The present study revealed the demographic history of A. thaliana at the global level of its natural habitats and indicates that the YangtzeRiver population is a unique population that diverged 61,409 years ago and expanded recently to the YangtzeRiverbasin. This knowledge is a great opportunity to address how plants adapt to the di- verse habitats in natural environments. We found that biological regulation processes, such as flowering time, immune and defense response processes could be im- portant in this adaptation process. Particularly, SVP LOF mutation has been under positive selection and is nearly fixed in the YangtzeRiver population. Given that SVP is an important gene to allow plants to respond to ambient temperature changes in the context of global climate change , it must play an important role in the adap- tation of the plant to the YangtzeRiverbasin, the most south-eastern of A. thaliana’ s native habitats. Consist- ently, during the range expansion of an invasive plant Lythrum salicaria , earlier flowering is important for the adaptation . Many more studies are necessary to re- veal the genetic basis of adaptation; for example, further analyses of the genes under positive selection in this study will be insightful for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation, mapping another QTL on chromo- somes 5, and characterizing the mechanism behind the flowering time variation between the two accessions (3-2 and 29-8). In addition, given that we found that there are gene flows between popN and popY at two different periods (Fig. 2a), it would be intriguing to know to what extent these gene flows have contributed to adaptation. Overall, this study greatly progresses our understanding of the adaptation in plants by exploring the genetic vari- ations and adaptation of the worldwide samples of A. thaliana .
among the populations (P<0.001). The population pairs (15%) with moderate values were interestingly located in same geographical sector which indicates ongoing restricted gene flow facilitated by unusual floodgate opening during flood season (Wang et al., 2006) or human mediated processes. Despite the frequent floods before the construction of dams which imply frequent gene flow among fragmented populations, the results suggest that dojo loach in the YangtzeRiverbasin habitats are differentiated at a significant level. Our data reinforce the previously reported genetic differentiation between various populations of Japanese M. anguillicaudatus (Khan & Arai, 2000). Japanese loach was significantly differentiated into three geographical groups and this differentiation among different localities was suggested to be at inter-species or inter-subspecies level (Arai, 2003). In our study, maximum differentiation was demonstrated by ESH samples, particularly from those of WHN (middle mainstream sub-basin), SZH (Hanjiang Sub-basin) and ZIG. These results came up to the prediction based upon the demographic configuration of the populations. Geographical distance with physical and environmental barriers in between, may keep these populations reproductively isolated from each other. Moreover, reproductive habits of the loach, adaptability to local environment, nonmigratory
Genetic diversity were detected at different levels. Morphology method was the initial detection of genetic diversity that people are starting. Molecular biology method and molecular cloning techniques has brought a series of more direct approach of genetic diversity from 1980s. Currently, DNA analysis, any genome and any DNA fragment, had become the most effective method of genetic diversity analysis. In this study, ERIC-PCR analysis well reflected the genetic diversity of strains isolated from cotton soil of YangtzeRiverBasin in genome-wide angle. The ERIC-PCR results showed that all tested strains were been together at 0.83 of Watson distance, and clustered into nine groups at 0.65 of Watson distance. ERIC-PCR fingerprints from the different strains were significantly different.
contributor to the massive decline in TWS in the middle and lower Yangtze reaches. Ding et al. (2008) pointed out that the recent change in the summer rainfall pattern in the YangtzeRiver is strongly related to the vari- ability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) through its moisture transport and supply. Zhu et al. (2011) stated that the eastward recession of the western Pacific subtropi- cal high (WPSH) and the significant changes in the global SST are the main causes of the rainfall deficit in the YangtzeRiverbasin since the year 2000. Yan et al. (2007) and Liu et al. (2007) documented that the intensification and west- ward shift of the WPSH and the easterly anomaly over the northern Indian Ocean are two key causes of the 2005-spring drought over southwestern China. The northward shift of the WPSH and the negative snow cover anomaly over the Ti- betan Plateau are important contributors to the 2006-summer drought (Zhu and Gao, 2007; Li et al., 2009). The extreme drought event of 2009/2010 over southwestern China is as- sociated with the westward extension of the WPSH brought about by the Arabian Sea cyclonic anomaly and the El Nino Modoki event during 2009/2010.
