sectional research with male and female college students. These studies offer empirical support for its use in college- level coursework design (King & Kitchener, 1994, Chapter 6). When certified raters evaluated Reflective Judgment Interview data from more than 1,300 students, data patterns consistently indicated that thinkingskillsdevelop in the sequence outlined in Figure 1 (King & Kitchener, 1994). Many college freshmen do not consistently exhibit Step 1 skills, and Wolcott and Lynch (1997) reported that more than 10% of students in an introductory master’s level course did not consistently exhibit Step 1 skills. Research has revealed slow, gradual improvements in Step 1 skills during the undergraduate years. Like Ida Identify, most college seniors, regardless of age, exhibit Step 1 skills but are still struggling with Step 2, 3, and 4 skills (King & Kitchener, 1994). This means that, although they may be able to compile reasons and evidence to support their opinions, they are rarely able to examine an issue thoroughly from multiple points of view, taking into account how assumptions, bias, and previous experience impact different interpretations of a body of information.
Criticalthinkingskills represent an important component in a successful and rewarding study at the university level for it can benefit students‟ academic life. This paper aims at exploring how criticalthinking (CT) can be applied to EFL teaching/learning context at the university level in Benin, in order to develop a deeper and more holistic approach that can enrich students‟ learning experience. The type of instructional strategies and assessment techniques that can be used to play down the influence of lectures and rote learning, and actively engage students in a learning process that provides them with intellectual challenges were dealt with. The study is exploratory and qualitative and quantitative in nature. University instructors and students were purposively selected as respondents in this research. Data were collected for analysis. Three sources of data: interview, exam papers and questionnaires were examined with the aid of a statistical tool called SPSS (Statistical Package for Social science). The findings revealed that several barriers impede criticalthinking instruction and assessment use in Benin: lack of training and information, preconceptions, time constraints, lack of appropriate materials, large size classes, inconsistent current assessment methods, lack of motivation and unstimulating linguistic environment, etc. But, even with these hurdles, the majority of university lecturers and students as well are of the views that criticalthinkingskills have to be promoted in Benin universities if the battle for development is to be won. As a result, the effort is worth the reward. University EFL students in Benin need to be empowered because criticalthinkingskills offer the potential of effective learning that can make them professional users of information rather than passive receivers.
In Simas eric model, there are learning habit that allows the improvement of students' criticalthinking are: a question, answer, discuss answers and cooperative work. Encourage students to ask questions and make inquiries is a way to actively engage students in criticalthinking (Duron, 2006). Observing the activities of students in Simas eric model, it appears that students learn to apply scientific methods followed by discussion. Proulx (2004) stated that criticalthinking stage consists of elements similar to the stages of the scientific method. Further stated that the application of scientific methods followed by a discussion on the results of the investigation can empower students' criticalthinking. Simas eric model students conduct cooperation in small groups to understand and solve the problems and the opportunity for students to dialogue that have an impact on the improvement of criticalthinkingskills. According to Slavin (2009) essentially, cooperative learning is aimed to accustom social skills regarding to leadership learning, decision making, trust building, communication, and handling problems together. In cooperative working, it gives students the opportunity to discuss in open groups. According to Konberg and Griffin (2000), one way to train students to think critically is through analysis of the problem using repetition method which can help students master the complex material and be able to improve their criticalthinkingskills.
At the conclusion of this course, students should have acquired the requisite criticalthinkingskills, problems solving skills, and overall technical competence to clearly solve hypothetical tax problems presented during class lectures and on examinations dealing with: (1) the scope of gross income, including income without receipt of cash; (2) the exclusion of gifts and inheritances; (3) the tax consequences of bequests, devises and inheritances; (4) the application of rules governing the taxation of employee benefits and the exclusion from gross income of certain fringe benefits; (5) application of the rules governing the exclusion of meals and lodging; (6) taxation of prizes and awards, including scholarships and fellowships; (7) tax consequences of gains from dealings in property; (8) computation of basis, amount realized, and gain realized; (9) the application of the principles of Crane v. Commissioner & Commissioner v. Tufts; (10) application of the tax rules governing property acquired between spouses incident to divorce; (11) tax consequences of property acquired from a decedent; (12) taxation of life insurance proceeds and annuities; (13) tax consequences of discharge of indebtedness; (14) taxation of recoveries from personal injuries; (15) taxation of separation and divorce payments, including alimony and separate maintenance payments; (16) tax consequences of gains from the sale of principal residence; (17) assignment of income doctrine, and the alternative minimum tax.
