A new electrocoagulation cell consists of a horizontal spiral aluminum anode and a horizontal disc aluminum cathode was used in oil/water emulsion breaking. The cell makes an efficient use of the hydrogen bubbles evolved at the cathode to improve the floatation ability of the cell and at the same time allows the use of the anode inner surface as a heat exchanger to control temperature and also provides a large electrode area per unit volume of the cell. The effect of various operational parameters on % removal of oil was investigated. The results showed that the % removal increases with the increase in current density, initial pH in the range (3-8) and electrolyte concentration. While the % removal decreases with the increase in oil concentration.
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Background: Emulsions are thermodynamically unstable systems that can be kinetically stable by adding substances known as emulsifiers and/or thickening agents. By respect to the functional properties of gum tragacanth (GT), and its breakage probability during irradiation treatment, the major aim of this study was to investigate the stability of oil in water emulsion in the presence of different doses irradiated GT by respect to its viscosity and viscoelastic properties at constant temperature.
In the cold rolling of steel plates and the hot rolling of aluminium plates, an oil-in-water emulsion is used as the rolling oil, both as a coolant and a ﬁ re retardant. Understanding the formation mechanisms of the oil ﬁ lm that formed in a roll bite is important for controlling the lubricity and surface quality of the product. This ﬁ lm is formed by introducing oil that spreads on the rolls and strip, which is called “ plate-out ” , and by introducing oil droplets into the inlet zone. However, the effects of these two oil introduction methods on the oil ﬁlm that formed in the roll bite and the relationship between them have not yet been clari ﬁ ed. In our previous study, oil- ﬁ lm thickness was estimated from the volume of the tracer left on the strip after rolling and the proportion of the volume to that of the oil introduced. The mutual relationships between the volume of the introduced oil and the emulsion particle size, the oil concentration of the emulsion, and rolling velocity were determined. In this study, the effect of plate-out volume on the oil ﬁ lm that formed between the rolls and the strip was investigated by comparing oil- ﬁ lm thickness and plate-out volume. In addition, the behaviour of the introduction of oil droplets for various plate-out volumes was investigated by controlling the supply conditions of the oil-in-water emulsion and the velocity of rolling on a test mill. The effect of plate-out volume was found to decrease and that of oil-droplet introduction was found to increase with an increase in rolling velocity. [doi:10.2320 / matertrans.P-M2013807]
Beverage emulsions are systems that are composed of two liquids including oil and water which are prepared by homogenizing oil phase in an acidic aqueous phase. They must be stable in both concentrated and diluted form for a period of 6-12 months upon standing at room temperature. Two immiscible phases contained systems are thermodynamically unsta- ble. In other words, they are vulnerable to break down over time by different process such as flocculation, coalescence, gravitational separation, phase inversion and ostwald ripening. The rate of destabilization depends on physicochemical properties of two phases, interfacial layer characteristic and the components present in both continuous and dispersed phase. However, beverage emulsions are thermodynamically unstable; it is possible to make it ki- netically stable using an appropriate emulsifier with respect to emulsion properties, change the dispersed phase characteristic in a way that retards its upward movement. In this article, the most common factors affected on beverage oil-in-water emulsion stability are reviewed. We will also introduce some solutions to improve beverage emulsion stability.
Industrial machinery with high horsepower and high loads, such as steam turbines, centrifugal compressors, pumps and motors, utilize journal bearings as rotor supports. In this paper Load Carrying capacity of Journal Bearing is studied by considering Sommerfeld and Reynolds boundary conditions. Solution of two dimensional Reynolds equations is done using Finite difference method and graph is obtained with help of MATLAB. Experiment work is carried out for investigation of effect of water emulsion on Load Carrying Capacity of journal bearing by considering different water ratio on Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Apparatus. Experimental results are compared for effect of water emulsion on Load Carrying Capacity for same speed and load condition.
Abstract: In order to find alternatives to fossil fuels and to solve the increasing pollution problems this study was conducted to investigate the effect of water diesel emulsion fuel on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine. And the performance and emission characteristics of the diesel in water emulsion were compared to diesel fuel. Here, by using of water in diesel emulsion of characteristic of the brake thermal efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiency will be increased .And also the characteristic of the emission, the oxides of nitrogen and smoke, unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide will be reduced.
spontaneous double emulsion formation; we name these structures AWE-somes as they are water emulsion bodies. The mechanism for their formation relies on the osmotic pressure imbalance between the droplet and continuous phases. The encapsulated double emulsion structure is reminiscent of membrane-less organelles within biological cells, which comprise internal membrane-less compartments enclosed by a permeable membrane. This motivates the study of transport within the AWE-some structures. Small and large molecules can diffuse into the lumen and selectively partition to the PEG or dextran phases inside the nanoparticle and polyelectrolyte membrane. One drawback of the nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte shell is less flexible than the membrane formed by the polyelectrolyte pair. To imbue the nanoparticle decorated capsules with both flexible membranes and spontaneous multiple compartments, compound capsules are fabricated in which the continuous phase initially includes both anionic polyelectrolyte and negatively charged nanoparticles. These compound capsules have tunable flexibility and stimulus responsive properties, which are important for fortifying the capsules for various biological environments. Future studies will include the incorporation of biological molecules including DNA and proteins to demonstrate further biological functionality.
