Top PDF A Survey on Wireless Body Area Network

A Survey on Wireless Body Area Network

A Survey on Wireless Body Area Network

Sensing and monitory digital devices that an individual can wear on the body and are based on wireless technology are already in existence. There can be in the form of smart cloth or bandages which allows the continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels, blood pressure and other biometric data Wearable biosensors are the non-obstructive devices that helps to overcome the limitations of ambulatory technology and also provide a fast and energetic response to the need of monitoring patients over a long period of time and it works even in a distant area. We will like to start with the already existing sensors, basically there are two types of sensors which are the wearable sensors and the implanted sensor both type of sensor biological device which as a physiochemical transducer used to produce an electronic signal which is equal to a single analysis which is transmitted a to a detector. These sensors are been designs with respect to the fact that the outcome must be improved while the cost and bulkiness of the sensor are reduce. The real world physiological data gotten from the sensor is being sent wirelessly to the internet which is then forwarded to the doctor so this helps in the optimization of the well being of the patient’s wellness by making the medical progress better and easier in the collection and analysis of the patient data.
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Recent Research on Wireless Body Area Networks : A Survey

Recent Research on Wireless Body Area Networks : A Survey

Froehle et.al [6] gives plan concerning analysis on WBAN for area that provides safety of future astronaut throughout area Exploration, advance health industry and technology. In the spacesuit health watching system, Bluetooth module and sensors should be enforced on the interior aspect of the pressure suit to with efficiency live important signal and to shield instrumentation from worst surroundings and antenna must be connected to the Bluetooth. In the simulation Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) was used because the ground plane material that improves the antenna output however having air gap is downside in pressure suit therefore to decrease this gap a folded ground style was enforced.
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Opportunities and Challenges for Error Correction Scheme for Wireless Body Area Network: A Survey

Opportunities and Challenges for Error Correction Scheme for Wireless Body Area Network: A Survey

In [36], the authors simulate the performance evaluation LT codes in WBAN and compared the result with BCH codes with a comparable rate. The author claimed that the BCH code outperformed LT codes for a higher code rate, but the LT code outperformed the BCH code for lower code rate in several WBAN settings. The claim was developed from BER simulation results that considered SNR values from 0 to 40 dB. However, this is very unrealistic when WBAN is energy-constrained. Second, the BER simulation result of the coded (various rates) and uncoded system presented against SNR, which is not a fair comparison, as we explained in Section 2.2. The paper also presented PAR for both codes against hop distance ranging from 10 to 40 cm only. The range of hoping distance is very low when compared with the average size of the human body. However, the PAR reached almost zero when the hoping distance reached the upper value of hoping distance for all codes. The result indicated that the proposed code could provide a PAR of more than 0.9 in WBAN communication only around 10 cm hoping distance that is not suitable for average human body size.
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A Survey on Biofeedback and Actuation in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs)

A Survey on Biofeedback and Actuation in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs)

1) Sensors: Sensor development can be regarded as the initiator of biofeedback-enabled WBAN. Sensors transduce physical or chemical information to analog or digital signals, allowing further recognition and analysis. Sensors supply the input of a biofeedback control systems. Wearable sensors offer a quantitative understanding of human physical and physi- ological characteristics. Typically, inertial sensors and force sensors have found extensive use in sports area, especially in terms of athletes’ skills acquisition both in dynamic states (e.g. posture control [6]) and static cases (e.g. balance maintenance capability [7]). Force sensors measuring external pressure usu- ally mounted in exoskeleton devices [8] or fingertip-mounted devices [9], while inertial sensors normally contain three main components: accelerometer [10], gyroscope [11], and magne- tometer [12]. In addition, heart rate monitors originally used in medical treatments have been exported to sports and health care areas in recent years. Wearable heart rate monitoring devices are able to warn trainees of their physical response to training intensities and stress [13], or to send heath status of the elderly to their doctors [14]. Energy expenditure can be measured via direct oxygen consumption/carbon dioxide production[15], or indirect heat-flow detections [13]. Besides, kinect-based high-resolution depth and color (RGB) image sensor developed by Microsoft 4 has been found used in human
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Energy Efficient and Priority Based MAC Protocols for Wireless Body Area Network: A Survey

Energy Efficient and Priority Based MAC Protocols for Wireless Body Area Network: A Survey

