In this communication, the performance of immobi- lized glyoxal bis (2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA) on Amberlite XAD-16 as a reagent phase in the development of an optical reflectance sensor for Ca(II) determination has been demonstrated. The use of the chelating properties of glyoxal bis (2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA) in a specific spot test for calcium was first reported by Goldstein and Stark-Mayer . GBHA is a highly specific Ca(II) rea- gent, widely used to determine calcium concentrations in various samples. The structural formula of GBHA is shown in Figure 1. Since routine quality control of cal- cium is required for industrial products as well as for milk and drinking watersamples, the developed sensor system was applied to the detection and quantitation of calcium in milk and watersamples.
The aim of this study was to adapt and evaluate a protocol based on multiplex PCR, which is currently used to detect leptospiral DNA in clinical samples, for environmental watersamples using two sets of primers that allow the differentiation of pathogenic from non-pathogenic species. Watersamples were collected from Nagapattinam town of may 2010. This area shows characteristics similar to slum areas in urban areas of Nagapattinam district and is home to around 5440 people. There is no basic sanitation and the water that comes from a small riverhead is stored in a reservoir that is used for the whole community. In the absence of a sewage system, the sewage is disposed directly into the environment without prior treatment. A total of 100 samples of water were collected from the water supply that is distributed to the whole community (50 different points) and from small lakes (25 different points) and surface water (25 different points) where humans and domestic and wild animals may share the risk of infection. A total of 125 mL of water was collected from each site in sterile polypropylene flasks and transported in an icebox to the laboratory. The samples were kept at 4ºC and processed within 24 h.
For 234 U the activity concentration varies between 3.88 and 160.13 mBq l − 1 . The 234 U/ 238 U ratio varies between 0.95 and 1.74. Generally the springs present higher uranium concentration than the deep wells, except of the Apollonia spring, which has shown the lowest value of 0.15 mg l − 1 . Our re- sults are in agreement with other investigators. Labidi et al. , measured uranium isotopes in thermo-mineral water springs in Tunisia and they found that the 234 U activity concentration varies between 1.1 and 82.2 mBq l − 1 and that the 238 U concentration varies between 1.5 and 42.7 mBq l − 1 . However, values are general higher than the concentrations of 238 U and 234 U in drink- ing waters in Greece. Kehagia et al.  found that 238 U and 234 U in the drinking watersamples in Greece ranges from 0.91 to 17.27 mBq l − 1 and
in the Seismic Fluid Laboratory of the Institute of Earth- quake Science, China Earthquake Administration, with the reproducibility within ± 2 %. The CO 2− 3 and HCO − 3 concen- trations were measured by the standard titration procedures with a ZDJ 100 potentiometric titrator (reproducibility within ± 2 %). For calibrating the chromatography, standard sam- ples were measured before and after measuring each batch of watersamples. Deviation of the measurements is within ± 2 %. The data were evaluated by the ion balance (ib), cal- culated according to Eq. (1) (Woith et al., 2013):
The step of Pb separation from alkaline earth elements as PbS precipitate in the method could also be used to simplify the procedure for 210 Pb deter- mination in soil if the reliable results could be conﬁrmed. For the purpose of quality control, reference material IAEA-315 Marine Sediment supplied by the IAEA was analyzed to check the recommended procedure. The ref- erence material of about 2 g was leached based on the procedure given in the literature , and the obtained leachate was analyzed following the procedure for watersamples. The precision was evaluated by the relative standard deviation obtained from a set of six analyses. The accuracy was assessed by the term of relative bias, which reﬂects the diﬀerence between the experimental mean and recommended value of the 210 Pb activity con-
Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a destructive, invasive species in North America that have widespread negative impacts on ecosystems [24–26]. Management of this species can be challenging when abundance is low, either at the tail end of an eradication effort or in the beginning stages of an invasion process. Successful management of wild pigs requires detection and elimination of individuals before they increase in numbers and spread into new areas [25, 27, 28]. Wild pigs spend time drinking or wallowing in water [25, 29] to thermoregulate and to provide relief from insects and parasites [30–32]. We developed an assay that effectively captures eDNA shed by pigs in tur- bid freshwater . Application of this assay for surveil- lance of wild pigs requires sampling from turbid waters (i.e., wallows) under often unfavorable field conditions. Collection of these types of samples needs to be inten- sive to reach sufficiently large sample sizes needed for detection of wild pigs when abundance is low [7, 34, 35]. Any efficiencies realized in the field, such as eliminat- ing the need to filter each sample or cold chain storage, will reduce the burden on sampling efforts and increase the efficiency of detection surveys. Our goal was to test the effectiveness of Longmire’s solution for preserv- ing unfiltered watersamples containing eDNA. Further, we wanted to assess the appropriate volume of Long- mire’s solution to add to a 15 mL water sample known
