The entrepreneurial game took place in Setúbal during the Business Week dedicated to “Entrepreneurship”. In it there were 56 students and 11 teachers from 7 countries 1 . Students were divided by seven groups and each group had 2 tutors (one Portuguese and another for a foreign country). Tutors had a special role in the game to support students during the activities. The entrepreneurial game also was an opportunity for tutors to work in a multicultural environment in apprenticeship perspective.
Universities fail to offer equitable learning experiences for their diverse students. At the same time, the value of diverse student identities and perspectives remains largely unrealized. In a globalising higher education context, these issues are exacerbated while the post-national university is increasingly complicit in advancing the neoliberal project and neglecting its potential to enable its diverse students to enhance social justice locally and globally. Although much current practice in outcomes-based higher education contributes to each of these processes, its underpinning theories of learning and its design features are compatible with more expansive and inclusive aspirations. Drawing upon critical and culturally relevant pedagogies, this article presents principles for the development of “critical intercultural practice” to empower all students in and for a multicultural globalizing world.
The 2004 OECD report on international education highlighted the critical role language plays in influencing a student’s study destination. A significant proportion of international students in New Zealand are seeking to enhance their proficiency in English (Beaver & Tuck, 1998). Language difficulties are frequently cited as the factors behind the academic and social problems of overseas students (e.g. Samuelowicz, 1987). International students are concerned with their proficiency in the host language and the impact of classroom language (Williams, 2001). Cruickshank, Newell and Cole (2003) note that when English is the instructional language, NESB students face highly demanding situations requiring them to perform complex tasks such as participating in class discussions and debates, conducting presentations and writing essays and case studies. In their study examining the experiences and achievements of NESB students, Borland and Pearce (1999) also found that academic staff do not recognise the range of issues affecting students' learning experiences. One challenge, often unrecognised, is the assumed cultural knowledge necessary for comprehending lectures and completing set tasks. Flowerdale (1994, cited in Mulligan & Kirkpatrick, 2000) emphasises the complexity of classroom language required by students as they must be competent in distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant material (e.g. jokes, asides); be able to take notes while listening; and be able to integrate material from a range of sources. Interestingly in their study of students’ perception of their comprehension of the lecture content, Mulligan and Kirkpatrick (2000) found a large gap between students from an English speaking background and those from a non-English speaking background. At the end of the lecture, one third of ESB students understood the lecture content very well. In contrast, only one in ten NESB students felt the same and 22% of NESB students reported that they understood very little of the lecture. This has significant implications for a lecturer teaching in a New Zealand tertiary classroom, as student language proficiency rather than cultural differences may better explain classroom communication problems (Stephens, 1997).
Licensed under Creative Common Page 11 Nazem, and Rafee (2017), Tran and Ngah (2018), Thouin, Hefley and Raghunathan (2018), Abdullai and Jabor (2015), Zurriaaga-carda, Kageyama, and Kenju (2016), Recber, Isiksal and Koc (2018), Saraih, Aris, Mutalib, Ahmad, Abdullah and Amlus (2018), Talia (2010), Zullinah, Amzairi, Azamudin and Muhamed (2015), Ljerka (2016), and Zurriaaga-carda, Kageyama and Kenju (2016), Pittaway, Elena, Ayegbayo, & King, 2011; Eldredge, Nolan & Williams, 2017; Kayne & Altman, 2016), Abbas & Zaidatol, 2016; Bonnie, Dianne, Yuchin, & William, 2015; Fernando, 2018; Lesley, 2016; Munawaroh, 2017; Reyes & Manipol, 2015). Furthermore, other studies such as Adedeji and Mohammed (2018), Amari and Abbes (2016), Mynavathi, Vinnarasi, Muthu, Anson, Mary, and Shankar (2018), Bonnie, Dianne, Yuchin, and William, (2015), and Munawaroh (2017)Abdullatif, Sawsen, Sami & Younes, 2016; Fellnhofer & Puumalainen, 2017; Niels, Jolanda, Veronique, Mirjam & Ingrid, 2014; Saeid, Harm, Biemans, Thomas, Mohammad, Martin & Karim, 2015). In the same context Amouri, Sidrat, Boudabbous, and Boujelbene, 2016; Zozimo, Jack and Hamilton (2017), Zozimo, Jack, and Hamilton (2017), Chlosta (2015) and Rafaela and Hector (2018) found positive effect of entrepreneurial learning on internship, self-efficacy, entrepreneurship club, pedagogy and role model on the attitude of students. Furthermore, entrepreneurship club best determined entrepreneurial learning for arousal of attitude towards entrepreneurship.