An example of a text intended to assist legal academics teaching legal reasoning rather than law students learning legal reasoning is the recent article Deepening the Discourse Using the Legal Mind’s Eye by Hillary Burgess. 42 Burgess presents research that demonstrates how incorporating visual aids and exercises into learning environments can help students to develop higher-order cognitive skills such as ‘thinking like a lawyer’. Burgess begins by explaining what higher order cognitive skills are and by mapping the various steps in legal reasoning onto Bloom’s taxonomy of learning objectives (level 1 – remembering, level – understanding, level 3 – applying, level 4 – analysing, level 5 – evaluating, and level 6 – creating). Burgess argues that the legal curriculum traditionally teaches the lowest four levels of learning but tests the highest four levels of learning. To help law teachers to teach all six levels of learning, Burgess offers a neuroscience and cognitive psychology perspective on how students learn legal reasoning. She reviews research that indicates that students learn more, learn at deeper levels, and retain information longer when they engage in ‘multimodal’ learning, especially learning involving visual aids and visual exercises, and provides concrete guidelines for law teachers interested in incorporating visual aids and visual exercises effectively when teaching legal reasoning. 43
Due to the importance of learning styles and criticalthinking in students' academic performance, a large volume of educational research has been devoted to these issues in different countries. Demirhan, Besoluk and Onder (2011) in their study on criticalthinking and students’ academic performance from the first semester to two years later have found that contrary to expectations the students’ criticalthinking level reduced but the total mean of students’ scores increased. This is due to the fact that the students are likely to increase adaptive behavior with environment and university and reduce the stress during their education (1).
Scholarly literature supports the importance of poetry and annotation in the classroom, albeit separately. There has been considerable research conducted on the impact of poetry in increasing reader fluency, often by writing poetry. Additionally, much of the research previously conducted was done so at the elementary level. While some teachers are open to using poetry in the classroom in ways that go beyond writing it, they do not know where to begin; many choose to not use it in the curriculum at all (Weaven & Clark, 2013). Teachers tend to share the same fears about poetry that their students do: the fear of being wrong about their interpretation and the fear of expressing personal feelings (Stickling, Prasun, & Olsen, 2011). Teachers must embrace those fears to show students that risk-taking is a part of learning. It is only by attempting to make sense of things that people become better at wading through and overcoming challenges. This study addressed an area where there is additional research needed: using poetry annotations to increase the criticalthinkingskills of high school students.
The findings reveal that the general trend in students’ perception of their improvement correlated sufficiently well with the teacher’s evaluation of their achievements in two aspects: critical awareness and language use. The low performance in language use is also due to the fact that to reason critically, express and support their arguments on topics like social inequality, depression, or bullying, students were challenged to involve in argumentation and learn or master devises used in argumentative discourse. Although vocabulary wasn’t a serious obstacle, the difficulties second language learners may experience with certain discourse-organising words carry important information about the assessment results. Similar figures in the students’ post-test checklist and the teachers checklist in the two dimensions mentioned above suggest that students had a realistic perception of their performance in these particular processes, but also that they understood well the meaning of these dimensions. For the teacher, 85,71% of the students demonstrate good (performance level 3) reasoning and problem solving skills and although the students’ survey differs slightly, their score on this dimension is highly satisfactory. The model has proved effective in enhancing a dimension which is widely applicable to other educational areas and has a strong positive direct effect on students’ ability to find an adequate solution to real-world problems.
All proponents of thinkingskills (critical, creative,...) emphasize the relevance of thinking for many aspects of life, not just those usually associated with "thinking." For example, the CriticalThinking Community says, "Criticalthinking is the art of taking charge of your own mind. Its value is simple: if we can take charge of our own minds, we can take charge of our lives." In another page they describe the centrality of thinking, and a common educational problem: "Criticalthinking is not an isolated goal unrelated to other important goals in education. Rather, it is a seminal goal which, done well, simultaneously facilitates a rainbow of other ends. It is best conceived, therefore, as the hub around which all other educational ends cluster. For example, as students learn to think more critically, they become more proficient at historical, scientific, and mathematical thinking. Finally, they developskills, abilities, and values crucial to success in everyday life. Recent research suggests that criticalthinking is not typically an intrinsic part of instruction at any level. Students come without training in it, while faculty tend to take it for granted as an automatic by-product of their teaching. Yet without criticalthinking systematically designed into instruction, learning is transitory and superficial."