Water is indispensable natural resource on the earth. With urbanization, chance of deterioration in quality of water is enhanced. Poor water quality is major threat to environment and inhabitants. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study water quality parameters of different watersamples collected at different location of Batala city. Parameter to assess water quality are Colour, taste, odour ,total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, electrical conductivity to verify whether water is potable or not. Emphasized was given to compare experimental data with bureau of Indian Standard(BIS) and WHO Standard. The study is concluded by saying that the avoidance of industrial and domestic effluent in ground water, definitely help in checking water pollution. For the maintenance of clean water, suitable methods are proposed to control water pollution like use of alum or ion exchange method
Phosphate and nitrate determinations are important in assessing the potential biological productivity of surface waters. Increasing concentration of phosphorous and nitrogen compounds in lakes and reservoirs leads to eutrophification. All the samples in the present study had iron, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia and phosphorous levels within the permissible limits of BIS (1991) guidelines. Studies of Nirmala et al. (2013) have reported the iron of selected ground watersamples of Tumkur district, Karnataka in the range of 0.3 to 1.0 mg/l and nil phosphate. Total Dissolved solids (TDS) of water refers to the inorganic salts and organic matter present in water which may be due to the presence of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonates, hydrogen carbonate and ions of chloride, sulfate and nitrate (WHO,1996). Total dissolved solids content of all the watersamples tested in the present study were within the permissible limits BIS (1991) guidelines. A high value of TDS reduces water quality for drinking, irrigation and agricultural purposes (WHO, 1996). Increase in TDS is mainly due to sea water intrusion and increase in salts (Mittal et al., 1994).
A novel chemosensor for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium (II) in watersamples was proposed. OHPTU was used to determine cadmium (II) in very trace levels in the current study using absorption and fluorescence quenching studies. The activators and surfactants used in the study enhanced the sensitivity of the developed method. The Stern- Volmer plots indicate efficient fluorescence quenching and the statistical analysis proves that there is close concordance between the proposed and the standard AAS methods. Therefore, the method is simple, fairly selective with good sensitivity and was applied to determine cadmium in wide variety of samples. Application studies of the chemosensor to various other metals ions are in progress along with a portable hand held device for onsite monitoring.
A set of 52 runoff watersamples were collected from a commercial row crop agricultural production farm (CLRF) located in Craighead County, AR, and two watersheds in the vicinity of the farm located in Little River Ditches Basin (LRDB), Mississippi County, and Lower St. Francis Basin (LSFB), Poinsett County, AR with total area of 461 ha, 5,340 ha, and 2,335 ha, respectively. Associated land area was planted in cotton, rice, and soybeans. In the CLRF site, grab watersamples were collected from two ditches draining the production area during the growing season between 25 May 2016 and 25 August 2016. Ditches served as feeder canals supplying water to a tail water recovery irrigation system. In both LRDB and LSFB sites, each had five in stream water quality monitoring stations where watersamples were collected weekly from 6 April 2017 to 23 May 2017. Watersamples were collected during early crop growing season to obtain different ranges of NO 3 -N levels in the field. Samples were from discharge events involving precipitation, irrigation, and irrigated field draw down and immediately stored on ice for transport to the laboratory. Watersamples were filtered with 0.45-µm cellulose acetate syringe filters within 24 h prior to chemical analyses. Watersamples were analyzed for NO 3 -N by VCl 3 reduction procedure as described above at the Water Quality Research Laboratory, Delta Water Management Research Unit (DWMRU), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Services (ARS), Jonesboro, AR, and the cadmium reduction standard method  at the Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Arkansas State University. To avoid temporal changes of NO 3 -N concentrations in watersamples over time, watersamples were analyzed using both methods within 24 hours of sampling.
