simultaneously increasing. Zhang Qing-Ling has tried to simulate the formation temperature and pressure by conducting the variable temperature and pressure adsorptions of four kinds of coal with different ranks . Even with a good intention of “ using variable temperature and pressure adsorption to reflect the in-situ buried condition”, without a mathematical formulation to treat testing data, the relationship involving temperature pressure adsorption still remains an enigmatic problem. Therefore, a Temperature Pressure Adsorption Equation is introduced first and then verified by the all adsorptions data of coal with different ranks under variable temperature and pressure.
From the above study, we found that only the single heat loss or pressure loss is taken into account for the pipeline loss calculation. Through the relevant literature shows that the heat exchange between the pipe and the outside world mainly with the pipe material, pipe diameter, flow rate and the temperature difference between inside and outside. According to the temperature loss and its viscosity change, the corresponding pressure loss can be obtained, so we can know the interrelationship between these factors and provide some reference for the initial temperature and pressure setting of the system, so as to reduce the pipeline transportation process as much as possible the temperature and pressure loss, so that the entire system to maximize the efficiency of delivery.
Cement systems require special design attention, modified testing procedures and special systems. Accurate data collection is key to a successful job design. Cement tests are done in the cementing laboratory using the pressure and temperature at well total depth. It is also recommended to utilize the maximum temperature in the annular space where the cement slurry is going to be placed during the temperature simulation. Whatever the case might be, it is imperative to understand the combined effect of temperature and pressure on cement slurry during and after placement. This study has been able to demonstrate that thickening time of cement slurry reduces as temperature and pressure increases.
Mills (1971) who confirms the value of 2.205 x 10 m sec used for calibration in the present work (Collings and Mills, 1970). If the curves for D of Hiraoka and McCall and co-workers are moved vertically so that their values at one atmosphere coincide with' the recommended value, then their data agree within experimental error with our results over the whole pressure range. It would seem reasonable to estimate that smoothed data from the pressure diaphragm cell has an accuracy of the order of 1%. An independent but by no means conclusive check on the validity of the diaphragm cell technique at high pressure can be made by comparison with the pressure dependence of the viscosity of benzene. The familiar Stokes-Einstein relationship Dq/T = constant (where q is the viscosity and T the absolute temperature) is predicted by many simple theories in transport in dense fluids (McLaughlin, 1961; Steele and Webb, 1963). In Table 1, a comparison of the pressure dependence of D and q in benzene is made using the recent viscosity data of Collings and McLaughlin (1971). The value for D at one atmosphere, D - , is that Mills (1971) and at other pressures D , is taken from the
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of the rate of recrystallization being typically associated with an exponential dependence of the diffusion rate of the displaced atoms incorporated in the ion tracks on temperature. Fission track thermochronology correlates the length distribution with the temperature to reveal the thermal history (assuming the values are not affected by pressure). For this purpose, a detailed understanding of the effects of temperature on the shrinkage of the tracks is necessary. This not only requires a collection of natural samples with well-known history, but also a range of lab-based annealing experiments over short timescales. The latter experiments typically involve freshly induced tracks from an external source (e.g. from a nuclear isotope or an ion accelerator) that have never been subjected to thermal annealing before [WdH92]. The annealing of these tracks under controlled conditions, typically between several days up to a few months, yields the distribution in tracks lengths and consequently the shrinkage rates. These values can then be extrapolated to geological timescales (see Subsect. 2.3.2 for a comparison of different models). Less understood than temperature, are the effects of pressure on the annealing rate of ion tracks. In fact, a range of contradicting claims report annealing rates for fission tracks in apatite that are either increased [SLCB14], or rates that are reduced [WVC02, VWC03], as well as annealing rates that display no measurable influences at elevated pressures [NF69, DFOA03, KBB + 03].
