Smoke arrangement happens at the outrageous air lack. Air or oxygen insufficiency is locally present inside the diesel motors. It increments as the air to fuel proportion diminishes. Test comes about show that smoke discharges are expanded with increment in the part stack as the arrangement of smoke is unequivocally subject to the heap. Shows variety of smoke outflows with biodiesel and diesel with the part stack. Since at higher part stacks better burning may occur inside the motor chamber attempting to lessen the smoke emanations. Demonstrates the smoke estimations of diesel and biodiesel at part stack operation. For diesel operation the smoke esteems diminished as a result of the nuclear limited oxygen which helps in better ignition, in this manner lessening the smoke.
emission slightly increased in case of D80SBD15E4S1+alumina fuel blend compare to diesel and B20 fuel. Syed Aalam et al.  conducted experimentalinvestigation to evaluate performance, emission and combustion characteristics of single cylinder CRDI system assisted dieselengineusing blend of diesel and zizipus jujube methyl ester blended fuel (ZJME25) along with aluminium oxide nanoparticles (AONP) in mass fraction of 25 ppm and 50 ppm. There was reduction in BSFC with AONP added ZJME25 fuel compare to diesel and ZJME fuel with maximum reduction of 6% observed with 50 ppm AONP concentration ZJME fuel. The brake thermal efficiency increased in comparison with diesel fuel with maximum improvement of 2.5% with 50 ppm AONP concentrated ZJME fuel. Smoke emission reduced by about 15-20% with AONP added ZJME fuel. The HC and CO emission significantly reduced, while NO X emission slightly increased. The heat release rate and cylinder
H. M. Dharmadhikari, Puli Ravi Kumar, S. Srinivasa Rao – have studied the Performance and emissions of C.I.engine using blends of biodiesel (karanja and neem) and diesel at differentinjectionpressures .The tests were conducted for karanja and neem and its blends with different proportions (10%,20%,60%,100%).The following conclusions were made based on the experimental results. Karanja and neem based biodiesels can be directly used in diesel engines without any modifications. The performance is slightly reduced while brake specific fuel consumption is increased when using biodiesels. The brake thermal efficiency of B10, B20 and B60 are better than B100 but still inferior to that of diesel. Compared with conventional diesel, exhaust emissions of CO and HC are reduced while NOx emissions are increased with biodiesel and its blends with diesel.
 D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinash, “A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil” , Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu, India. Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013 pp.859-870 Journal homepage:  Dharmendra Yadav, Nitin Shrivastava and Vipin Shrivastava, “Experimentalinvestigation of performance parameters of single cylinder four stroke di dieselengine operating on neem oil biodiesel and its  b Dalai A.K, Kulkarni M.G, Meher L.C, "Biodiesel Productions From Vegetable Oils Using Heterogeneous Catalysts And Their Applications As Lubricity Additives" EIC climate change technology, pp1-8(2006).
Abstract: - Nowadays the crude oil is depleting at a fast rate and cannot be produced in short duration of time as it is non-renewable source of energy,therefore it is high time to study & research over and to act towards the sustainable use of our natural resources like petroleum products.Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel created from vegetable oils, animal fats, and greases through a chemical process. The chemical process involves reaction of natural oils with an alcohol, and then refining the mixture to create molecules which can be easily burned in a diesel engine.In the present study,biodiesel extracted from mahua oil was taken & the evaluation of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with different blends of biodiesel extracted from mahua oil biodiesel was done. The c.i. engine was single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, and naturally aspirated direct injection (DI) diesel locomotive.
Adding solvents like 2% emulsifier agent prevents the separation and ensure the similarity. The increased compression ratio has a similar effect as raising the inlet air temperature which results in gradual increase in the intake pressure. The compression ratio modiﬁcations effects ignition timing, final temperature and pressure at the end of the compression process . Compression ratio is raised up to 19.5:1 with the help of higher latent heat of vaporization, higher auto ignition temperature which improves of the efficiency of the engine . The mean BTE of engine is increased more than 33%, when the compression ratio is raised gradually from 18 to 20. By increasing the CR up to the maximum value which results in improvement of the effective pressure by using hydrous ethanol, while reduction of Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) and Break Thermal Efficiency (BTE) occurs by increasing compression ratio . Increased CR leads to high cylinder temperature which causes faster evaporation of ethanol blends resulting in improvement of the combustion .