Hydrological events should be described through several correlated variables, so multivariate HFA has gained popularity and become an active research field during recent years. However, at present multivariate HFA mainly focuses directly on fitting the frequency distribution without confirming whether the assumptions are satisfied. Neglecting testing these assumptions could get severely wrong frequency distribution. This paper uses multivariate Mann-Kendal testing to detect the multivariate trends of annual flood peak and annual maximum 15 day volume for four control hydrological stations in the Upper YangtzeRiverBasin. Results indicate that multivariate test could detect the trends of joint variables, whereas univariate tests can only detect the univa- riate trends. Therefore, it is recommended to jointly apply univariate and multivariate trend tests to capture all the existing trends.
1) Product production. Create a production platform based on automatic embedding of templates, and design templates for partition blocks to be edited and automatically imported and interactively produced. After the production is started, the automatic insertion of the label content is realized, the data chart generated by the automatic statistics is embedded, the corresponding statistical text and the production time are inserted; before the product is saved, the prod- uct can be edited, and the corresponding text and chart can be freely added. It can also provide a preview of the effect of the product; provide key information prompts (mainly the weather tips of the main focus) for interactive production and storage, and the corresponding information can be referenced on the first page of the system or by other system pages; You can add service products as needed, and set up thresholds to monitor and alert the product. For example, af- ter a production and forecast of the “YangtzeRiverBasin Weather Bulletin”, af- ter the production is started, the system extracts data from the CIMISS library, automatically generates a live description text of the rain, automatically gene- rates a map of imported live precipitation and basin surface rainfall, and auto- matically imports it. After the correction of the 3-day precipitation and the basin surface rainfall forecasting speckle map, the forecaster’s work is only for editing the 3-day forecast text description and information collation task. At present, the YangtzeRiver Valley Meteorological Center has announced the “YangtzeRiverBasin Weather Bulletin”, “YangtzeRiverBasin Forecast”, “YangtzeRiverBasin Rainfall Forecast”, “YangtzeRiverBasin Rainstorm Express”, “YangtzeRiver Flood Control and Drought Emergency Meteorological Service Materials”, etc.
The location of the middle and lower reaches of YangtzeRiverbasin and the weather stations are depicted in Fig. 1. There are 78 stations located in the study area and 49 stations in the around buffer zone 100km out of the study area boundary. The daily precipitation data of 127 stations used in this study are provided by China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System (http://cdc.nmic.cn), covering the period between 1960 and 2014. Data quality has been checked before they were used for calculation of PCD and PCP. The seasonality of rainfall and the changing trend of annual rainfall in this area are shown in Fig.2. Besides, according to Zhang et al. (2004), in early 1990s, there were obvious jump points for the trends of PCD and PCP based on the M-K test. Thus, we also separate the whole period into two sub-periods 1960 to 1989 and 1990 to 2014, for the purpose of the following comparison and transition analysis.
The close connections between the warmest years and high frequency of floods are worthy of attention. Con- nections between temperature, precipitation and dis- charge of the YangtzeRiverbasin indicate that discharge changes are in fine agreement with precipitation. If seen from annual changes, good agreement also happened to temperature, precipitation and discharge . Severe precipitation events are among the most devastating weather phenomena since they are frequently followed by flash floods and other sever weather conditions such as hail . It is widely accepted that variability of fre- quency and intensity of extreme climatic events are likely to exert much more impact on nature and human society than that from the mean climatic value . Changes of extreme climatic events and their possible influences on human society are receiving increasing concerns from hydrologists and meteorologists of the world [14-16]. As for the extreme precipitation changes in the YangtzeRiverbasin, Zhang et al.,  analyzed the spatial distribution and trends in the frequency of precipitation extremes during 1960-2003 using daily precipitation data from 147 stations in the YangtzeRiverbasin with the help of Mann-Kendall trend analysis and IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted) interpolation tech- nology with Arcview package. The definition of the ex-
Spinibarbus caldwelli was an endemic species to China, and its germplasm protection and resources utilization had become more and more concerned. To know its genetic diversity and differentiation, the mitochondrial DNA D-loop was amplified and sequenced for 148 individuals from four regions of Pearl River and YangtzeRiverBasin. Altogether 9 variable nucleotide sites existed among the aligned sequences of 748 bp, and 8 haplotypes were found within 148 individuals. The average nucleotide diversity (Pi) was high 0.00297, while haplotype diversity (Hd) was 0.706. The average genetic dis- tance was 0.00298, most value occurred between LJ and CL populations, and small value occurred between HJ and QZ populations.
