust in a combined way further improved the geotechnical property of soil and the materials can be used as stabilizing agent for expansive soils.

8 Read more

V}oltage Swell Mitigation by Using {UPFC

V}oltage Swell Mitigation by Using {UPFC

Power Quality problems encompass a wide range of disturbances such as voltage sags, swells, flicker, harmonics distortion, impulse transient, and interruptions. Voltage swell is defined as a momentary increase of voltage magnitude relative to nominal or pre-event voltage magnitude. Voltage Swell magnitude is always greater than 1.0 [1]. Voltage swell mitigation of a power system an alternative solution is to locate an appropriate Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) device. In 1980s, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) introduces a new approach to solve the problem of designing, controlling and operating power systems: the proposed concept is known as Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). FACTS was introduced a family of power electronic equipment has emerged for controlling and optimizing the flow of electrical power in power transmission lines. This equipment makes use of large rating (4500 V to 6000 V, 4000 A to 6000 A) gate turn-off thyristor (GTOs) in high power inverter configurations that can be controlled to behave as three-phase sinusoidal voltage sources. Its main objectives are to increase power transmission capability, voltage control, voltage stability enhancement and power system stability improvement. FACTS controllers are based on voltage source converters such as Static Var Compensators (SVCs), static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOMs), Thyristor Controlled Series Compensators (TCSCs), Static Series Synchronous Compensators (SSSCs) and Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFCs) [2]-[5], [7]. In this paper investigate, voltage swell in a transmission line with and without UPFC. UPFC is the most flexible and efficient device combining the features of the STATCOM and SSSC. It serves to control all three parameters i.e. voltage, impedance and phase angle, simultaneously at the same time. Alternatively, it can independently control both the real and reactive power flow in the transmission line [8], [10]. UPFC is placed in midpoint of a standard IEEE 14-bus system. A

6 Read more

DSTATCOM Performance for Voltage Sag, Swell Mitigation

DSTATCOM Performance for Voltage Sag, Swell Mitigation

This paper proposes a novel distribution-level voltage control scheme that can compensate voltage Sag and Swellconditions in three-phase power systems. Faults occurring in power distribution systems or facilities in plants generally cause the voltage sag or swell. Sensitivity to voltage sags and swells varies within different applications. For sensitive loads, even the slightest voltage sag for short duration can cause serious problems. Normally, a voltage interruption trigger protection device, which causes shut down the entire load. In order to mitigate power interruptions, this paper proposes a voltage sag support based on a pulse width modulatedautotransformer and D-STATCOM. The proposed devicesquickly recognize the voltage sag and voltage swell conditions and correct the voltage by either boosting the input voltage during voltage sag events or reducing the voltage during swell events. Simulation analysis of these devices is performed in PSCAD/EMTDC and performance analysis of the system is presented for various levels of sag and swell. Simulation results are presented for various conditions of sag and swell disturbances in the supply voltage to show the compensation effectiveness.

13 Read more

VOLTAGE SAG AND SWELL COMPENSATION USING IDVR

VOLTAGE SAG AND SWELL COMPENSATION USING IDVR

DVR is suitable device to compensate power quality voltage sag, swell problems. DVR has limitation for long duration sag compensation. Introduced system model of IDVR is efficient and performed well to mitigate voltage sag and swell. SVPWM control strategy is used for voltage source converter. SVPWM is easy and famous technique.

8 Read more

A Novel Method for Energy Optimization of Dynamic Voltage Restorer by Using Phase Advance Compensation and In-Phase Technique

A Novel Method for Energy Optimization of Dynamic Voltage Restorer by Using Phase Advance Compensation and In-Phase Technique

The proposed DVR uses a combination of in-phase method and phase advance compensation method for mitigating the sag/ swell. A number of fault conditions were tested by using the newly developed control method. The test result shows that the fault is mitigated and the load voltage is within the desired limits. The DVR is tested for a fault from 50% sag to 40% swell. And the obtained test result shows that the load voltage is within the normal operating voltage. Balanced and unbalanced fault conditions are also tested.

9 Read more

BEHAVIOR OF SWELLING PROPERTIES OF BLACK COTTON SOILS BY USING FLYASH

BEHAVIOR OF SWELLING PROPERTIES OF BLACK COTTON SOILS BY USING FLYASH

Consistency of a soil is its resistance to flow, or to forces that tend to deform it, and is related to strength of clay soils. It is governed by the water content. The water content at which the soil passes form one state to the next, have been arbitrarily designated as “Consistency limits” – liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit. The plasticity index of the soil is determined to know the need of stabilization of the soil. If the plasticity index is more than 6% stabilization is essential

14 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...