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Emulsion of waxy crude oil is one of the common states in the subsea pipeline. At low tempera- tures in offshore environment, waxy crude oils with water could form the crude oil emulsion gel of oil-in-water emulsion. Thus, the waxy crude oil emulsion viscoelastic behavior for deep sea trans- portation and restarting pipeline safety is particularly important. By means of MASIII HAAKE rheometer which is produced by German company, waxy crude oil emulsion viscoelastic behavior is explored at different volumetric water contents and different shear stresses. By analyzing the rate of change of shear rate in the initial stage, the influence rules of viscoelastic properties were summarized, with the change of volumetric water content and the applied shear stress and based on the experimental results, the law of emulsion is explained from the micro level. It is proposed that brittle fracture exists between wax crystals, and flexible fracture was found in the interaction between water droplets and wax crystals.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used as a phase change material (PCM) to create a thermo-regulating fabric. PEG-600 (Mw) was encapsulated using an in-situ polymerization technique in an oil-in water emulsion with encapsu- lating water-immiscible liquid by the reaction of urea with formaldehyde at acidic pH. Both FTIR analysis and DSC studies verified the formation of PEG microcapsules (MC). Melting temperature (Tm) of the microcapsules was found approximately 21˚C which was the same as neat PEG. The heat storage capacity of these MCs was determined to be 12.78 J/g by DSC analysis. FTIR analysis of the MCs exhibited the peaks at 3211 cm −1 , 1650 cm −1 , and 1400 cm −1 .
The water/oil system was emulsified using strong homogenizer and mixing the system at 500rpm for 15 minutes. Some of the micrographs of water in oil emulsification obtained in this way are displayed in Fig 1. The size distribution for each volume percent has been displayed in the form of histograms (Fig 2-9). These histograms indicated that the wideness of size distribution first decrease and then increases with the increase in volume percent of water and it is minima for 10 % water in oil.(38) These histograms also indicated that by increasing the volume fraction of water the instability increases and hence the equilibrium is shifted towards coalescence. The numeral values regarding number of droplets, size and clusters are listed in Table 1. The same data has also been displayed in Fig 10, while their size distribution in Fig 11(39). These figures indicated that the size was largest when the water volume percent was 25 in water-in-oil emulsion while number was highest for 15%.
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There is a novel concept which could eliminate the high dependency of the surfactant as well as the concerns towards the stability issues of the emulsion. The said concept is about producing the emulsion fuel in real-time, and directly and continuously supplied into the engine. The proposed name for the concept is real- time emulsion fuel production system (RTES). The concept of RTES is consisting of the fuel and the water which is stored in different unit. The two immiscible liquids will be transferred quantitatively and instantaneously being emulsified by a mixing system before it injected into the combustion chamber. This system is attached close to the engine fuel delivery system so that the new developed emulsion fuel made from that system is transfers instantaneously into the combustion chamber, thus the need to have emulsion with having long stability period is not necessary anymore. By implementing this concept, the presence of surfactant could be eliminated or the used of surfactant can be very minimal, plus the material that have the surfactant potential such as glycerine can be utilized only on its own. There is one patented invention  which nearly same with the concept of RTES, utilizes for burner and also diesel engine. However, no technical data or report revealed through the use of that invention on the engine/ burner (The technical details explaining the said invention is discussed in chapter 2).
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Water in diesel emulsion is often considered as an alternative fuel for IC engines in order to achieve fuel economy and pollution reduction through microexplosion phenomenon. Physical properties of the emulsion play a significant role in achieving the phenomenon of microexplosion. In this work, water in diesel emulsions was prepared containing 9%, 12%, 15% and 18% water. The emulsions were stabilized by mixing two different nonionic surfactants to get HLB values of 4.97 and 6.31. It was observed that the effect of hydrophilic and lipophilic balance value, amount of water and surfactant dosage has an impact on the stability and other characteristics of water in diesel emulsion. Surface tension of WiDE stabilized with 15% surfactant dosage was found to be increasing with increase in water content. Density of emulsions was increased with increase in water. Almost 50% reduction in sulphur was observed with WiDE compared to diesel. Stability of the emulsion was found to be increased with increase in surfactant concentration. Emulsion droplets stabilized with 15% and 18% water content with proportionate surfactant dosage was recorded lower Sauter mean diameter compared to WiDE with 9% and 12% water proportion.