The standard describes the MAC layer that supports several physical (PHY) layers with the bandwidth efficiency of IEEE 802.15.6 to improve the security specification, energy efficiency of the sensor nodes and delivery tasks by using various advanced wireless technologies. Furthermore, WBAN application is coordinated with IoT (Internet of Things) for medical services [5] which provides one of the most significant solution to take care of aging people in the rapid growth, tracking of patients and biomedical devices within the hospitals and clinical institutes. Additionally, WBAN concentrated on fog computing [6] which is a new architecture to regulate some data center’s tasks to the edge of the server. The primary objective of fog computing is to analyze the low and predictable latency in the applications such as healthcare services. Cloudlet framework provides scalable storage and processing infrastructure to accomplish the efficient data collection. Also, it supports large scale BAN systems which is capable to handle the Big data generated by WBAN users. Based on such technology the consumed power and packet delay of the collected data has decreased by increasing the number of Cloudlets [7]. Hence, the transmission of life critical data over the network becomes more decisive challenge. The remaining sections of this paper has organized as follows: Section II presents some of the existing medium access techniques in terms of energy and delay in WBAN. Section III discusses about the open research problems with feasible solution. Finally, the paper is concluded and the future work is stated in Section IV. Energy efficient and Priority based MAC Protocols for WBAN
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A Survey on Network Lifetime Enhancement in Wireless Body Area Network

A Survey on Network Lifetime Enhancement in Wireless Body Area Network

The highlights of ACO are used for sending crisis messages through the most brief way between the WBAN hubs. The ACO approach gives the directing data for on request way setup if the source and goal hubs are known for sending the crisis messages. Network lifetime plays an important role in WBAN. The objectives of this project are: 1) to deploy sensor nodes at optimal locations such that the theoretically computed network lifetime is maximum 2) to schedule these sensor nodes such that the network attains the maximum lifetime. 3) a coverage aware sensor deployment scheme should be developed to ensure sufficient sensing coverage, and 4) to face of sensing node failures, a sensor self-organizing mechanism needs to be devised to efficiently recover the sensing void and restore the detecting scope. Since local repairs generally consume less moving energy and communication overhead than a global redeployment does, the sensor self-shorting mechanism should limit the
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A Survey on Data Discovery and Data Dissemination in Wireless Body Area Network

A Survey on Data Discovery and Data Dissemination in Wireless Body Area Network

Security in WBAN faces different challenges due to Wireless nature of communication model, Lack of fixed infrastructure, Resource limitation of nodes, Unknown topology of network prior to deployment. The goals to be achieved are Confidentiality of data, Integrity of data, Authentication for data, Access control, Data availability, Non-repudiation, Authorization .Some of the specific security goals are Efficiency, Scalability, Freshness of data, and Survivability of network.

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Wireless Body Area Network Technology

Wireless Body Area Network Technology

requirementsis the quintessential step for unleashing the fullpotential of BANs, and is currently under discussionin the IEEE 802.15.6 Task Group. In the end severalnon-technical factors would also play crucial roles inthe success of the BAN technology in mass marketing,such as affordability, legal, regulatory and ethicalissues, and user friendliness, comfort and acceptance.BAN technology needs the widespread acceptance ofkey stakeholders in the healthcare domain, includingthe medical-electronics industry, patients, caregivers,policy makers, patient advocacy groups and ordinaryconsumers for it to become a truly pervasive technology.Engineers, researchers and practitioners frommultiple disciplines must come together and strive hardto overcome technical roadblocks in order to bring thevision of ubiquitous healthcare network to reality. Wehave presented a comprehensive survey of body sensornetworks. Sensor hardware, system architecture, communicationprotocols, applications, and design issuesare discussed in detail. We have also summarized corefunctional components forBAN system design. Despiteadvances in these areas, there are many challenges thatstill need to be addressed, especially on high bandwidthand energy efficient communication protocols, interoperabilitybetween BANs and other wireless technologies,and the design of successful applications.
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Body Area Network and its Applications: A Survey

Body Area Network and its Applications: A Survey

The aging of the population in many developed countries and the rising health care costs have triggered the introduction of new technological improvements to the current state of health practices. For instance, late advances in gadgets have empowered the improvement of little and canny (bio-) medicinal sensors which can be worn on or embedded in the human body. These sensors need to send their information to an outer restorative server where it can be examined and put away. Utilizing a wired association for this reason ends up being as well awkward and includes a high cost for sending and support. Be that as it may, the utilization of a remote interface empowers a less demanding application and is more cost effective [1]. The patient encounters a more prominent physical versatility and is no longer constrained to remain in the hospital. This procedure can be considered as the following stage in upgrading the individual wellbeing mind and in adapting to the expenses of the personal health care system. Where eHealth is characterized as the health care services hone upheld by electronic procedures and correspondence, the health care services is currently going above and beyond by becoming mobile. This is called as mHealth [2]. Keeping in mind the end goal is to completely use the advantages of remote advancements in telemedicine and mHealth, another sort of remote system develops: a wireless on-body area network or a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). This term was first instituted by Van Dam et al.,[3] and several eminent researchers have shown the interest in this[4-9].
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A Survey on Light Weight Authenticated Tweakey Framework for Body Area Network Security