Some research found students’ experiences of learningentrepreneurship intention and internship experience provided them with chances to learn new internship skills, which may be helpful for their future self- employment (Dupre & Williams, 2011;Liu, Xu & Weitz, 2011; Misra & Mishra, 2011). Entrepreneurship intention are defined as follows: Attitude towards self-employment is the difference between perceptions of personal desirability in becoming self-employed and organisationally employed (Telander & Tramayne, 2011; Tomlinson, 2010). It is best predicted by attitudes towards the behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Research suggests that internship experience is important to affect internship learning result. It is positively related to students’ self-efficacy, choice goals, and outcome expectations in contexts that can be characterized as complex, dynamic, and inherently uncertain (Edvardsson & Alves, 2010; Gault, Leach & Duey, 2010; Hoekstra, 2011).
When working and developing ECE, we must always understand that the pre-primary education plays a crucial role in preventing societal and educational exclusion and fostering student’s long- term school success. Cunha and Nobel prize-winner, Heckman, an economist, suggest that the early childhood period gives the best opportunity for investment in human capital in relation to later opportunities during schooling at the primary and secondary levels (Cunha, Heckman, Lochner, & Masterov, 2005; see also OECD, 2006). This happens because learning at one stage begets learning in the next. For this reason learning in early childhood is especially important. Where human capital is concerned, the authors conclude that the rate of return on one dollar of investment made during a child´s early years is greater than an investment of the same sum later. Positive or negative dispositions toward society and learning are absorbed and basic life skills acquired. According to Cunha et. al. (2005), important basic life skills are cooperation with peers and adults, autonomy, meaning making, creativity, problem solving, and persistence.
The issue of intercultural learning, communication and interaction was explored and the extent to which students in the program communicated with each other. Students are required to work in a number of projects with their peers from Australia. The virtual learning and activities are well-supported by teachers from both locations. When we discussed their learning experiences, most students agreed that communication with their peers from another country, or with those who spoke an alternate primary language, was a key challenge. This challenge, however, was perceived more than a ‘language’ issue. In fact, most students refer to ‘approach in cross-cultural communication’ when they undertook groupwork with other students in the program. Factors that were frequently mentioned included consistency in normative values such as communication, politeness, and personal vs. team communication. All participants agreed that opportunities to work with students in the same program but living in different corners of the world help them to understand the concept of idea generation and opportunities in the entrepreneurship education.
The idea of learning English to the non-native English speaker can create a great deal of both havoc and potential inspiration and means for success in a person‟s life. Specifically, it takes a lot of courage, dedication and a positive attitude to create a positive personal space for English learning. Attitude factors aside, the work that is involved in learning English is great, and without at least a sense of what will happen at the end of the long road of studying English, the learner could potentially grow frustrated and give up the effort to learn English. Teaching English is an important task that produces a number of powerful rewards. In present situation English language Learners are a diverse collection of immigrants, businesspeople, students, and artists who share a dedication to the English language and a love of learning. Teaching English as a second language to these students is an honor and a privilege, one that we as educators share with all of those who strive to give student the tools they need to take on new enterprises and reach for their dreams. The gift of a second language is a window onto a new world, bringing into focus a wealth of conversation, information, and understanding that would otherwise be forever closed to the students who seek to learn a new language. Teaching English as a second language is a noble calling, empowering students to take their places in the global community and become active participants in the global conversation .There are very few countries in the world where English is taught on such a massive scale as in India.
