All things considered, it can be seen that there are some serious problems that are likely to be encountered when two or more cultures come into contact in educational settings. Heterogeneous attitudes of students from different part of Indians revealed while teaching. Implications that could be provided are, above all, to be open to other nations and cultures and to try to familiarize the students with the differences between the patterns of behavior of the representatives of various nationalities, sub-cultures etc.
and most times leads to frustration. The most frustrating element is the monetary requirements involved in obtaining the necessary documents from Nigeria. Thus, I was curious as to what extent and the challenges Nigeria-trained teachers face in a culturally diverse society like Canada. The process of re-certification, integration, acculturation, and classrooms issues were perceived to be the beginning of the challengesfaced by the Nigeria-trained teachers because they are coming from a society where occupational discipline is given priority culturally, and the adoption of traditional teaching methods, which facilitate teaching in Nigeria, is well recognized. These were the thoughts that came to my mind during my first semester of graduate study. I embarked on this project after obtaining approval from the appropriate bodies: The Research Ethics Board (REB) of the University of Windsor and Greater Essex County School Board (GECDSB).
There is a considerable amount of literature available on the prevalence and factors associated with inappro- priate prescribing in primary care. 18–20 Others focused on speci ﬁ c disease conditions (eg, dementia), 21 target groups (eg, elderly) 9 11 22 or speci ﬁ c medications (eg, antidepressant). 23 This failed to capture the real chal- lenges faced by PCPs in managing patients with chronic diseases who mostly present with multimorbidities. Very few studies have speci ﬁ cally explored the challengesfaced by PCPs when prescribing for patients with mul- tiple chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the challengesfaced by PCPs in prescribing for patients with chronic diseases in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
• Literacy or lack of ICT skills: this remains an important challenge in developing areas where the literacy and linguistic factors affect tremendously the use of technology tools. Lack of computer and technologies skills are limited also the use of web 2.0. A research published by the UN’s educational, scientific and cultural body (UNESCO) indicates that 175 million young people lack even basic literacy skills . Meaning, one in four young people in developingcountries are unable to read a sentence. The report adds that over the past decade adult literacy remained excessively high as in 2011 there were still 774 million illiterate adults; “adult education have suffered from relative neglect, as attention focused on boosting primary school attendance rates in poor countries” said the report’s director .
Abstract— In many countries, education is more than a means for enabling progress and avoiding poverty; it is also critical for the development of knowledge societies and knowledge-based economies. It has been suggested that information and communication technologies (ITCs) can play a number of roles in education. Although lessons may be learned from best practices around the world, there is no specific or best formula for determining the best level of ICTs integration in the Education. Many researchers suggested that the role of higher education institutions within the context of knowledge-based economies and globalization is to provide individuals the ability to transform information into socially beneficial knowledge, skills, and value; modernize societies and improve the standard of living [1, 2, 3]. This paper examined some key challengesfaced by the higher education institutions (HEIs) in integrating information and communication technologies (ICTs) into teaching and learning. This paper argues also that the main purpose of integrating ICTs in education is to provide extra approaches that can be used to address the serious environmental, cultural and educational challengesfaced by policymakers, educators, educational administrators and students in higher education. The paper concludes by providing some essential elements that can be used in integrating ICTs use in education.
The biggest challenge that appears also to be the major obstacle to overcome by the countries in the transition phase is the education system. The education system is considered by many as the main factor for absence and the lack of practical aspect of knowledge in the developingcountries. As noted by Budhwar and Debrah (2004), the most of the technical education that is delivered to the student in developingcountries lacks the practicality aspect and therefore largely it is hypothetical in nature as experience is the fact of knowledge. This is also evident in Kosovo as the results has shown the majority (more than 90%) of respondents have emphases that they were or are not ready to take the responsibility and were not able to commit the duties in their first job due to the lack of practical knowledge. Therefore, they all need practical training for the job they were assigned to. Hence, education is crucial and beside the theoretical part of learning, there must be involved a practical part of know how to implement the theory, in order to develop sustainable and more knowledgably HR (Budhwar & Debrah, 2004, p. 60).
This research is set to understand the challengesfaced by teachers teaching special education in rural schools based on the following research questions; What are the factors that contribute or impede the efficiency of special education in rural schools? and How can special education in rural schools be developed to provide quality education for rural special needs children?. The Framework of Action Salamanca, 1994 is used as a basis of understanding the essentials of special education school. This research is conducted qualitatively using a narrative research design. Samples are selected purposively, whereby 3 special education teachers from a rural district in Johor with experience of more than 4 years are interviewed using semi structured interviews. The combination of narrative and semi structured interviews provides rich information of experience narrated in their own words and own settings. Data is analysed verbatim and triangulated using member checking and document analysis. The findings indicates that administration, facilities, transportation, lesser number of teachers, educational
Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly) training programs were included. Data were collected through a ques- tionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS), ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs sug- gested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital poli- cies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.