Since carrying out the strategies of Western Development and Central Rising, several key economic zones planned later brought an unprecedented policy dividend to YangtzeRiver economic belt. Since June 2005, the State Council approved the Pudong New Area for the comprehensive reform pilot, the state distributed four comprehensive reform pilot areas in the YangtzeRiverBasin, Chengdu, Chongqing, Wuhan city circle as well as Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan city group, and another four state-level development zone planning, coastal area of Jiangsu Province, Wanjiang City zone, Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone and Zhoushan new dis- trict. In September 2014, the State Council promulgated Guidance of the State Council on promoting the devel- opment of the YangtzeRiver economic belt on the golden waterway and the integrated three-dimensional trans- port corridor planning in YangtzeRiver economic belt. Under the superposition of a variety of national macroe- conomic policies, the YangtzeRiver economic belt will be able to enjoy the support of state from many aspects. Therefore, to strengthen the positioning and planning of port neighboring economy alone YangtzeRiver using the advantage of the policy, integrate various elements, and make port neighboring economy play an effective role, then the regional competitiveness of YangtzeRiver economic belt will be increasingly prominent.
Abstract. This paper investigates the single and combined impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pa- cific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on precipitation and stream- flow in China over the last century. Results indicate that the precipitation and streamflow overall decrease during El Niño/PDO warm phase periods and increase during La Niña/PDO cool phase periods in the majority of China, al- though there are regional and seasonal differences. Precip- itation and streamflow in the Yellow Riverbasin, YangtzeRiverbasin and Pearl Riverbasin are more significantly in- fluenced by El Niño and La Niña events than is precipita- tion and streamflow in the Songhua Riverbasin, especially in October and November. Moreover, significant influence of ENSO on streamflow in the YangtzeRiver mainly oc- curs in summer and autumn while in the Pearl River influ- ence primarily occurs in the winter and spring. The precipi- tation and streamflow are relatively greater in the warm PDO phase in the Songhua Riverbasin and several parts of the Yel- low Riverbasin and relatively less in the Pearl Riverbasin and most parts of Northwest China compared to those in the cool PDO phase, though there is little significance de- tected by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. When considering the combined influence of ENSO and PDO, the responses of precipitation/streamflow are shown to be opposite in north- ern China and southern China, with ENSO-related precipita- tion/streamflow enhanced in northern China and decreased
tion/moisture flux anomaly and Y 0 is the predicted counter- parts. Here, the 95 % (90 %) significance level is 0.33 (0.22) for AC according to a two-tailed Student’s t-test. Figure 1 gives an example of the potential predictability calculation at a grid near Wuhan, where ensemble member 1 was taken as the truth and the mean of members 2–24 was the prediction. The result shows that moisture flux has a higher predictability (AC) than precipitation at 0.5- and 1.5-month leads for mem- ber 1. This method was repeated 24 times, with each member being considered the observation, so as to obtain 24 AC val- ues; the average of these 24 values was the final estimate of the potential predictability. In addition to the calculation for individual grid cells, the AC value was also calculated by us- ing both spatial and temporal samples for the YangtzeRiverbasin with 72 CFSv2 grid cells. Here, an AC higher than 0.05 would be considered significant at the 95 % confidence level, both for ENSO events and the entire period. The rationale for this “perfect model” approach is that the statistical character- istics of the “observation” (one of the ensemble members) and the prediction (ensemble mean of the remaining mem- bers) are the same, so the estimate of potential predictability is not affected by model biases (Koster et al., 2004; Kumar et al., 2014).
Abstract: Climate change is a global issue that draws widespread attention from the international society. As an important component of the climate system, the water cycle is directly affected by climate change. Thus, it is very important to study the influences of climate change on the basin water cycle with respect to maintenance of healthy rivers, sustainable use of water resources, and sustainable socioeconomic development in the basin. In this study, by assessing the suitability of multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) and Automated Statistical Downscaling model (ASD) were used to generate future climate change scenarios. These were then used to drive distributed hydrologic models (Variable Infiltration Capacity, Soil and Water Assessment Tool) for hydrological simulation of the YangtzeRiver and Yellow River basins, thereby quantifying the effects of climate change on the basin water cycle. The results showed that suitability assessment adopted in this study could effectively reduce the uncertainty of GCMs, and that statistical downscaling was able to greatly improve precipitation and temperature outputs in global climate mode. Compared to a baseline period (1961–1990), projected future periods (2046–2065 and 2081– 2100) had a slightly decreasing tendency of runoff in the lower reaches of the YangtzeRiverbasin. In particular, a significant increase in runoff was observed during flood seasons in the southeast part. However, runoff of the upper Yellow Riverbasin decreased continuously. The results provide a reference for studying climate change in major river basins of China.
