The structure which we study is a tunnel for radioactive wastedisposal. The objective is to confine the waste in a deep geological formation to protect the environment from the radionuclides they contain. This confinement has to be guaranteed over large time scales (up to several hundreds of thousands years) without requiring maintenance. The waste is contained in packages of metal or concrete, depending on the nature of the waste. These packages are arranged in cells, being disposal cavities in the rock. Under the hypothesis of reversible storage, packages are simply stored in the cells. If the option of underground disposal is finally adopted, the cells, and the tunnels leading to them, will be sealed.
Sukacita dimaklumkan bahawa Laporan PSM yang tersebut di atas bertajuk “ Automatic WasteDisposal Management System ” mohon dikelaskan sebagai *SULIT / TERHAD untuk tempoh LIMA (5) tahun dari tarikh surat ini. 2. Hal ini adalah kerana IANYA MERUPAKAN PROJEK YANG DITAJA OLEH ORANG PERSENDIRIAN DAN HASIL KAJIANNYA ADALAH SULIT. Sekian dimaklumkan. Terima kasih.
potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from land filling) by reducing the need for "conventional" wastedisposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle" waste hierarchy. Industries like glass, lumber, rubber tyres and paper manufacturers benefit greatly from recycled products. Shipbuilding industry also reclaims steel of old ships and vessels. E-waste is a growing problem, accounting for 20-50 million metric tons of global waste per year according to the EPA. TVs, monitors, mobile phones and computers are typically tested for reuse and repaired. If broken, they may be disassembled for parts still having high value. Other e- waste is shredded to ~100 mm pieces and manually checked to separate out toxic batteries and capacitors which contain poisonous metals. The remaining pieces are further shredded to ~10 mm and passed under a magnet to remove ferrous metals. Next an eddy current ejects non-ferrous metals, which are sorted by density either by centrifuge or vibrating plates. Precious metals can be dissolved in acid, sorted, and smelted into ingots. The remaining glass and plastic fractions are separated by density and sold to reprocesses. Plastic recycling is an irreplaceable way of reducing the burden of the ever increasing quantities of plastic waste in today’s world.
Abstract :Information is perceived as the resource, that constitutes relationships in the network of enterprises and their customers, as well as extra-marketing value, which can be successfully implemented in IT environment, for example in the sector of wastedisposal enterprises. That is why, the interactive contact and involvement of the stream supplier in researched sector, the intelligent processes of selection and recycling of communal waste, and commercial and marketing value of waste can be interesting as a source of marketing information for researchers and readers of this article. Therefore, smart methods of knowledge management, including marketing knowledge in the sector of waste management enterprises in the environment of IT solutions raise interest. The goal of the paper is to present three-sphere business model based on intelligent management of knowledge and competences in enterprises of the waste management sector. The main part of the paper will be focused on one of the sub-areas of the model, i.e. the subarea of knowledge commercialisation. This will be implemented through in-depth case study analysis.
These findings may supply some direction in strategizing government policies related to solid waste management and disposal that are implementable and acceptable by all stakeholders in the country. The strong NIMBY syndrome and willingness to accept sanitary landfill at the expense of more land use identified in this study suggest that the authorities have to relook at the procedures on location choice to site the disposal facilities and that these sites should be further away from townships. However, the transportation costs have to be factored in as well in order to make the site location a feasible one for the wastedisposal service providers at the same time. The study also reveals some form of labeling effect where the public chooses to shy away from incineration than sanitary landfill. Hence, the authorities may have to use more greener or neutral names for disposal technologies that might be brought into the country in the future.
Traditional inventory models involve different decisions that attempt to optimize material lot sizes by minimizing total annual switching costs. However, the increasing concern on environmental issues stresses the need to treat inventory management decisions as a whole, by integrating economic and environmental objectives. Recent studies have underlined the need to incorporate additional criteria in traditional inventory models in order to design "responsible inventory systems". This paper explores the problem of determining the optimal batch sizes for production and recovery in an EOQ (economic order/production quantity) repair and wastedisposal model context. This paper assumes that a first shop is manufacturing new products as well as repairing products used by a second shop. The used products can either be stored in the second shop and then be brought back to the first shop in an approach used to reduce inventory costs, or be disposed outside the system. The works available in the literature assumed a general time interval and ignored the very first time interval where no repair runs are performed. This assumption resulted in an over estimation of the average inventory level and subsequently the holding cost. These works also have not accounted for switching costs when alternating between production and recovery runs, which are common when switching among products or jobs in a manufacturing facility. This paper addresses these two limitations. Mathematical models are developed with numerical examples presented and results discussed.