2) Emulsion which consists of the surfactant preparation solution and oil was closed in test tubes. Put test tubes into constant 50 ˚C water path pot and keep it 30 min. During the constant temperature water bath, test tubes with stopper were shaved vigorously many times every 5 minutes. Make water and oil mixed fully. Put vertically test tubes into constant 50 ˚C water path pot after the oil and water to mix. Emulsifying ability was judged by observing isolated water in 90 min.
Jellose is a natural polysaccharide that is extracted from tamarind seed kernel . This natural polymer has many good properties to be a useful excipient for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products . It can used as a thickening agent, suspending agent, viscosity enhancer, emulsifying agent and more . Recently, it was reported that jellose can inhibit tyrosinase enzyme and has antioxidant activity which makes this ingredient interesting to be utilized for skin lightening in cosmeceutical products . The aim of this study was to formulate a facial serum product containing jellose as one of active ingredients, evaluate the physicochemical properties and stability, and also obtain a clinical result of product with the help of volunteers . Two types of jellose serums were developed : oil in water formula; and oil - free formula . The stability of serum was studied under
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Multicore-shell particles consisting of a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell and multiple dodecane cores have been prepared via the internal phase separation method using an oil-soluble anionic surfactant sodium 1,5-dioxo-1,5-bis(3,5,5-trimethylhexylocy)-3-((3,5,5 trimethylhexyloxy)carbonyl)pentane-2-sulfonate (TC4) and the water-soluble polycation PDADMAC in combination as a dispersant pair and studied using SEM, light microscopy, microelectrophoresis, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), and different optical tensiometry methods . TC4 stabilizes, in particular, the polymer/water interface in the presence of PDADMAC instead of the O/W interface in contrast to water-soluble surfactants . In addition, the oil–polymer interface is stabilized by TC4 which prevents coalescence of the oil droplets and leads to a multicore-shell morphology rather than particles with a single core . In contrast, this new surfactant-inspired methodology uses TC4 as an oil-soluble dispersant to anchor the otherwise non-adsorbing water-soluble cationic polyelectrolyte PDADMAC on the O/W emulsion droplets by electrostatic interaction [42,56].
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innovative method to synthesize core-shell polymeric microcapsules that do not require the creation of a double emulsion. By inducing separation between the monomer and the initiator, adding the former in the continuous aqueous phase and the latter in the dispersed hydrophobic one, the polymerization reaction does not occur within the droplet, but at the interface between the dispersed and the continuous phase. It follows that the liquid droplet acts as a template on which surface the polymeric shell can grow, producing a core- shell structure.
due to the formation of inhomogeneous emulsion. Re- lease of the drug from all the microcapsules appeared to be biphasic releasing less amount of drug in SGF and higher amount of drug in SIF. However, drug release from the matrix microcapsules in SGF was considerably less when compared with that from non-matrix micro- capsules. In addition, the drug release from matrix micro- capsules in SIF was more prolonged than that from non- matrix microcapsules and extended over a longer period of time depending on the concentration of SAL and PMMA. The release of the drug from most of the micro- capsules appeared to follow non-Fickian model. Increase in the concentration of SAL in W 1 phase and PMMA in
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Investigating the Effects of Cement and Cement Kiln Dust as a Filler on the Mechanical Properties of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), 7 (1), 2016, pp.441 – 453.
Various studies suggested the use of hypertonic inner aqueous phase to reduce (or delay) the separation of aqueous phase from w/o/w emulsions. Kawashima et al, 24 . Reportsed that entrapement percentage of solute in the internal aqueous phase is increased with in concentration of solute (glucose or sodium chloride) in the internal aqueous phase of w/o/w emulsions. Such emulsions had delayed separation of aqueous phase and lesse decrease in percentage entrapement upon storage. Mechanism of stabilization is the thickening of oil membrane. Such emulsions have high viscosity and consequently delayed flocculation and phase separation. Judicious use of osmotic additives in the internal or external aqueous phase, as demanded by the system, can be done to overcome osmotic instability. Adjustment of osmotic imbalance by addition of osmotic agents to the external aqueous phase also leads to retarded release of drug from the w/o/w emulsions 25 . Adjusting the density difference between the oil phase and the aqueous phase can reduce creaming They added lipodal ultra fluid to isopropyl myristate in order to obtain a mixture, which has density equal to that of water.
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So far, there has been considerable research indicating that copper and copper alloy corrosion can develop in multiple corrosion media such as the atmosphere, salt and even deaerated pure water [7- 9]. On the basis of a great deal of facts, it is evident that the mechanism behind the formation of copper’s diverse corrosion products is strongly dependent upon the environment. Rice  found that the corrosion rate of copper in laboratory tests was a sensitive function of the relative humidity, as well as sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ozone, hydrogen chloride and chlorine concentrations. He also observed that indoor corrosion rates obeyed normal log statistics over the field population in his study. When copper is exposed to air, the native oxide layer consisting of Cu 2 O and CuO may form in
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