An ultrasonicassistedextraction as a green way approach is described for simple, efficient and rapid determination of trace metals in some complex matrices by atomic absorption spectrometry and/or other techniques. Their optimized conditions are certainly investigated in details, in particular several variables that could affect the performance of the method in comparison with those of standard methods. In this review, arsenic species are focused to determine in chilli as the plant matrix, for example. This will lead to improve mild extraction method as a routine work for heavy metals in such food analysis with its emerging applications and future trends.
Recently, response surface methodology (RSM), which is a statistical technique to determine the influences of individual factors and their interactive influences, has been used increasingly to optimize processing param- eters [8, 16–18]. In some previous reports, the opti- mization studies on enzymolysis-ultrasonicassistedextraction of Cucurbita moschata, Lycium barbarum, Momordica charabtia, wheat bran and corn silk have been performed using RSM [13–15, 19, 20]. Hence, the cellulase-ultrasonicassistedextraction technology for fla- vonoids from plants, combining the mild bio-enzymatic hydrolysis conditions and the rapid ultrasonicextraction technology, will protect the maximum bio-activity of the flavonoids. In this paper, we studied the optimization of cellulase-ultrasonicassistedextraction for flavonoids from I. verum residues using response surface method- ology. The adsorption conditions were optimized from a single factor and orthogonal design experiments and des- orption conditions were optimized from dynamic des- orption experiments.
The study was performed to optimize the polysaccharide ultrasonic-assistedextraction conditions from the mycelium of Cordyceps gunnii by artificial neural network coupled with genetic algorithm. The effects of various experimental parameters in extraction step including ultrasonic time, ultrasonic power and liquid-solid ratio were studied using the method of single factor test design. On the results of single factor test design, a Box-Behnken design was performed to determine the effect of different parameters on the polysaccharide extraction rate. Using response surface methodology and artificial neural network coupled with genetic algorithm to analysis the results of Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for polysaccharide extraction obtained by the GA-ANN was ultrasonic time 225 s, ultrasonic power 430 W and liquid-solid ratio 45 mL· g -1 , which was more reliable than the conditions obtained by RSM since better polysaccharide extraction rate was validated.
In this study, we report an ionic liquid based ultrasonic-assistedextraction (ILUAE) as an alternative method for the recovery of OA. An ionic liquid (IL) as a design green solvent is regarded as an attractive alternative or replacement to conventional volatile organic solvent. Ionic liquids (ILs) are low melting point salts composed entirely of ions. They have negligible volatility, low flammability, chemical stability, good environmental benignity, good solubility for organic compounds, and they are miscible with water. Moreover, a large number of possible variations in cation and anion features allowing the fine-tuning of the IL properties  . IL based materials interact with analytes through anion exchange, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction . The extraction of bioactive compounds from plants using ILs is promising as a green method, in reducing the environmental pollution and improving the selectivity and ex- traction yields of interesting compounds in sample pretreatment processes
This study aims to investigate Moringa oleifera seed oil extraction using indirect ultra- sonication or known as ultrasonicassistedextraction (UAE). The process was conducted at 176kW power and ultrasonic frequency of 40kHz. Usage of highly toxic and carcino- gen solvent was avoided in this study by using ethyl acetate as replacement. The influence of extraction temperature, solid to liquid (S/L) ratio and extraction time were looked at. Experimental data reveals that 38.1% of Moringa oleifera seed oil yield was obtained at tem- perature of 30 o C, S/L ratio of 1:20 and 40 mins of extraction. The study was followed by
A simple and rapid ultrasonicassistedextraction procedure (UEP) was developed for the determination of total mercury (Hg) in muscle tissues of marine fish species. For this purpose four fish species were collected from fish markets of Karachi, Pakistan. Total Hg concentration was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), following UEP. Certified reference material DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) was used to validate the results. No significant difference was observed between the experimental results and the certified values of CRM (paired t-test). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of Hg were 0.133 and 0.445 µg/kg respectively. The Hg concentration in muscle tissues were obtained in the range of 0.721 – 1.41 mg/kg on dry weight. The contribution of the daily intake of Hg, based on the consumption of 250 g fresh fish muscles per day was found in the range of 0.615 – 1.22 µg/kg body weight/ day, which is greater than WHO permissible limit.