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From (2), it is assumed that in an ideal enclosed housing, the ratio of pressure and temperature is a constant given by since the number of molecules , the gas constant and the volume should remain the same. Using the initial tem- perature and internal pressure of 5 C (278 K) and 100.5 KPa, the corresponding internal pressure at 90 C (363 K) was cal- culated to be 131.2 KPa. Similarly at the cooling process, using the initial temperature and internal pressure of 80 C (353 K) and 100.3 KPa, the corresponding internal pressure at 5 C (278 K) was calculated to be 77.6 KPa. The calculated values of 131.2 KPa and 77.6 KPa would be the ideal pressures ex- perienced for the heating and cooling processes respectively. From the experiment, the values measured differed from that of the ideal situation as there were possible leakages within the housing, in which case, the number of molecules and subse- quently the gas constant are not the same at different temper- atures. In the event of dry air, the gas constant is known to be at 287 J kg K  (Note: this is not the universal gas con- stant). If condensation occurs from the effects of the tempera- ture cycling procedure, the gas content would increase to ap- proximately 461.5 J kg K  due to the presence of water vapor.
These 3 curved portions at inlet, center positions and outlet are used for other experimental applications by attaching an indicator (not shown) at each portion to indicate if there are any effects. This is to observe the changing process especially in the aspect of pressure and temperature at all these four main components of compressor (2), condenser (3), devices (4) and evaporator (5) and hence determine the capability of the air conditioner system
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Technical literature treats the aspect of density and viscosity alteration as a function of temperature, and pressure change as an isolated issue with only tangential links to the problems of designing and calculating a hydraulic system. Nominal values for viscosity (at 40 °C) and density (at 15 °C and normal atmospheric pressure), which differ substantially from real conditions, are considered. Consequently, the derived values cannot be regarded as highly accurate, leading to inaccurate calculation of pressure losses (in some cases up to 200%).
Abstract. Loads from explosions differ from seismic and wind loads due to their greater severity, continuity, rapidity, and thermal extremity. That is, explosions cause massive structural damage by exposing surrounding structures to extremely high pressure and temperature. Thus, structures at risk of explosive damage must be stronger than typical buildings in withstanding both ordinary loads and the additional pressure and temperature loads caused. Explosion-resistant structures are required in the petrochemical industry, explosive armories, power stations, and gas storage facilities, among others. This study aims to examine the structural performance of a building subject to three types of loads: (1) the pressure of 300 bars, (2) the temperature of 300 C, and (3) the pressure of 300 bars combined with the temperature of 300 C. The research analyzes three primary reinforced structures, namely columns, beams, and slabs, in terms of the parameters resulting from each scenario to determine a set of criteria for designing the structural components of explosion-resistant buildings.
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Above shows that it necessary to make analysis for the bus fire accident, and we have made some active results in theory and application. Consider that the bus fire process is complex, especially the internal temperature, pressure distribution is uneven. In order to improve the emergency level of the bus fires, it is very important to analyze the factors such as the temperature, pressure and smoke with the development of the fire, which makes the emergency personnel rescue the passengers and the passengers self-protection well.
published papers in this problem the combined effect of the external pressure and temperature differential cylinder coated bulky devices are not considered. In this task, the system consists of a cylinder main relatively thick cylinder and a thin inner coating of another material such as a cylinder is subjected to external pressure and asymmetrical temperature field.