The results showed that nursing students had low CTS and these skills did not significantly change during their studies in nursing. Therefore, it may be concluded that the studied nursing education program did not affect its students’ CTS. However, the low criticalthinking scores of the participants in the present study and other studies conducted in Iran may be attributed to the instruments used by these studies. Most of these studies used instru- ments such as CCTS Form B, and as mentioned previously, some nursing researchers believe that this instrument is not appropriate for assessing nurses or nursing stu- dents’ CTS. Thus, appropriate indigenous instruments should be developed for assessment of criticalthinking in nurses. In addition, we tested our participants only one time. It is better to evaluate the evolution of criticalthinking over time. Longitudinal studies are suggested for assessing the nursing students’ criticalthinking over time. Moreover, revising the curriculum and preparing nurse educators for implementation of innovative and active teaching strategies are suggested. Then, the effects of such interventions can be assessed.
Analysis of the results of the first question shows that there is a positive effect of the program prepared according to Therese's theory in the development of creative thinking among female students in physics, as the average calculation of female students indicates this and the values of "T" confirmed that the differences are statistically functioning in the answers of the students and in favor of the dimensional test, This is confirmed by previous studies and can justify the improvement in creative thinking and its three skills (fluency, flexibility, and authenticity) to the nature of the program and its various and enjoyable training activities, where the environment is equipped with the necessary tools to training activities and what enriches them, and also due to that The researcher's use of open questions that provoke the ability to solve problems in a scientific way and with new and non-routine types of thinking where the program helps to increase the abilities and mental processes by going through the stages prepared for the program, as the application of the theory of Therese led to the push of students towards research The survey contributed to the increased motivation of female students towards raising issues and employing information, which played a positive role in the development of creative thinking. In addition to providing a psychological environment characterized by spontaneity, self-confidence, automaticity, lack of complexity and rigidity of positions, the results of this study are consistent with the study of Thursday (2011) and Ibrahim (2013) and this enhances the effectiveness of the existing program. On The Theory of TRIZ in physics and its positive impact on the development of creative thinkingskills.
This paper presents experimental results about the use of the Critical Literacy Approach (CLA) in literary appreciation using Indonesian short stories. The purpose of the study is to find better teaching strategies to improve students’ criticalthinkingskills and critical awareness to comprehend the conditions of the world, including social relationships involving disproportionate power relations. This study uses the randomized pretest-posttest control group design (RPPCGD), which is a randomized design by giving pretest and posttest to the experimental group (CLA) and control group (expository). The effect of both teaching strategies is calculated through the difference between the pretest and posttest of both groups. This research involved 170 students in the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature Education of an education university in Indonesia. The results are presented in the form of analytical descriptions of paired samples test and paired samples correlations of each group. The results show that students who did a short story analysis with CLA had significantly increased criticalthinkingskills and critical awareness compared to students of expository strategy. The average posttest of the experimental group is 80.33, which is considerably higher than the control group, with an average of 76.13. The average increase in skills (posttest-pretest) of the experimental group is 38.71 points, and the control groups have an average increase of 31.19 points. Therefore, it is clear that the teaching of literary appreciation using Indonesian short stories with CLA is effective. The use of CLA strategies in increasing students’ criticalthinkingskills and critical awareness through literary appreciation of Indonesian short stories shows positive results. The results of this study can contribute to the field of learning design with new ideas to improve criticalthinkingskills and critical awareness of Indonesian students through effective short story analysis or fictional prose analysis.
The program provides lessons on risk management, life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance, and financial planning. A core focus is personal responsibility in the context of financial-management skills. Students will learn how to recognize and manage financial risk—skills that can serve them when they’re confronted with important decisions throughout the various stages of their lives. There are lessons, quizzes, and videos developed for the program’s five main themes, which complement each other and are designed to work together. Each of the five modules can also be used as stand-alone segments that can be presented to students as individual units. In addition to helpingstudents learn the principles of risk management, insurance, and financial planning, the program is also designed to help studentsdevelop and apply critical-thinking, decision-making, and problem- solving skills.