Ultrasonic-assistedextraction of flavonoids from Panax notoginseng flowers (PNF) and its antimicrobial activities were first investigated. Single-factor and orthogonal experiment were used to investigate the optimum extraction condition. The results showed that, the combination of 90% ethanol, material-to-liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL), 1 h ultrasonicextraction and 3 times of extraction were optimal extraction condition with the highest yields of flavonoids from PNF at 40 kHz/200 W. Under the optimal extraction condition, the extraction rate was 2.49%. Also, flavonoids from PNF had obvious inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results clearly indicate that flavonoids from PNF have the potential to be antimicrobial agents, and also provide the theoretical data for supporting the use of PNF for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics or nutraceutical industries.
Acer truncatum is a prominent maple (Aceraceae) species widely cultivated in China, Korea and Japan, and is also found in Europe and Northern America [1,2]. In northern China, maple leaves, mainly A. truncatum leaves (ATL), are often used as healthy drinks and folk medicines treating coronary artery cirrhosis, cerebrovascular diseases and angina pectoris . Previous investigations of ATL indicated that it possessed various biological functions, such as antioxidant , antibacterial [5,6], and antitumor [7,8] due to its high contents of tannins, flavonoids, and chlorogenic acid. However, little effort has been made to the optimization of extraction method of phenolics in ATL. Therefore, in order to ensure the full utilization of ATL, an ultrasound-assistedextraction (UAE) method was established through response surface methodology (RSM) in the current study.
The Box–Behnken Design (BBD) was demonstrated to be an effective and reliable technique for investigating the extraction of bioactive compound. The bromelain activity for the optimized condition for the peel and core was found to be 94.20 ±0.05 (unit/ml) and 93.13 ±0.005 (unit/ml) for the pineapple peel and core respectively. Therefore, after purification, 131 ± 0.025 units/ml and 116.25 ±0.405 with specific activity of 27.78 and 29.85 with fold purification 1.25 and 1.17. The molecular weight of protein in both peel and core was found to be 23 KDa. Staining was done to confirm the presence of bromelain which depicted the result to be positive. I C 50 value proved that core had higher antioxidant potential than the peel. Therefore from our study we can conclude that UAE is one of the quickest method for obtaining the bioactives and the obtained bromelain can be applied in meat tenderization, baking process and also it can be used in various pharmaceutical industry.
Objective: The oxyresveratrol, polyphenol from Morus alba (Mulberry) roots has been known to have potential skin whitening activities. The application of urea-glycerin-based Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent-UltrasonicAssistedExtraction (NADES-UAE) method was successful on extraction of polyphenols from plant material. The purpose of this research was to get optimum extraction conditions to enhance oxyresveratrol content and get the best lotion formula based on physical properties evaluation. Methods: The roots were extracted with urea-glycerin-based NADES-UAE method. The NADES-UAE method was employed to determine the optimal extraction condition for two parameters: the molar ratio of urea: glycerin and ultrasonic irradiation time. Oxyresveratrol concentration of the extracts was analyzed with HPLC. Morus alba roots extract was formulated into three formulas of lotion preparation and evaluated based on their physical properties. Results: The optimized conditions for the highest oxyresveratrol concentration from Morus alba roots extract were the molar ratio of urea-glycerin (1:3) and ultrasonic irradiation time as 15 mins. It showed that urea-glycerin UAE method produced Morus alba roots extract with higher
In this work, different parts of L. fischeri, including roots and rhizomes, stems, leaves, scapes and fruits, were extracted in water, 95% ethanol, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform respectively, which were carried out by an ultrasonic-assistedextraction method. The extracts from different origins, harvest seasons, solvents and the herbal parts showed different antioxidative activities, which is measured by the DPPH method. Leaves and fruits of L. fischeri could be antioxidant effective parts of the herbs. And the stronger polarity solvent used for extraction, the higher antioxidative activities of L. fischeri extracts would be. This present work will contribute to the in depth research and exploitation of natural antioxidant from L. fischeri.