A Survey on Light Weight Authenticated Tweakey Framework for Body Area Network Security

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a wireless network used for communication among sensor nodes operating in or around the human body in order to monitor vital body parameters and movements pertaining to the human health conditions. These monitored signals are gathered by a personal device, e.g. a PDA or smart phone which acts as a sink for data in the sensor nodes and transmits them to healthcare professional for health monitoring. There are various issues pointed out in implementation of WBAN technology particularly in the area of security. This study conducted a holistic review on previous researches that emphasis in security related issues in WBAN. Block ciphers ensure data encryption and/or authenticity. The security of the block ciphers, both Feistel and Substitution Permutation networks, has been well studied when the key is fixed, however, when the attacker is allowed to ask for encryption or decryption with different (and related) keys the situation becomes more complicated. In the past, many proposed ciphers have been broken in related-key model [5, 6] and it has demonstrated that the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) has flaws in this model [7, 8].
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Secured Mind Uploading Method in Wireless Body Area Network

Secured Mind Uploading Method in Wireless Body Area Network

popular technology which is used to transfer the original brain to the artificial computer substrate. Mind uploading is an ongoing active research bringing together ideas from neuroscience, computer science and philosophy. Implementation of wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) monitors the human body environment and their health conditions. The main deprivation of recent survey delivers the problem of data upload from the dead user. Thus the significant data which are in need to others on the data may not be known. In proposed system, a mind uploading whole brain emulation (WBE) system is designed to upload the essential data to the cloud with a secured process of Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC). This lends the retrieval of the extreme critical or significant data from the dead user. The WBAN is used to get the sensitive data from the user like memory loss or heartbeats etc. Where, the secured data is uploaded from the user with the cryptographic. Key on the secured data is generated from the Key Generation Center (KGC) and the secret key can ensure the data safety from the data owner side. An end-to-end security implementation is given and the mind uploaded technology used to make human brain on an artificial aspect and saves the lost data or documents.
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Comparision of various Wind Turbine Generators

Comparision of various Wind Turbine Generators

In this survey current research is reviewed on Wireless Body Area Network in Healthcare system. WBAN is being very useful technology with many benefits for medical applications, patients and society by continuous monitoring and early detection of diseases. By using WBAN medical healthcare system will improve their performance and will be useful for reducing death rate. WBAN provide Quality of Service, low power consumption, continuous health monitoring and mobility.

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Energy Harvested IEEE802.15.4 Wireless Body Area Network

Energy Harvested IEEE802.15.4 Wireless Body Area Network

Different from [16], Merrett et. al, [6] consider the effect on harvestable power of generator location (five locations on the body, such as: elbow, wrist, waist, knee and ankle), hu- man activities and take into account the effect of generator orientation and its relation with the other parameters. Au- thors also propose 2-DOF (Degree of Free) generators in or- der to examine whether these 2-DOF generators do increase the output power of energy harvested as well as do improve a generator’s tolerance to orientation variation and different activities. Experiments and substantial analysis show that 2-DOF generators do not provide significantly greater out- put power. However, factors of rotation and misalignment which have significantly affected energy harvested, can be reduced using the 2-DOF generator.
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Key Problems about Human Body Communication on Wireless Body Area Network

Key Problems about Human Body Communication on Wireless Body Area Network

In our paper, basing on static model and dynamic model of human body, we present an efficient next hop selection algorithm for multi-hop Body Area Network. By calculating and analyzing every hop’s residual energy, free queue size, link reliability and so on, we can build a function about QoS and present an algorithm to select the next hop for the BAN. Via simulation software MATLB, we gain the numbers of packet forwarding and network lifetime of the network system. Last but not the end, by getting vast simulation data and analyzing it, we finally find the both advantages and disadvantages, application of scope of the algorithm. Besides, the paper also puts forward some improvement plans and prospects for the future.
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Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