The world today is in need of alternate fuel sources because of fuel depletion and increase of fuel demand. The yearly reports in pollutants of atmosphere are also in increasing trend, the need is to develop the eco- friendly fuel to meet the fossil fuel depletion.These reasons increase the attention towards vegetable oil as an alternate fuel source. Biodiesel is the name of clean burning fuel, produced from domestic renewable resources. It contains no petroleum but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to greater biodiesel blend. It can be used in CI engine with no major modifications. It is simple to use, bio degradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. The choice of vegetable oil as engine fuel naturally depends upon the local conditions prevalent availability of a particular vegetable oil in excess amount. There are various oils which are being considered worldwide for use in the engines. But Mahua biodiesel is one of the most promising biodiesel options among these. Mahua (Madhuca Indica) is one of the forest-based tree- borne non-edible oils with large production potential of about 60 million tons per annum in India . Many researchers investigated the effects of diesel-biodiesel blends on performance and emission characteristics in dieselengine and concluded that partial or full replacement of diesel with biodiesel is feasible [1-10].The major properties of Mahua biodiesel include calorific value, diesel index, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity. The various physicochemical properties of diesel and Mahua biodiesel are measured and listed in Table 1 for comparison.
In this Investigation N. Kapilan  suggested Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its Blend with Diesel as they were used as fuel in a Single Cylinder, Direct Injection and Compression Ignition Engine. The Mahua Oil Biodiesel was prepared from Mahua Oil by Transesterification using Methanol and Potassium Hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the Diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the Engine Test Analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 Blend results in lower CO, HC and Smoke Emissions as compared to Diesel. But the B5 and B20 Blends results in Higher Efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or Blends of MOB and Diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in Diesel Engines used in Transportation as well as in the Agriculture Sector.
Abstract :The depletion of world petroleum reserves and increased environmental concern has stimulated the search of alternative fuel which is to be environment friendly. Bio-fuels have the potential to become alternative fuel for fossil fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, reliable, biodegradable and regarded as a clean alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. In recent years, much research has been carried to find suitable alternative fuel to petroleum products. In the present investigationexperimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and emissions characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition DI engine fuelled with the blends of mineral diesel and biodiesel. The simarouba biodiesel is considered as alternative fuel to diesel. A large amount of tree borne oils and fats are available for biodiesel production in developing and under develop countries. Simarouba glauca oil is one of these oils.
On a life cycle basis, Carbon-dioxide emissions could be reduced to 78% by the usage of biodiesel when compared to normal diesel . CO2 emissions may get decreased by usingbiodiesel fuels because the biodiesel producing species (plants) ingests CO2 through photosynthesis. Better performance in the engines inclusive of low HC and CO emissions can be obtained when biodiesel is blended with pure diesel . Investigations show different ranges of exhaust emissions for HC and CO with Rapeseed biodiesel fuel when compared to pure diesel; a 50% minimization in CO emissions for rapeseed fuel was reported . It is agreed in many researches that non-edible sources make better feedstocks for biodiesel production than edible ones . Palm stearin oil (PSO) is the non-consumable portion of palm oil. The raw material for producing the palm stearin methyl ester is widely accessible in Southeast Asia and India. Another vital point which is in favour of utilizing palm stearin biodiesel is that it does not make a debate between food and fuel. India being a developing nation cannot manage to prepare fuels from edible sources as it creates a conflict between food and fuel. Palm stearin biodiesel used in this study is obtained from non-edible oil sources. The viscosity of Palm Stearin Methyl Ester (PSME) is lesser when compared with palm biodiesel. In this paper, the behaviour of the test engine which includes its emission, performance & combustion characteristics are explored by utilizing diverse blends of PSME with diesel fuel.