Solid-liquid extraction (SLE) methods allow to solve components of interest from solid samples using a suitable solvent. Various modes of SLE techniques such as maceration, ultrasonic-assistedextraction (UAE), microwave-assistedextraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction (SE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were proposed for extraction from food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and environmental samples [3-9]. Among these techniques, UAE is of high interest because of advantages such as low cost operation, simplicity and mild extraction conditions. This technique can be performed in two modes of ultrasonic bath and probe-type ultrasound devices which are based on a transducer as a source of ultrasound waves. Ultrasonic baths can be operating at thermostat mode with a frequency of around 40 kHz. They are cheap, available and large numbers of samples can be simultaneously treated. However, compared with probe types, the low reproducibility and power of ultrasound delivered to the sample are major disadvantages. Indeed, the delivered intensity is highly attenuated by the water contained in the bath and the container used for sample holding. That’s why ultrasonic probes are generally preferred for extraction applications. Comparing to the ultrasonic bath, the probe system is more powerful due to an ultrasonic intensity delivered through an ultrasonic probe which is immersed directly into the sample container. They are generally operated at ~20 kHz and use transducer bonded to probe which is immersed into the reactor. This configuration results in a direct delivery of ultrasound to the extraction media with minimal ultrasonic energy loss .
An easy, fast and efficient combination of ultrasonic-assistedextraction (UAE) with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) in apple peel extract of five clones of Gala and Fuji cultivars (“Baigent”, “Fuji Mishima”, “Fuji Suprema”, “Fuji Select” and “Maxi Gala”) from southern Brazil. UA and BA extraction using acetone as a solvent was successfully performed. Chromatographic parameters of the analytical method include positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) with a flow of 1 mL −1 in isocratic mode consisting of 80% acetonitrile and 20% ammonium acetate 10 mM pH 6.0, at room
This study investigates the isolation of curcuminoids from Curcuma domestica Val. using ultrasonic-assistedextraction (UAE), microwave-assistedextraction (MAE) compared with conventional cold solvent extraction method and the use of inclusion complexation of curcumin with methyl--cyclodextrin (Mβ-CD) for improving their solubility. The extractions were optimized by determining the content of three curcuminoid markers, namely curcumin (C), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC). The extraction efficiencies were compared in terms of extraction time, sample through-put and solvent consumption. The optimized parameters for UAE of curcuminoids were extraction amplitude of 100, particle size of 0.30-0.60 mm, extraction time of 20 min, extraction solvent volume of 10 mL and extraction temperature of 60°C. Meanwhile, the relative recoveries (RRs) for aqueous extraction were in the range of 91.59-98.99%, 89.79- 94.95% and 89.33-94.77% for C, DMC and BDMC, respectively. Although UAE using methanol resulted in a slightly higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time compared to those using water, both methods showed similar pattern of results. Despite these, water is cost effective, safe and environmentally friendly. These advantages of aqueous solvent can be used as a yard stick to substitute organic solvents for UAE of curcuminoids from C. domestica. At maximum set energy, the MAE optimum extraction parameters were particle size of 0.30-0.60 mm, extraction time of 3 min, extraction solvent volume of 10 mL and extraction temperature of 60°C with RRs of 92.48-99.44%, 90.58-97.43% and 90.03-96.07% for C, DMC and BDMC, respectively. Both UAE and MAE applications showed remarkable improvements in terms of extraction time, solvent consumption, extraction yield and the quality of extracts compared to conventional cold solvent extractions method. However, as compared to UAE, the optimized MAE application was better in term of quantity of curcuminoids. MAE is also simpler, faster, more efficient approach and allows the possibility of simultaneous multiple extractions. The inclusion complex formed using Mβ-CD with the application of MAE was more stable than that with UAE based on the stability constant (K C ) values of 213.08 M -1 and 515.19 M -1 , for
Based on the single factor test the optimum conditions of ultrasonicassistedextraction of volatile oil from zanthoxylum were determined with orthogonal experiments. The optimum condition as follows: extracting 20min at 0 , ultrasonic frequency is 60KHz, and the rapeseed flowers/ethyl ether ratio(g:mL) 1:30, The yield achieved to 8.61%. The chemical components were qualified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method is low energy consumption, low cost, high efficiency, extract components completely, a new way of textracting similar natural is provided.
Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasonic-assistedextraction of protein from brewer’s spent grain. Three variables, namely the extraction time (min), ultrasonic power (W/100 ml of extractant), and solid-liquid ratio (g/100 ml) were investigated. Optimal conditions were determined and tri-dimensional response surfaces were plotted using mathematical models. The ANOVA analysis indicated that all the quantities determined, i.e. the extraction time, ultrasonic power, and solid-liquid ratio, had significant positive linear and negative quadratic effects on the protein yield. Optimum conditions for the extraction of protein were found to be: the extraction time of 81.4 min, ultrasonic power of 88.2 W/100 ml of extractant, and solid-liquid ratio of 2.0 g/100 ml. The optimal predicted protein yield obtained was 104.2 mg/g BSG while the experimental yield of protein was in agreement with the predicted value.
Conventional extraction techniques like soxhlet extraction and reflux extraction and novel extraction techniques like Supercritical Fluid extraction (SFE), UltrasonicAssistedExtraction (UAE) and microwave assistedextraction method (MAE) were used for the extraction of Convolvulus Pluricaulis. The scopoletin content in the extracts obtained using different extraction techniques was estimated using pre validated HPTLC method. The conventional and novel extraction techniques were compared on the basis of various parameters like extraction time, organic solvent consumption and extraction yield. The novel extraction techniques were found to be better than conventional methods as they require less time, consume less solvent and give higher yields of scopoletin. From amongst the novel extraction techniques used Microwave assistedextraction was found to give highest yield of scopoletin.
The content and species of carotenoids are significantly affected by different carotenoids extraction methods. The comparison of the three methods ultra- sonic assisting, grinding and HCl assisting on carotenoids extraction yield from Rhodopseudomonas faecalis PSB-B was carried out. Data ANOVA showed that ultrasound can greatly replace the conventional extraction. And then, based on ultrasonic assisting extraction method, the effect of ultrasonic time, solvent-solid ratio and ultrasonic power on the yield of carotenoids ex- tracted from Rhodopseudomonas faecalis PSB-B was investigated using single factor and Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the extraction of tem- perature 20˚C, N-hexane:Methanol (5:1), the optimal conditions for Ultra- sonic assistedextraction of carotenoids found to be: Ultrasonic time 4.5 min, Solvent-solid ratio (mg/ml) (10:10), extraction power of 187 W. The yield of carotenoids could reach to 16.11 mg/L.
Several works reported in the literature used the ultra- sound-assistedextraction for phenolics recovery from grape skins, achieving high yields in short periods of time (El Darra et al. 2013; González-Centeno et al. 2010, 2015; Drosou et al. 2015). Furthermore, much progress has been achieved with regard to the ultrasound-assistedextraction of grape peel, anthocyanins and resveratrol (Cho et al. 2006; Li et al. 2010a, b; Ghafoor et al. 2009; Tao et al. 2014). Moreover, the effects of solvent type, extraction temperature, solvent/solid ratio, amplitude level, and pulse duration/pulse interval ratio on the yield of phenolics extraction could be optimized to improve quantity the and quality of recovery compounds (Goula et al. 2016). Pan et al. (2012) reported that UAE reduced the extraction time of phenolic compounds from pome- granate peels by 87% and presented an antioxidant activ- ity greater than 22% greater than those obtained by maceration. Carrera et al. (2012) also reported a reduc- tion in the time of extraction of phenolic compounds from grapes with UAE requiring 10 times less extrac- tion time than that of maceration. All the above studies reported that this improvement in extraction with the use of ultrasound favors the rupture of the cell wall, with the subsequent increase in the penetration of the sol- vent. Propagation of the ultrasonic waves through a liq- uid medium causes damage to the vegetal wall resulting in high solvent penetration and the subsequent release of the content of polyphenolic compounds (Medina-Torres et al. 2017). The UAE9i previously described has also been used for dietary fiber extraction, suggesting that it is a good alternative for the extraction of pectin from grape pomace on an industrial scale (Minjares-Fuentes et al. 2014).
Figure 7 exhibits comparison of the grinding forces at various grinding conditions. Overall, the grinding forces in ultrasonicassisted grinding were slightly reduced compared to the conventional grinding. However, in some cases, the grinding forces in ultrasonic case showed higher forces, especially for y-axis components. This could be mainly because cutting depth in the ultrasonic grinding was deeper than that in the conventional grind- ing. As shown in Figure 8, groove depths generated by diamond grain in both the ultrasonic and conventional grinding were about 2.5 µm and 3.2 µm respectively. This difference might cause higher grinding forces in y