Electrochemically fabricated nano Au-CRV film modified GCE successfully employed for the detection of As (III) using CV and DPV. The proposed film overcomes the interference effects and shows only the As (III) detection signals at the stipulated conditions. The nano Au-CRV film successfully employed for the detection of As (III) in the micro molar concentration ranges in the real drinking watersamples such like, river water, spring water and tap watersamples. The proposed film will be a promising method for the detection of As (III) in electroanalysis and this method could be utilized for the detection of As (III) in the lab and real samples along with verification of other analytical techniques.
The optimised pump speed has been selected based on the peak shape (Table 3). In Figure 15 the number of peaks in each analysis corresponds to the number of sample injections. In the two slowest analyses, only one sample has been analysed, in those that are faster two or three samples have been injected. One can see that the best peaks are in analyses (v) and (vi). Peaks are high, narrow and there is no fronting as in the first four analyses (sample peak with fronting has been highlighted by a blue circle in the first two spectrograms). Based on the optimisation results the best pump speed has been set as 11.0.
due to the use of COD and TSS comes from the use of a non-biodegradable surfactant with dirt and oil including both organic and inorganic compounds during car washing are more than in laundry wastewater. The low suspended solids concentration in the laundry wastewater and textile industrial wastewater has indicated that a large portion of the contaminants in the dissolved form and contribute higher values of TDS . Cosmetic industrial wastewater effluent has higher values of AS which have above 1500 mg∙L −1 ,. This is due to the large amount of AS has been used in cosmetic industry as an emulsion of formulation techniques which a surface active agent and it is specifically for preservation storage properties . Many countries have listed AS in permission range in their country. For example, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the anionic detergent limit of drinking water is under 0.2 mg∙L −1 . Meanwhile, the European Union wastewater quality criteria have the reference level of as methylene blue active agents which is at ≤0.3 mg∙L −1 . AS is not listed in permission range of
water molecules present in KBr, respectively. The FT-IR spectrum of phenylalanine shown in Fig. 2b shows a series of bands recorded at 1074 and 700 cm -1 which are ascribed to vibration modes of phenyl groups. The small appeared peak at around 3600 cm -1 is ascribed to the stretching vibration of
Tables 4a-c also show the mean pH values for the well water, borehole water and soil samples during the different seasons respectively. Their values also fell within the WHO limits of between 6.5 – 8.5 and were within the neutral to alkaline range (6.31 – 7.81). This also supports the growth of most pathogenic organisms (Linton and Dick, 1990). According to Pavoni et al. (1975), in the first 2-5 days of composting, the pH drop to 5.0 or less and then increases to about 8.5 for the remaining aerobic activities in the compost. Some samples however, showed mild acidity due to the aerobic decomposition of the organic matter in the refuse. This decomposition leads to the formation of carbonic acids which enters the soil through leachate formation to reduce the soil pH and cause acidity. Temperature and pH therefore, are important properties which determine the quality and quantity (load) of microorganisms in the water and soil (Edward, 1990; Eze et al., 2013). The other physico-chemical characteristics of well water, borehole water and soil samples studied are shown in Tables 4a-c. The mean concentration values of all the parameters were within the acceptable limits when compared to the control and WHO standards for drinking water, for the borehole watersamples apart from lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) at dry seasons, which showed moderately high concentrations above the WHO permissible limits.