In this study, the result of bivariate analysis shown in Table 3 indicates that at a 1% level of significance, the status of using safe medical wastedisposal method was significantly associated with facility type, managing authority, region, urban/rural, and availability of guidelines for waste management in the service area. This finding is in agreement with a study conducted in India which revealed that biomedical waste management practices were better among hospital staff in comparison with private medical practitioners and marginally higher among those in urban areas in comparison with those in rural areas (18). The management of healthcare waste is an integral part of a national healthcare system. The waste management system consists of all activities related to the handling, treatment, disposal, or recycling of waste materials. The purpose of a waste management system is to make sure that waste materials are removed from the source or location where they are generated and treated, disposed of, or recycled in a safe and proper manner (19). However, in this study, the multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that general hospitals were 7.537 times more likely to use safe medical wastedisposal methods than referral hospitals. Furthermore, primary hospitals, health centers, health posts, and medium clinics were 5.914, 4.335, 4.639, and 8.227 times more likely, respectively, to use safe medical wastedisposal methods than referral hospitals (Table 4). As a result, a holistic approach to healthcare
(i) Wastedisposal is as much a technical issue as a political one. For example, an elected representative, called a Corporator, administers a municipal ward, and is responsible for the general upliftment of the ward. But, generally, wastedisposal is not considered a priority issue. However, our locality, and indeed, Bangalore is just awakening to the importance of wastedisposal, and the Bangalore Agenda Task Force appointed by the State government has introduced a programme called the Swachha Bangalore. This programme involves door-to-door collection of solid waste. But, this is merely a temporary solution as the city, requires an integrated waste management system. In the main, for any programme to be successful, sufficient political and governmental backing is necessary.
The paper examines the waste management issues in the villages annexed to administrative-territorial units of the Romanian cities which have been frequently neglected by urban waste operators. The lack of waste collection services in such peri- urban communities favored the illegal wastedisposal practices particularly prior to EU accession. The extension of waste collection services from main cities to such areas is compulsory in order to mitigate the environmental risks and the public health threats. The paper estimates the amounts of household waste susceptible to be uncontrolled disposed of by peri-urban villages in different geographical areas of North-East region with a particular focus on Neamt county. The paper points out that these rural settlements should receive the same attention concerning the municipal waste management services as the main urban areas. Traditional recovery of waste fractions at the household level (e.g., home composting) should be further promoted in such areas in order to avoid illegal dumping issue and to prevent the landfill of biodegradable waste as requested by EU regulations.
Pursuant and in compliance with all of the requirements contained in the bid document entitled “Solid WasteDisposal and Recycling Services” issued by the Portsmouth School Department on August 28, 2018, the undersigned hereby offers to furnish all labor, equipment, materials, supplies, supervision and other facilities and things necessary or proper for or incidental to the performance of the requested services for the fixed prices submitted on this Pricing Proposal sheet.
There are a number of hazardous dental wastes that, when disposed improperly, could cause harm to the environment. The purpose of this document is to minimize the release of hazardous wastes to the environment by encouraging dental offices to use the "best possible practice" for waste management. The following document includes some "Best Management Practices" (BMPs) and some "Good Management Practices" (GMPs) for your office to use as a guide for hazardous wastedisposal. There are also some "Don'ts" listed to illustrate those wastedisposal practices that are prohibited. Ensuring that the hazardous wastes are managed properly in Nova Scotia is in everyone's best interest. Like our role in providing dentistry, prevention of the problem is the key. The disposal of hazardous wastes in Nova Scotia is a Government regulated process that requires the dental office team to fully understand the facts about proper waste
Purdue University is committed to providing a healthy and safe work environment for the campus community. The Purdue University Hazardous WasteDisposal Guidelines (HWDG) establishes a formal written program for the safe and compliant collection, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. The term “hazardous waste” refers to any material designated as a hazardous waste by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Hazardous waste may include, but is not limited to, undesired or outdated chemicals, spent chemical solutions, chemically contaminated debris or media, electronics devices, fluorescent lamps, and batteries. Determining if a chemical waste meets the regulatory definition of a hazardous waste can be difficult and requires specific training. Therefore, it is Purdue’s policy that all staff assumes that all chemical wastes are hazardous and must be managed by the Radiological and Environmental Management Department. Because of the technical nature of hazardous waste determination, the terms “chemical waste” and “hazardous waste” are used synonymously throughout this document.