The tests were performed for pure diesel (DF) and aluminium oxide nanoparticles blendeddiesel (DF+ANOP25 and DF+ANOP50) samples. Experimentally, it was observed that the fuel consumption increases when the load was increased for all operations of diesel and diesel blends. Fig.5 shows the variation of brake specific fuel consumption with respect to brake power for diesel and diesel blend of aluminium oxide nanoparticles. The brake specific fuel consumption of aluminium oxide nanoparticle blendeddiesel (DF+ANOP25) fuel is lower than that of diesel fuel (DF) for all loads. Aluminium oxide nanoparticles oxidize the carbon deposits in the engine cylinder leading to reduced fuel consumption. From the fig.5 it is observed that the brake specific fuel consumption values of neat diesel fuel and aluminium oxide nanoparticles blendeddiesel fuels are nearly same at moderate load, while DF+ANOP25 shows a considerable decrease of about 7% and DF+ANOP50 shows a considerable decrease of about 4% in comparison with the diesel fuel (DF) at all other loads. For DF+ANOP50, the increase in fuel consumption was more than that of DF+ANOP25 blend. This was due to the higher viscosity compared to DF+ANOP25 blend. Nanoparticle blendeddiesel were found to be improved with the increase in their calorific value due to presence of aluminium oxide nanoparticle which acts as oxygen buffer, thereby making the engine to consume less fuel compared to diesel fuel to overcome identical load.
Figure 6 portrays the variation of BTE with Load for different fuel blends and diesel. The thermal efficiency indicates how efficiently energy in the fuel is converted into mechanical output .The BTE for diesel is 23.2% at full load, which is highest among all fuels tested. For B20 HOME, B20 HOME-10 WPO, B20 ROME, B20 ROME–10 WPO, it is 21.4%, 21.41%, 19.1%, 19.12% respectively at full load .The Thermal Efficiency of plastic blends is lower than that of diesel and slightly higher than B20 bio diesel at full load, due to higher density and poor volatility. Hence the performance of engine with biodiesel and plastic oil blend is comparable to that of diesel in terms of BTE.
Fig. 3 shows variations of engine power with engine speed usingdifferent mixtures of diesel and biodiesel. It was observed that engine power increased with increasing engine load for all of the used fuel mixtures. The highest power was obtained at 100% engine load. As it can be seen, for all of the fuel mixtures, the values of engine power at low loads are close together. However, when high load were applied, due to increase in air-fuel equivalence ratio, the extra values of oxygen caused to complete combustion with resulted to improve in engine output power (Gumus and Kasifoglu, 2010). Generally, the engine power usingdifferent mixtures of biodiesel were close to that of pure diesel fuel and there was no significant difference in this regard.
Alcohols have been used as fuels for engines since 19 th century. Among the various alcohols, ethanol is known as the most suited renewable, bio based and eco-friendly fue l for interna l combustionengine. The most attractive properties of ethanol as an internal combustionengine fuel is that it can be produced from renewab le energy sources such as sugarcane, cassava, many types of waste bio mass materia ls, corn and barley.Ethanol is a widely available renewab le fuel which can be produced by fermentation and distillat ion from bio mass. As a fuel for CI engines, ethanol has some advantages over diesel fuel such as reduction of soot, CO, unburned HC e mission. Although having these advantages, due to limitation in technology, economic and regional considerations, ethano l still can’t be used extensively. However, ethanol blended with diesel can be used as fuel in CI engines.