Watersamples were collected from along Oshin river which is the main source of water for irrigation, at both upstream and downstream of Phase II and III. While the ground watersamples were randomly collected for the groundwater quality assessment within the irrigation field. The watersamples was collected in a clean 1.0 liter plastic bottle after being properly rinsed and label, it was iced packed and transported to the laboratory for analysis. Physical parameters tested for are pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were immediately determined on the field using a potable multipurpose probe meter. The chemical analysis was carried out on nine major parameters which were, Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Iron (Fe), Nitrate (NO 3 ), Sulphate (SO 4 ), and Bicarbonates (HCO 3 )
The watersamples were collected from the bore wells in and around Malaiyeedu area. During this collection the distance between one and other location was maintained at a minimum of 2 km. The watersamples were collected in polyethylene bottles (2.0 liters capacity) which have been thoroughly washed, filled with distilled water and then taken to the sampling site. The bottles were emptied and rinsed several times with the water to be collected. Also, the sample bottles were partially filled with the collected water and vigorously shaken to note the odour. The sample bottles were tightly covered immediately after collection and the temperature is noted. They were then stored in a refrigerator at 4 o C to slow down bacterial and chemical reaction rates. All the collected of samples were labeled and transported to the laboratory for the analysis. The samples were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. All the parameters were analyzed using standard procedure of APHA (1995).
Abstract: Fluoride naturally occurring in ground water and surface water is known to be potent to cause serious dental and skeletal fluorosis in areas where water contains much more than the required amount of fluoride. Aim of this study was to relate the presence of fluoride in water with fresh water fishes of the corresponding aquatic body from which watersamples were collected. Three species of fishes Etroplus suratensis (Pearl spot), Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia), and Anabas testudineus (Climbing perch) were analyzed for fluoride. The samples of fishes and the watersamples from where fish was caught were collected from July 2012, October 2012 and January 2013 from the surface fresh water sources of Alappuzha Town. A mean fluoride (n=9) concentration of 0.051±0.01 (mean±SD), 0.042±0.02 and 0.035±0.02 were shown by the watersamples collected in July, October and January respectively. Though fluoride is present in the watersamples at a very low concentration, there is considerable fluoride content in the fish samples collected from the same water source. The accumulation of fluoride by fishes was found to be highly variable with respect to species and month. E. suratensis had accumulated 4.071±0.71 ppm fluoride in July, 274.29±2.54 ppm in October and 2.35±0.42 ppm in January. O. mossambicus was estimated to contain 18.14±0.95, 23.33±1.05 and 12.195±1.22 ppm fluoride in July, Oct and Jan respectively. No fluoride was detected in A. testudineus samples collected in October, whereas it accumulated 6.695±0.43 and 28.18±2.01 ppm fluoride in July and January respectively.
Wet soil or feces samples of approximately 5 gm were collected from a depth of 3 cm, and 50ml watersamples were collected from different sources. Soil or fecal sample was suspended in 20 ml of sterile double-distilled water (D/W) in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes. After being shaken manually for 60 s, the suspension was centrifuged at 600 xg for 5 min at 4°C to pellet the soil particles. The turbid supernatant (10 ml) was transferred
In 20 districts of Krasnoyarsk region, drink- ing water in certain years (2011-2015) shows hardness index > 10 mEq/l, the proportion of drinking watersamples with hardness > 10 mEq/l varies in Krasnoyarsk region within 2.5... 4.7%, while the number of people consuming drinking water with a hardness > 10 mEq/l makes 0.3 ... 0.7% of the total region population. The authors recorded violation of hygienic standards as per such parameters as iron (cases of iron content at the level of 1.8 mg/dm 3 or 6MPC were fixed); fluorine (up to 6MPC); ammonia and ammonium nitrogen (up to 2MPC), nitrates (up to 5 MPC); organochlorine compounds (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride – to 5MPC), manganese (up to 5.5MPC), aluminum (up to 2MPC). Such carcino- gens as benzo(a)pyrene, cadmium, arsenic, nickel in significant concentrations were detected in wa- ter. A violation of hygienic standards has been not- ed in terms of lead in Lesosibirsk, Norilsk, Yemel- yanovsk areas.