Based on Derderian-Aghajanian (2010), if social and cultural values are encouraged and supported, through the use of context or through recognition of personal direction, teaching and learning will be more meaningful. Plurilingualism and cultural diversity alone provide an insufficient basis for training young people to live and work in an increasingly globalized and knowledge-based society. Monolingual and monocultural ideas about literacy need to be transcended and the plural dimensions of social processes and discourse need to be taken into account (Díez Itza, 2005). For this reason, teachers are needed who are able to teach in a multicultural atmosphere. Pre-service teachers to teach students who are culturally diverse are very important to support teacher's awareness, knowledge, and skills in providing equal education for all students (Sharma, 2005). In the world of education, especially in the transition to multicultural education, teachers have primary responsibility. Also, it appears that teacher education and the teacher's positive attitude towards multicultural education have an important role to live together; to be peaceful and respectful; to accept all identities with their cultural property without fear of separation of the state (Yılmaz, 2016). It states that teachers who are able to educate in a multicultural atmosphere can improve national attitudes and noble values of the nation. Teachers who are able to educate in multiculturalism can increase the meaningfulness of national character education. However, the implementation of multicultural education often occurs irregularities, especially the multidimensional concept, the dimensions of meaning, the dimensions of content, the dimensions of culture, the dimensions of primordialism, the egocentric dimension, and the dimension of religion. (Suyahman, 2006). According to him, the implementation of multicultural education in the future must be improved both in quantity and quality. It requires a deep awareness from citizens that pluralism is a very valuable investment. With plurality, it can be dynamic, creative and innovative. Multicultural education can provide services to all students regardless of socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnic, racial or cultural background, and equal opportunities for learning in school. Multicultural education is an educational policy and practice that recognizes, accepts, and confirms human differences and _________________________________
In the past decade particular attention is devoted to women’s entrepreneurship not only from the point of view of public education, but also in the scientific literature, where the factors and state measures stimulating women’s entrepreneurship are widely discussed. As a consequence, it has been understood that women’s entrepreneurship is a contribution to the country’s economic growth, solutions of social problems and employment. Entrepreneurship is characterized as personal ability to turn ideas into actions, which includes creativity, implementation of innovative solutions, assumption of risk and responsibility and realization of self-expression. Need in entrepreneurship is emphasized in all stages of life, both in professional activities, at work, in a society, where personal skills can be displayed, and in the possibility to create an even higher added value by contributing to certain activities and processes. Lithuanian entrepreneurship stimulation policy comprises various initiatives, such as financial opportunities, extension of capital accessibility, measures improving the business environment and dispersion of educational and learning measures without distinguishing between men and women. The main actions of the stimulation policy are concentrated on the youth group, socially vulnerable group or stimulation of entrepreneurship at an older age.