figure 3 on increasing the distance among the detectors. Further in Table 2, a correlation among muon intensity and differential energy spectrum is also computed to observe its change on varying distance among the detectors. The muon flux obtained from a coincidence rate is 9.16±0.31/cm 2 .str.sec. the efficiency of the telescope is further determined within 60- 80%. The muon flux measurements are also computed for the setup at different altitudes on varying the distance between them. The data is taken for a duration of 1 Dec. 2014 – 16 Sep. 2015. It is also an important application for estimation of water equivalent depth for different under ground locations to characterize the back ground rate for neutrino physics like SuperKamiokanda. The application also widens in use of muon tomography technique to search the hidden rooms in pyramids or in vocabulary. There are also many applications like the detection of unknown sources to increase safety procedures such as custom check posts, scanning in vehicle transport etc. The variation of muon flux with respect to temperature, pressure and humidity possibly direct us to a new path to understand the global climate warming trend. It could also indirectly impact the solar irradiance at ground level. This may leads to catastrophic weather, crop failures, disease outbreak and impact on plants, wild life and humans. Measurement of muon flux at different heights with change of distance in detectors helps to find the primary particle source information form the obtained decoherence curve. The factors influencing the detector sensitivity such as cross-section and surrounding material of the sensitive region of muon telescope are studied. The muon interaction processes in different materials was studied in this paper using Geant4 simulation toolkit. The importance and procedure in calculation of total cross-section, interaction length and energy loss of muons was discussed. Dependance of muon cross-section mechanisms on relative energy transfer of muon to secondaries was studied. The significance of physics processes necessary for implementation 39544 Sirisha et al. Study the correlation of muon paddle efficiency with temperature, pressure, decoherence curve and effect of multiple scattering
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.511014 195 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection and study the functioning of geyser eruptions, several researchers have built geysers: -. The prototypes are often made of glass with an Erlenmeyer flask, tubes, a basin and a heating plate. The publications show how the pressure and temperature vary over time during an eruptive cycle; several successive phases can be identified, such as the heating phase, the eruptive phase (with wa- ter and steam spouting), followed by the refilling phase. These authors quanti- fied the phenomena involved, on the basis of the laws of thermodynamics and of fluids mechanics. However, the eruptive phase has not yet been explained quan- titatively. It can be observed that an eruption begins with an overpressure in the Erlenmeyer flask, followed by a depressurization . This depressurization is a two-step process: the first goes from the point of maximum overpressure (at the beginning of the eruption) to that of atmospheric pressure. The second step, corresponding to the refilling, goes from the point of atmospheric pressure to a minimum value of pressure, far below atmospheric pressure. In a recent publica- tion , it is stated that “to our knowledge, such a phenomenon has never been described quantitatively”.
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Ch.Jyosthna Devi, B.Syam Prasad Reddy, K.Vagdhan Kumar, B.Musala Reddy, N.Raja Nayak  they used to show how ANN & BPA are useful in forecasting.A 3-layered neural network is designed and trained. So many parameters are taken, like temperature, humidity, dew point, visibility, atmospheric pressure, sea level, wind speed, wind direction etc. Basically the work is done to check two deferent ANN architecture to check which is better. These are Back Propagation (BPN) feed forward network and Radial basis function network (RBN). And BPN is found the best
In order to automate a power plant and minimize human intervention, there is a need to develop a PLC &SCADA system that helps to reduce the errors caused by humans. PLC and SCADA interfaced through communication cables. SCADA is used to monitor the boiler temperature, pressure and water level using different sensors and the corresponding output is given to the PLC which controls the boiler temperature, pressure and water level. The figure shows the block diagram of boiler Automation which consists of PLC, SCADA and sensors to monitor and control the entire operation of boiler. Here Resistive Temperature detector Pt 100 (RTD PT 100) is used to measure the temperature, RT pressure switch is used to measure the pressure inside the boiler and float switches are used to detect the feed water level inside the boiler.Its temperature is measured. In one pump the flow rate is maintained at 130% and in another it is 75%. Thus the failure of any one pipe does not affect the boiler operation. Heater is switched ON by using PLC. The corresponding temperature and pressure are measured by sensors.
Du-Soon Choi, Yong-Taek Im et al. 1999  in their study, the numerical analysis of shrinkage and warpage of injection molded parts made of amorphous polymers was carried out in consideration of the residual stresses produced during the packing and cooling stages of injection molding. The temperature and pressure fields were obtained from the coupled analysis of the filling and post-filling stages. For residual stress analysis, a thermo- rheologically simple visco-elastic material model was introduced to consider the stress relaxation effect and to describe the mechanical behavior according to the temperature change. The effect of the additional material supply during the packing stage was modeled by assigning the reference strain. The deformation of injection molded parts after ejection induced by the residual stress and temperature change was analyzed using a linear elastic three-dimensional finite element approach. In order to verify the numerical predictions obtained from the developed program, the simulation results were compared with the available experimental data in the literature. In the case of residual stress, it was found that the present simulation results over predicted the tensile residual stresses at the surface of injection molded parts. However, the predicted shrinkage was found to be reasonable to describe the effects of processing conditions well. Finally, an analysis of the shrinkage and warpage was successfully extended for a part with a more complex curved shape.