To meet the new demand from the U.S. IT industry, educators need to upgrade IT curricula. This article presents how IT educators can use a model of integrating students’ IQ, EQ, and CQ as a foundation for designing integrated IT courses. Such courses would enable students not only learn IT knowledge and skills but also apply criticalthinking, innovation, project management, and communication skills to their hands-on real-world projects. In the following sections, I will first present the need for integrating IQ, EQ, and CQ in the IT education. Second, I will illustrate how to apply an integration model to designing and delivering integrated IT courses with
Abstract— Criticalthinking is an important skill in the 21st century learning in the industrial revolution 4.0 era. The ranking of Indonesia in TIMSS is low. 21st-century student skills in Indonesia such as criticalthinking is still relatively low. Teaching materials that do not contain 21st-century skills will have an impact on the effectiveness of achieving core competencies and basic competencies. This research has several objectives. First, analyze the module needs as teaching material. Second, knowing the teacher's response to the 2013 curriculum compatibility module. Third, knowing the problem in students' criticalthinkingskills. The design development model used is the ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation). This study uses a qualitative method. The research subjects were teachers and students at Sorong Muhammadiyah High School. The object of this research is criticalthinking and the Analysis of the Model Problem-Based Learning model. Data collection instruments used observation guidelines and interview guidelines. Data analysis uses descriptive analysis. Research provides several results. First, teachers and schools need electronic modules. Second, the criticalthinkingskills of class XII students are still relatively low in material opportunities. Third, teachers need modules for curriculum compatibility in 2013. Fourth, modules that integrate criticalthinkingskills do not yet exist. This research can be developed based on Problem Based Learning modules to improve criticalthinkingskills. This research can be continued in the Implementation and Evaluation stage.
is 1.25; linguistic aspects of 1; feasibility aspects of presentation 1; aspects of RME syntax conformity of 0; and the suitability aspect of the criticalthinking indicator by 0. The highest percentage was 87% in the linguistic aspect. As for some deficiencies were identified: (1) The example given is not much, (2) Presentation materials less attractive, so it does not give an incentive to the students, (3) Do not include learning model, (4) Do not include the ability to improve. Based on the results of the media expert validation, several results were obtained. The standard deviation of the content eligibility aspect is 0.57; presentation eligibility 1.52; graph eligibility 1.59. The highest percentage is 90% in the aspect of content eligibility. As for some of the deficiencies found, namely (1) There is no illustrated image, (2) Worksheets is less attractive, (3) There are no instructions for using worksheets.Based on the explanation above, this study aims to determine the characteristics of students, determine the level of criticalthinking of students, know the learning model that can improve students' criticalthinkingskills, analyze the curriculum, analyze the material, and analyze the needs of worksheets by following RME approach that can improve students' criticalthinkingskills.
Ki Hadjar Dewantara is a figure of Indonesian education who provides significant educational concepts which are rooted in the nation's culture. According to Ki Hadjar Dewantara, a good education is an education that is rooted and reflected the culture of the nation itself. One of the concepts suggested is the concept of leadership trilogy known as Patrap Triloka. This concept shows the three roles and positions of teachers (leaders) as contained in the three proverbs "ing ngarsa sung tuladha", "ing madya mangun karsa" and "tut wuri handayani”. This study is intended to demonstrate the implementation of the concept of Patrap Triloka which contains three methods of education as an integral strategy in guidance services to improve students' criticalthinkingskills. This study was an experimental study with pre-test post-test one group design. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results showed that z-count (2.536) is greater than z-table (0.0054) and the value of Asymp. Sig is 0.011 (<0.05). The results indicated that the criticalthinking based on Patrap Triloka of Ki Hadjar Dewantara is effective for improving criticalthinkingskills of junior high school students.
Having in mind the complexity and interre- lation of mental processes, it became evident that the program entailed a balance between mental processes of the readers and their ability to communicate to others their visual comprehension. Likewise, the trained visual readers discovered in the image a tool that facilitates the process of oral and written commu- nication, just like that of semiotic communication. Finally, the results of the program demons- trated that the practice of having students par- ticipate actively in class and trusting students‘ abilities showed children might use complex mental activities which, based on Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, had for a long time been attributed only to older people.