The appraisal system of faculty in developingcountries for education system is somehow working but the significant result is not reflecting. The major reason is to oversight the measures of quality education and not clearly identified the variables responsible for it. There is lack of workable data from which sensible comparisons be carried out in developingcountries. It is quite difficult to quantify quality teaching in diverse of territorial institutions within a country, the comparisons across countries are huge intricate. As per reports, significant amount of resources as well as technical support is given to teaching but the effectiveness of its implementation and results is far behind despite of accountability has been fixed at different stages.
as search filters included; [“Development induced displacement”]. A total of 223 articles, reports and policy documents were collected based on tittle. From Google scholar, Google and Wiley online library, the first search results; 150, 46 and 20 articles respectively were selected based on title. After reading through the abstracts of the collected articles, we selected 97 article focused on development induced displacement and resettlements. The articles included had specific focus on the consequences or outcomes, problems or challenges and risks of development induced displacement and resettlement. Thirty nine (39) articles were excluded because they were not relevant to this study. The 39 articles focused on resettlement due to climate change, international law and resettlement, poverty risks and environmentally induced migration. Others were; political responses, contested urban landscapes and articles focused on developed countries such as United States of America, Norway. Fourteen (14) articles duplicated in the online databases were also excluded; nine (9) articles were later added based on citations in the papers reviewed. Only full papers with the necessary content(s) and areas of interest obtained through survey, interviews, focus group discussions and literature review were read and retained. During literature search, some of the developingcountries noted to have experienced displacement and resettlement risks included; China, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Sudan
The issue of the environment has been topical since the eighties, and has been a major subject of research and international attention since the mid-eighties. There is a belief that countries do, or should, only pay attention to the environment and Endeavour to protect it when they attain a high level of socio-economic development. However, the issue of preserving the environment should be of even greater interest to developingcountries since they face severe environment-related problems (UNCHS, 1996). Most of these countries have fragile environments, and are faced with high levels of land degradation (erosion, aridity, desertification, drought, flooding, alkalinisation and Stalinization). Many of them also experience acute shortages of fresh water, a situation which is expected to worsen, and possibly lead to conflict among nations. The developingcountries are also losing their forests at a very fast rate. The countries also face rapid urbanization with its associated problems of air pollution and pressure on existing infrastructure such as waste management systems. Another important issue in the context of developingcountries is the volume of physical resources which will be required to meet the backlog of infrastructural and building needs which they must fulfill if they are to develop, as well as to raise the standard of living of their peoples. For example, the UNCHS (1996) notes that more than 600 million people in the urban areas of the world are homeless or live in life- and health-threatening situations. Meeting these key requirements of the economies and basic needs of the peoples will put severe pressure on the resources of the countries as well as the globe. These trends underline the critical importance of the sustainable management of resources in developingcountries.
The prevalence of OSD varies depending on the test used for evaluation and has been reported to range between 22% and 78% of patients with medically treated glaucoma as compared with approximately 15% of the general popu- lation aged 65 years and older in western populations. 46,47 The incidence and prevalence of OSD, much like that of glaucoma, is poorly delineated from a population stand- point in the developing world. Nevertheless, studies from Brazil 47 and Thailand 48 on patients with glaucoma show a prevalence of approximately 38% to 73% using various measures of OSD – a pattern similar to that in western populations (developed countries). Studies have shown that the prevalence increases with increasing number of eye drops per day or antiglaucoma medications, the latter reported in Thailand 48 and Germany, 49 respectively, further highlighting that the issues of OSD faced once patients receive antiglaucoma medications are not sub- jected to economic development. However, it may be suggested that the prevalence of OSD in developing coun- tries could be higher due to the lack of access to glaucoma medications and eye care facilities in general. 5,21,22,31 As such, the observation in the United States that most glau- coma patients with moderate-to-severe OSD were not diagnosed and did not receive treatment for their disease despite being in a developed country 50 is notable and suggests that OSD in glaucoma patients tends to be under-recognized and under-diagnosed potentially due to clinical focus on IOP management and evidence of glau- coma progression. Short-term use of topical glaucoma medications – even in healthy persons – has been shown to be associated with changes in ocular surface such as reduced corneal sensitivity, tear ﬁ lm stability, and basal secretion. 51 Evidence further suggests that prolonged use of many topical glaucoma medications leads to further incremental deterioration of the ocular surface in patients with established OSD. 52
Abstract: Leptospirosis is a widespread bacterial zoonosis with highest burden in low-income populations living in tropical and subtropical regions, both in urban and in rural environments. Rodents are known as the main reservoir animals, but other mammals may also significantly contribute to human infections in some settings. Clinical presentation of leptospirosis is nonspecific and variable, and most of the early signs and symptoms point to the so-called “acute fever of unknown origin”, a major diagnostic challenge in tropical and subtropical areas. However, leptospirosis can rapidly evolve to life-threatening complications, especially if left untreated. There is a need for good awareness of leptospirosis and rapid antibiotic treatment based on clinical and epidemiological suspicion. Severe leptospirosis cases include renal and/or respiratory failure and shock, necessitating intensive care, also seldom available or with limited capacity. Confirmation of leptospirosis relies on biological diagnosis, which unfortunately uses tricky methods seldom available. This biological confirmation, however, is essential for surveillance and public health purpose. A good knowledge of leptospirosis epidemiology (eg, the reservoir animals involved, the Leptospira strains circulating, the sea- sonal and geographical patterns, and specific populations at risk) can be achieved through adequate surveillance and diagnosis. This can pave the way to prevention and intervention strategies and in turn alleviate the toll leptospirosis takes on affected populations. Over the past few years, leptospirosis has been increasingly recognized, as the need for multidisciplinary approaches in a One-Health perspective has been acknowledged, raising hope to successfully tackle the challenges of this zoonosis.