Yichang station sample entropy calculation results shown in Figure 4(a). It can be seen that the entropy of the sample in Yichang station before the 1990s showed an upward trend, and there was a large fluctuation after the 1990s. Analysis of the reasons and found that this and 1994, 2004 and 2006, the major drought occurred. Due to the occurrence of drought, the trend of sample entropy in 1990s was seriously changed. In 2006, the drought in the YangtzeRiverBasin and the integrated water storage function of the Three Gorges Reservoir made the annual runoff of Yichang station the lowest value, leading to the emergence of the large sample entropy (0.38). It can be seen that under the combined action of human activities and meteorological and environmental conditions, the uncertain components of runoff series are obviously increased, and the structure of runoff series is changed to a certain extent, which makes the complexity of runoff increase.
Mean annual precipitation in the YangtzeRiverbasin is about 1070 mm and mean annual river discharge is ∼ 976 km 3 , equivalent to a specific discharge of 542 mm. An- nual per capita water availability decreased from 2700 m 3 in 1980 to 2100 m 3 in 2005. Previous studies (Zhang et al., 2006, 2008; Jiang et al., 2007) show that there has not been a significant change in annual precipitation but an increase in the number of extreme (10th percentile) precipitation events is observed (Su et al., 2008). Greater variability in precip- itation has intensified floods and prolonged droughts. Spa- tial and seasonal changes in precipitation have also been ob- served. Increased precipitation has been detected in middle and lower reaches of the YangtzeRiver in summer whereas a decrease in precipitation is observed in the upper reaches of the basin near the Three Gorges Dam site in autumn (Xu et al., 2008). Although no significant trend was detected for annual runoff in the YangtzeRiverbasin during 1961–2000, a significant positive trend in flood discharges was found in the middle and lower basin over the same period.
Abstract. This study assesses the temporal behaviour in terms of inter-decadal variability of extreme daily rainfall of stated return period relevant for hydrologic risk analysis using a novel regional parametric approach. The assessment is carried out based on annual maximum daily rainfall series of 180 meteorological stations of YangtzeRiverBasin over a 50-year period (1961–2010). The outcomes of the analysis reveal that while there were effects present indicating higher quantile values when estimated from data of the 1990s, it is found not to be noteworthy to exclude the data of any decade from the extreme rainfall estimation process for hydrologic risk analysis.
Shaoxing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou and so on. In addition, the main port of Shanghai is the harbor, but also includes the YangtzeRiver Port (Waigaoqiao), Wusongkou Port, Huangpu river port and inland river port area. Nantong and Yancheng are both building harbors (such as Dafeng, Lvsi, Yangkou, etc.). YangtzeRiver port is one of the largest port density in China, 400 kilometers below the YangtzeRiver in Nanjing, on both sides of the coastline of 800 kilometers, more in all directions of the inland waterway network. At present, the YangtzeRiver Delta port group has nearly a thousand large coastal productive berths, of which more than 10,000 tons of berths of the port about 425, with superior river shipping conditions and unobstructed conditions, responsible for regional and national foreign trade import and export of materials and energy, production transportation of raw materials, but also the main port of foreign transport of the YangtzeRiver.”The YangtzeRiver Delta port economic situation and situation analysis report in 2010”of the Shanghai Port Management Committee shows that in 2010 the YangtzeRiver Delta port cargo throughput of 33.65 billion tons, an increase of 14%, accounting for 38.5% of the country. Among the 22 billion tons of large ports, the ports in the YangtzeRiver Delta account for 9 ports, respectively are Shanghai Port, Ningbo-Zhoushan Port, Suzhou Port, Nantong Port, Nanjing Port, Lianyungang Port, Huzhou Port, Jiangyin Port and Zhenjiang Port. YangtzeRiver Delta port throughput continued to maintain high growth for many years,its has the growing role to services the YangtzeRiverBasin, serve the country and promote regional economic development. YangtzeRiver Delta port development to the YangtzeRiver Delta region's strong economic development as the basis, according to forecasts, before the 2020 years, the YangtzeRiver Delta port group direct hinterland, namely Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai’s GDP growth will be 7% -10%, only the immediate hinterland of the near-mid-term port demand will be more than 20 million tons, and the port's existing capacity compared to there is still a big gap. Therefore, with the economic globalization and the development of information technology, the competition pressure of the enterprise is more and more big. The traditional concept of competition can not meet the needs of enterprises’ development, and must take the road of cooperation between enterprises and the same industry--integration. The YangtzeRiver Delta port of a certain core competitiveness of the opponents together to seek a common development, which has become the mainstream of the times.