Generally, medical waste treatment techniques fall into three categories: thermal, chemical, or irradiation. Traditional treatment methods discussed include steam sterilization and incineration. Incineration, a common and widely used method for medical wastedisposal, has been impacted by the release, last year, of the EPA's final rules governing national standards for hospital incinerators and other incinerators of hospital, medical, and/or infectious waste. Stringent emission standards have been defined for nine specific pollutants and a mandated training and qualifications program for incinerator operators has been established. Current and innovative treatment methods will be discussed with emphasis on practical, cost-effective solutions.
Abstract— This paper estimates the economic values of household preference for enhanced solid wastedisposal services in Malaysia. The contingent valuation (CV) method estimates an average additional monthly willingness-to-pay (WTP) in solid waste management charges of €0.77 to 0.80 for improved wastedisposal services quality. The finding of a slightly higher WTP from the generic CV question than that of label-specific, further reveals a higher WTP for sanitary landfill, at €0.90, than incineration, at €0.63. This suggests that sanitary landfill is a more preferred alternative. The logistic regression estimation procedure reveals that household’s concern of where their rubbish is disposed, age, ownership of house, household income and format of CV question are significant factors in influencing WTP.
We should consider here an aggregated indicator of the retrieval value of the radioactive waste at each date t . This indicator, denoted with W t is a function of three variables, all affected by significant uncertainty: W t = f ( P t , M t , Q t ) . For instance, P t represents the market value of radioactive materials contained in the radioactive waste, which is determined by changes in general economic parameters or in the nuclear industry. M t represents the state of the art in relevant technologies (the technological progress may be different when considering a radical or incremental innovation in the nuclear waste field). The last term, Q t describes the social and political factors that may also influence the value of the project, like public perception of nuclear risk, changing political climate, citizens trust in technological expertise, etc.
1. All waste chemicals must be identified by specific name or CAS number, the laboratory disposing of the waste, the principal investigator, and a contact person's name and phone number. All too often, students list only the chemical(s) they’re studying– and forget to include the solvent. This is especially important in non-aqueous solutions or in solvent-water mixtures (e.g., HPLC eluent) – the toxic risk posed by the solvent may outweigh that of the (minor) constituents of interest to the researcher. Label all bags, boxes or bottles with an indelible ink marker using a label provided by HSE. Make certain that the labels are securely fastened to the container. Mixtures should be identified as to chemical composition and concentration, using a designation such as “Nonhalogenated solvent waste: mixed organic liquids in primarily n-hexane Class 1A (flash point below 22.8C and
There is a need of incentivizing the informal sector to integrate with the formal sector. Two difficulties with incentive systems were pointed out by Terazono et al (2006), first, when the profit generated by remaining informal is larger than the incentive to become formal, the incentive system does not work; second, if illegally imported wastes are satisfactorily profitable, there is no need to collect domestic wastes. This means that international material cycles could create obstacles to the proper management of domestic E-waste. Despite these difficulties, subsidization seems to be a strong candidate solution, and all participants agreed that proper subsidies should be provided (Terazono et al., 2006).
To qualify for free collection and/or disposal of your waste you must meet the following criteria set out in the ‘Controlled Waste Regulations 1992 Schedule 1’ Part 1 The waste must be from a hereditament or premises exempted from local non-domestic rating by virtue of:
“REGULATED WASTE” means any solid or liquid waste that is hazardous because of its physical, chemical, radioactive, or biological nature. All waste that contains infectious material or which, because of its biological nature, may be harmful to humans, animals, plants, or the environment is medical/special (biohazardous) waste. This includes: waste from infectious animals, bulk human blood or blood products, infectious microbiological waste (including contaminated disposable culture dishes and disposable devices used to transfer, inoculate and mix cultures), pathological waste, sharps, and hazardous products of recombinant DNA biotechnology and genetic manipulation. Generally it means discarded material from teaching and research laboratories and operations. It does not include household or office trash, waste from Food Services, Physical Plant, bedding, litter, or manure from noninfectious animals. Definitions for terms used in this document can be found in Procedure for Disposal of Medical, Special, or Infectious Waste (page 7).