Data for this study were collected via semi-structured interviews conducted in person over a one month period. Interviews included questions such as: “Describe your background training in counselin?” “Describe how you keep confidentiality as a priest and how you keep confidentiality as a counselor?” and “Describe a typical counseling session?” Questions were constructed by the researcher in attempt to elicit responses related to each of the four anticipated challenges and background information.
The diagram can be interpreted in two ways. Firstly, we can look at the macro process – the ways in which migration is linked into an originating country’s development process. Starting from the process of movement and the question of whether a given person migrates or not, we see that this is affected by the development circumstances of the person in question, which are partially formed by the effects of previous acts of migration, whether by that person themselves, or others in their household, community or country. Depending on their capabilities, such as financial resources, skills, but also the situation in which they find themselves (such as conflict or environmental degredation or disaster) the individual, in consultation with others, makes decisions regarding whether to move, and also regarding the process of that movement - where to move to, how to fund the movement, how to make the journey etc. This may be an initial movement out of their country of origin, a movement between countries of destination or the decision to return back to their country of birth.
Constructing and maintaining a model of this type is a complex task that has been the subject of much research. There is a significant amount of work on activity recogni- tion within ubiquitous computing that enables systems to understand the activities being performed by their users. However, the nature of our domain raises new challenges. Recognising activities undertaken by field workers is dis- tinct from conventional ubicomp activity recognition that has traditionally assumed well constrained environments such as smart rooms , or wearable activity recognition that has focused on body-worn sensors only . In addition,
Decision makers in health in CIS countries are faced with a difficult dilemma. On one side, they face pressures from the international community and donors to not make any more investments in large mental health hospitals, which ought to be either scaled down or completely closed. On the other side, if they want to improve their human rights record in mental health care, they would need to upgrade the buildings of these hospitals where most people with mental health problems live. The challenge is that prospects for developing community-based alternatives are not encouraging. Realistically, it will take years before such modern mental health services will be able to take over the care of people who are currently treated in large hospitals. What should governments do in the meantime? They can choose to not improve conditions in large hospitals, as they anyway can hardly afford to do it. But the outcome would be that people will continue to live in tough, even inhumane conditions for years, until enough community services become available, and social services (nowadays virtually non- existent in most CIS countries) find housing for those who can in time return to independent living.
Technical and Vocational Education and Training is involved in activities which emphasize the application of the skills, knowledge and attitudes required for employment in a particular occupation or cluster of related occupations in any field of social and economic endeavor. According to Afeti, G. (2009) Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) has emerged as one of the most effective human resource development strategies that African countries need to embrace in order to train and modernize their technical workforce for rapid industrialization and national development.
Educational standards include the number of professors and trainers, setting the educational programmes and regulations, the existence of curriculum, and specific standards. From the experts’ point of view, the standard number of professors to students is determined by Ministry of Health but it is not always observed. When the number of admitted students reduces, this equilibrium falls apart. These standards are also considered under the accreditation standards and their implementations can be a great solution. Failure to complete curricula is another challenge in which the necessary educational materials are not taught; in addition, the curricula of different educational groups are different. A number of professors addressed the lack of necessary educational guidelines and held that many of the students’ logbooks are not covered. Furthermore, if a change occurs in hospital programmes such as a day off or repair of a ward, training programmes will also be disrupted, and this disparity between therapeutic and educational activities will increase the rate of complaints. Failure to comply with educational regulations was also expressed by a number of experts, so that the education of students is not going on during their studies, there is no specific hours and programmes, and the professors are not sufficiently committed to teaching.
---------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - BI visualization novices always have to face many challenges to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. There are certain situations where visualizations that require certain formatting but due to tool’s limitation it becomes quiet difficult to bring up the acceptable visualization. Data visualization under certain situations, where interpreting the result generated after filtering becomes challenging to explain the behaviour of the filters on any data set taken. It was found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization development process: data attribute selection based on the business question asked, visual template selection, affective colour palette selection, Formatting, Dimension and measure mapping, and interpreting the complexity in visualizations becomes quite challenging. Most of the time simple heuristics and preferred visualizations, such as bar, line and pie charts are used by the information visualization novices. From close observations, some facts and challenges were faced during implementation of certain business questions in tableau. The facts supporting such challenges and situations are discussed in this paper.