Available Online at www.ijpret.com 249 thermal efficiency for test fuel. Also with the addition of alumina and cerium oxide nanoparticle to neat diesel, lower NOx emission. Prabhu L et al  carried out investigation on performance and emission analysis of tio2 nanoparticle as an additive for bio-diesel blends. The carbon monoxide and smoke emission decreases with biodiesel blends when comparing with the neat diesel. The addition of titanium oxide further decreases the CO emission, HC emission and smoke emission when comparing with neat diesel. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of SBME blended with diesel along with Aluminium nanoparticle on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of dieselengine. For investigation various blends of Soya bean biodiesel with diesel were taken. The Aluminium nanoparticle was added with various proportions.
The Kirloskar Engine was used to test Methyl Esters of ALGAE oil (MEJ) and its blends and compared with conventional commercial diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly less than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and Specific Energy Consumption of fuels is increased in increase the amounts of blended fuels owing to lower calorific values. But compares the b20 fuels to other blended fuels it’s the maximum calorific values. The carbon monoxide (CO) emission of engine was increased with increase in amount of biodiesel blends. When EGR rat is increased then efficiency slightly decreased as higher EGR and CO increases. The NO X AND HC emission decreased with increase in EGR rate in biodiesel amount in the
The variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power is shown in fig 4.2 . Brake thermal efficiency appraises how efficiently an engine can transform the supplied fuel energy into useful work. Most of the supplied fuel energy will be loss as heat with the engine cooling water, lubricating oil and exhaust gas. It is also seen that the brake thermal efficiency decreases when the engine runs with biodiesel as fuel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel is 22.06 at a brake load of 6.73kW &the same for pure diesel is 25.79 %at a power Output of 6.73kW, and it goes on decreasing with increase in power output. It is also seen that the difference between brake thermal efficiency of biodiesel and diesel increases as brake power increases.
Abstract: The experimentalinvestigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding oxygenated additive to fish oil biodiesel (FOBD) blends on a thermal barrier coated DI dieselengine on performance, emission and combustion characteristics. The test fuels are diesel, FOBD of different blending with diesel of 25%,50%, 75% and 100 % and FOBD with 10% V/V additive of 1, 4 dioxane with different blending with diesel of 25 %, 50% , 75% and 100%. Experiment was done in four stages namely, only diesel, diesel with FOBD, diesel with FOBD with additive (FOBD+A) and diesel with FOBD in a Thermal Barrier Ceramic (TBC) coated engine (FOBD+PC). Comparisons were done with different blends namely of 25 %, 50%, 75% and 100%. Maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) attains for operating the engine on biodiesel with additive. Coating does not give any effect on BTE. Smoke density for FOBD+A gives less smoke than others for all load and all blends except 100% blend. Smoke density is higher for coated engine than uncoated engine.
It is observed that BSFC decreases as the load increases for all the test fuels and is lowest for diesel fuel mode, since brake thermal efficiency was more than that of any percentage of biodiesel substitution; hence brake specific fuel consumption has minimum value for pure diesel operation at all loading conditions compared to differentbiodiesel substitution. Minimum BSFC is observed for pure diesel at full load is 0.28kg/kW-hr and for blendeddiesel at full load for WCOBD10+PSBD10+D(B20) is 0.346kg/kW-hr.
recirculation (EGR) is an effective method to reduce NOx from biodiesel fuelled engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. However, EGR results in higher smoke opacity .The objective of current research work are to investigate the usage of biodiesel, Ethanol and EGR simultaneously in order to reduce the emissions of all regulated pollutants from dieselengine. A single cylinder, air-cooled, constant speed direct injection small capacity dieselengine was used for the experimental work. Ethanol is an oxygenated fuel and lead to smooth and efficient combustion. Atomization of ethanol results in lower combustion temperature. In this study an EGR system was developed and used for experimentation. Ethanol was added in a fixed proportion as suggested by most of the researcher in the field which is 20% the quantity and Jatropha biodiesel in the blend varied from 10, 20 up to maximum 30% and EGR was implemented from 10%, 15% and 20%. From the experimental work, it can be concluded that addition of ethanol and biodiesel along with EGR gives better performance and comparable results among all E15B20 (EGR15%) is turn out to be the best combination in most of the parameters.