The central node is the master node to which rest of the nodes, the slave nodes, will send the information collected. The central node can be a Personal Digital Assistant device to which nodes will pass the information and the device will share this information with the external medical server. This device is equipped with computational capabilities, enough energy resources, and memory space to operate efficiently. The areas of applications are very wide when we discuss Wireless Body Area Networks. There are various applications like healthcare, rehabilitation, military, interactive gaming, etc. Healthcare is one of the important applications of WBAN. The deployed sensors will assist the person in the absence of a health expert. Similarly, in Rehabilitation the sensor nodes can play an important role. The sensor nodes can alert a person about exercise he requires to recover to his normal routine. In the military, the sensor nodes can continuously monitor the health condition of the person and can alert the person to take appropriate action on time [14]. Similarly, for making gaming more interactive, the sensor nodes can be deployed on the person’s body for visualizing during the game [15]. The routing of the information is a challenge in Wireless Body Area Networks. The routing algorithms used in WSN cannot be used for routing in WBAN as the architecture and application model of WBAN is different from WSN.
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Channel Modelling and Optimization of Wireless
          Body Area Network (WBAN)

Channel Modelling and Optimization of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN)

The combination of Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) and Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) forms a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). It allows the integration of intelligent, miniaturized, low-power, invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes in and around a human body that are used to monitor body functions and surrounding environment. Each intelligent node has enough capability to process and forward information to a base station for diagnosis and prescription. Illustration of WBAN is shown in Fig. 1. It is used to develop a smart and affordable health care system which can be a part of diagnostic procedure, maintenance of the chronic condition, supervised recovery from a surgical procedure and can handle emergency events. Common objective in WBAN is to achieve maximum throughput, minimum delay and maximize the network lifetime by controlling the main sources of energy waste i.e., collision, idle listening, overhearing, and control packet overhead [1].
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The role of cross-layered designs in wireless body area network

The role of cross-layered designs in wireless body area network

communication, each layer contains various configuration steps to give the required services to the particular element and solve it. This study tries to show a generalized structure of the cross layer in WBAN as presented in Figure 4 where various BMSs are deployed inside the patient body and attached to the surface of a patient body. These BMSs are connected with a BANC in the star topology which monitor various vital signs such as heartbeat, respiratory rate, Blood pressure, temperature, glucose level, EEG, ECG, EMG [19][20][30]. The results of monitored vital signs are forwarded to BANC and BANC further forwards to medical staff via Base station. This paper classifies the cross-layer design for WBAN into three layers in the following sub-sections.
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Construction and Accomplishment of a Multi-Purpose Wireless Body Area Network

Construction and Accomplishment of a Multi-Purpose Wireless Body Area Network

Tier-3 involves communication between a WBAN and an outside network, e.g., internet or some E-care (electronic care) center. PS and gateway can directly communicate to the outside network and it can also have some base stations involved in between as well. Figure 3 represents a pictorial representation of the tiers of communication for WBANs. A database is an important component of the beyond-WBAN tier. This database maintains, e.g., the user’s profile and medical history. According to user’s service priority and/or doctor’s availability, the doctor may access the user’s information as needed. At the same time, automated notifications can be issued to his/her relatives based on this data via various means of telecommunications. The design of beyond WBAN communication is application-specific, and should adapt to the requirements of user-specific services. For example, if any abnormalities are found based on the up-to- date body signal transmitted to the database, an alarm can notify patient or doctor through email or short message service (SMS).If necessary, doctors or other care-givers can communicate with patients directly by video conference via the Internet. In fact, it might be possible for the doctor to remotely diagnose a problem by relying on both video communications with the patient and the patient’s physiological data information stored in the database or retrieved by a WBAN worn by the patient. Literature, e.g.,[1,2] and [4–6] discuss the above mentioned statements.
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Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

module is designed by Nordic Semiconductor. This module is very much applicable for applications that needs ultra-low power for wireless data communication. Its interface to the microcontroller is done via SPI interface. These modules sends the data to the microcontroller after receiving. Also microcontroller sends those commands as well as data which is processed and ready to be transmitted. Microcontroller is responsible to put these modules in different modes of operation. NRF24s use GFSK modulation scheme to modulate the baseband data. They are operated with the power supply of 1.9 - 3.3 volts. Very less power is consumed in standby mode. Comparison of the types of transceiver is shown in below table.
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Analysis of Protocols Suitable for Wireless Body Area Network

Analysis of Protocols Suitable for Wireless Body Area Network

Fig -2: Types of communication in WBAN [2] Sana ullah et al. 2012 [3], have discussed the architecture of WBAN. Antenna is used for the transmission and the reception of the signal. Patch antenna is used in this case which is a flat substrate and both sides of these substrate are coated by a conducting material. One side is coated with alluminium where the transmitter and the receivers are placed and the other side is connected to the implant. Samaneh Movassaghi et al. 2014 [4], have discussed about different types of node that can be implemented in and around the human body based on roles, functionality and implementation.
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