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Figure 1 shows the variations of monthly means for pressure, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation for the period from 1980-2016. These results indicate that Hillah is characterized by high pressure patterns during Winter and low pressure patterns during Summer. It is noticeable that pressure could fluctuate around the mean value during mid Summer (July) and Winter (December and January) temperature ranges from 10-15°C during Winter months (Dec to Feb) and 35-40°C during Summer months (Jun to Aug). It is clear that temperature cloud be lower than 10°C during Winter and may slightly reaches more than 40°C during Summer. The relative humidity results illustrate that Hillah is characterized by dry air during Summer and moderately wet air during Winter. The rainfall pattern shows that rainfalls during the rainy season (Oct to May) in the city and varies form 1 year to
The Vortex Tube is a mechanical device that separates compressed air into an outward radial high temperature region and an inner lower one. It operates as a refrigerating machine with a simplistic geometry and no moving parts. It contains the following parts: one or more inlet nozzles, a vortex chamber, a cold end orifice, a hot end control valve and a tube. When a high pressure gas (6 bars) is tangentially injected into the vortex chamber via the inlet nozzles, a swirling flow is created inside the vortex chamber, part of the gas swirls to the hot end, and another part exit via the cold exhaust directly. Part of the gas in the vortex tube reverses for axial component of the velocity and move from the hot end to the cold end. At the hot exhaust, the gas escapes with a higher temperature, while at the cold exhaust, the gas has a lower temperature compared to the inlet temperature.
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Abstract – S ide arm is used as a mould in a latex-dipping process of manufacturing urinary catheters. A research previously found that a new side arm can be made from Nylon PA66 using an injection moulding process which was much more cost effective. However, there is an unwanted warpage issue that frequentlyoccurred on each of the Nylon PA66 side arms after the process takes place. Therefore,thispaper discusses effects of a number of parameters involved in producing Nylon PA66 side arms that lead to this warpage issueby means of an injection moulding process. The parameters concerned are melt temperature, filling time, packing pressure and packing time. A model of side arm is designed and simulated using simulation software to imitate the real operation of an injection moulding process. These parameters are then analyzed with respect to the deflections occurred using Taguchi method and further verified by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique. At the end of this study, it is found that melt temperature and packing time play the most significant role to the existence of warpage.
In order to examine the effect of inlet pressure, the inlet pressures were set to 0.15 MPa, 0.20 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.30 MPa, and 0.35 MPa, for an inlet temperature of 293 K, a liquid volume fraction of 0.05, and backpressure of 0.10 MPa. The pressure field, temperature field and shockwave position were analyzed. Fig. 5 shows the distribution of axial static pressure in the three throttling devices for each of the investigated inlet pressures. When the other conditions are the same, as the inlet pressure increases, the pressure at the throat position of the three throttling devices decreases. Subsequently, the pressure gradually rises to 0.1 MPa. As can be seen from Fig. 5, the pressure drop of the Laval nozzle is the most obvious with the increase of inlet pressure. For the Laval nozzle, as the inlet pressure increases from 0.15 MPa to 0.35 MPa, the shockwave pressure decreases from 0.087 MPa to 0.039 MPa, and the shockwave position moves forward from x = 33 mm to x = 40 mm. This indicates that the larger the inlet pressure is, the more significant inﬂuence it has on the pressure drop. As the inlet pressures increase from 0.15 MPa to 0.35 MPa, the minimum pressures of the orifice plate and the plate valve decrease from 0.098 MPa to 0.090 MPa and 0.098 MPa to 0.092 MPa, respectively. Unlike the Laval nozzle, the orifice plate and the plate valve have no obvious shockwave.