On the other hand, the increasing anthropogenic activities in river drainage basin, are significantly changing the con- tinuum of land-sea interaction inter-linked by rivers [16,17]. For instance, river damming and eutrophication are widely regarded as the most remarkable and extensive changing events [18,19]. Environment changes (e.g. catch- ment landscape, water quality) can be recorded in riverine carbon inventory, which is closely related to the terrestrial ecosystem . As a result, over-saturation of dissolved CO 2 in rivers may be misestimated if the estimation is made based on a specific temporal and spatial scale. Hence, we need to look into some historical data from Changjiang for a new understanding in the river geochem- istry.
About a dozen recently recognizable species of Pantosteus were described between 1854 and 1938. Baird and Girard (1854) described Catostomus ple- beius from the Rio Grande drainage, New Mexico, and Catostomus clarkii from the Gila River drainage, Arizona. Girard (1856) added C. guzmaniensis (a synonym of C. (P.) plebeius) from Mexico. Cope (1872) described Catos- tomus discobolus from the Green River, Wyoming. Cope (1874) described Minomus platyrhynchus from the Bonneville Basin, Utah, and Minomus yar- rowii from the Zuni River, New Mexico. He then erected the genus Pantosteus for these forms in Cope and Yarrow (1875); the type species was Minomus platyrhynchus. Cope (in Cope and Yarrow1875) also described Pantosteus vi- rescens, a large mountain sucker based on a single specimen (with erroneous locality data) determined by Snyder (1924) to be from the Weber River, in the northern Bonneville drainage, Utah. Garman (1881) described Catosto- mus nebuliferus from the Rio Nazas, Mexico, and Evermann (1893) described Pantosteus jordani from the Missouri drainage, South Dakota. Eigenmann and Eigenmann (1893) described Pantosteus columbianus from the Snake River drainage, Idaho, and Hubbs and Schultz (1932) described the same species as Catostomus syncheilus from the Columbia Riverbasin, Washington. Rut- ter (1903) described Pantosteus lahontan from the Lahontan Basin, Nevada. Snyder (1908) described Pantosteus santa-anae from Los Angeles, Califor- nia, and also reviewed (1915, 1924) previous work on the genus and clarified species synonyms, distributions, and relationships. Tanner (1932) described Notolepidomyzon utahensis (=C. P. clarkii) from the Virgin River, Utah, and in 1942 described N. intermedius (=C. P. clarkii) from the neighboring White River Valley, Nevada.
Major problem areas are: (1) There are at least 16 types of hyperpycnal flows (e.g., density flow, underflow, high-density hyperpycnal plume, high-turbid mass flow, tide-modulated hyperpycnal flow, cyclone-induced hyperpycnal turbidity current, multi-layer hyperpycnal flows, etc.), without an underpinning principle of fluid dynamics. (2) The basic tenet that river currents transform into turbidity currents at plunge points near the shoreline is based on an experiment that used fresh tap water as a standing body. In attempting to understand all density plumes, such an experimental result is inapplicable to marine waters (sea or ocean) with a higher density due to salt content. (3) Published velocity measurements from the Yellow River mouth, a classic area, are of tidal currents, not of hyperpycnal flows. Importantly, the presence of tidal shear front at the Yellow River mouth limits seaward transport of sediments. (4) Despite its popularity, the hyperpycnite facies model has not been validated by laboratory experiments or by real-world empirical field data from modern settings. (5) The presence of an erosional surface within a single hyperpycnite depositional unit is antithetical to the basic principles of stratigraphy. (6) The hypothetical model of “ extrabasinal turbidites ” , deposited by river-flood triggered hyperpycnal flows, is untenable. This is because high-density turbidity currents, which serve as the conceptual basis for the model, have never been documented in the world ’ s oceans. (7) Although plant remains are considered a criterion for recognizing hyperpycnites, the “ Type 1 ” shelf-incising canyons having heads with connection to a major river or estuarine system could serve as a conduit for transporting plant remains by other processes, such as tidal currents. (8) Genuine hyperpycnal flows are feeble and muddy by nature, and they are confined to the inner shelf in modern settings. (9) Distinguishing criteria of ancient hyperpycnites from turbidites or contourites are muddled. (10) After 65 years of research since Bates (AAPG Bulletin 37: 2119 – 2162, 1953), our understanding of hyperpycnal flows and their deposits is still incomplete and without clarity.