India is a melting pot even in the classroom. Students of different cultures need to experience validation of their own culture within the context of learning. Teachers have an opportunity to celebrate the cultural differences of students within the curriculum, the classroom environment and the shared experiences of students .Multiculturalism is the celebration of different cultures while finding areas of commonality. A practical way to promote multiculturalism is to decorate the classroom with posters, bulletin boards and models. This helps students of different cultures to connect with the overall theme. Encourage students to assist in decorating the classroom and providing artifacts or props from their own home. Multicultural Curriculum:
This subsection explores issues around the teaching of religious/moral education. Overall, there was some variation across the participating countries in who was responsible for teaching RME in primary schools. In Ireland, RME is taught by mainstream classroom teachers (except in the Muslim schools, where specialist Islamic teachers are employed). Mainstream teachers also teach the Learning Together programme in multi-denominational Educate Together schools. Primary school teachers in Ireland receive their training either in Catholic or Protestant teacher education colleges and require a certificate to teach religion. In Flanders, teachers of Catholic religious education in community schools and subsidized official schools are educated in a Catholic college of higher education where they also specialize in teaching the Catholic religion. In Catholic primary schools, religion and general education are integrated; therefore, the subject of religious education (or RME) is not set apart and not taught by a specialist teacher. However, the mainstream class teacher is required to receive a mandate from the Bishop, which requires having been baptized and having qualified in a Catholic college of higher education. Consequently, teachers with a different background (e.g. Humanists or Muslims) cannot be employed in a Catholic primary school. The official schools, on the other hand, are more likely to use specialist teachers for RME. While most class teachers do not feel fully prepared for teaching RME, the specialist teachers consider themselves adequately prepared for their role. In Germany, religious education in primary schools is usually only taught by specialist teachers. In some cases, pastors and priests can be employed to teach RME. Only in exceptional cases (when neither a specialist teacher nor a pastor is available) may the task fall to a mainstream classroom teacher. As in Flanders, religion teachers need to be members of, and approved by, the respective Church. Teachers in the German case-study schools reported that they did not feel adequately prepared for discussing religious differences in the classroom.
disabilities and protected units. These organizations are a type of joint-venture between NGO’s and local administration, and sometimes businesses, NGO’s and local administration. Their main characteristic is that the mission they address is strongly social and because many of the times it is an important social issue for the local community, the public sector needs to become involved, at least in the early stage of work. Another form of entrepreneurship in public sector is Community Development Corporations, very active is USA as a organizational entity aimed towards local development of a specific community, in which are partners businesses, NGO's and local authorities.
Since the 1980s, we have seen new subfields emerging, such as organizational anthropology (Garsten & Nyqvist, 2013; Jordan & Caulkins, 2013; Wright, 1994) and business anthropology (Jordan, 2012; Tian, Lillis, & Van Marrewijk, 2013), the latter with its own journal, the Journal of Business Anthropology (since 2012). These fields, instigated by anthropologists, show that there are many synergies in the kind of organizations being studied, from corporations to NGOs and indigenous organizations, as well as in terms of the research themes, which run from internal organizational dynamics, to interorganizational relationships, and the interaction between organi- zations and their wider context (Jordan & Caulkins, 2013). There are however several important differences, relevant to our call for alternative approaches. Organizational anthropologists demon- strate a greater interest in studying less mainstream organizations and engage a longitudinal research frame (often in cultures other than their own), such as NGO–church links (Kamsteeg, 1998), secret societies (Mahmud, 2013), or monasteries (Lohuis, 2013; Paganopoulos, 2010). At a more theoretical level one finds an emphasis on classical anthropological issues, such as kinship (e.g. Verver & Koning, 2018) and rites of passage (e.g. Popova, 2016) employed in current organi- zational and managerial research.
Both similarities and differences can be observed when looking at learning conceptions and approaches to learning of students in different cultures. Educators first need to identify the study and learning approaches adopted by students of different cultural background and suit their teaching approaches to the needs and interests of their culturally diverse learners. Culture, knowledge domain, learning conceptions and approaches are largely interconnected (Zhu, Valcke & Schellens, 2007). Students have preconceived understanding and knowledge of subjects primarily influenced by their cultural setup, and they try to approach new knowledge with already existing knowledge in order to form relation or identity. Learners may choose to learn and adopt information in their own way but certain attitudes and behaviours which govern these senses can be seen as superior than others (Bensor & Lor, 1998,1999, 2013).
One such moment came up during my fall 2016 classes, near Dia de Los Muertos. Students deepened their multicultural art learning by engaging with a ofrenda collectively designed and installed in the Theatre Building by three student groups in solidarity with each other: the Young People’s Resistance Committee, Students for Justice in Palestine, and the Black Student Union (see Figures 5 and 6). In their artist statement, the creators explained that while Dia de Los Muertos is a traditional holiday, it also demonstrates resistance against forced colonization and eradication of people. They also described that the intention of the ofrenda installation was “to honor the lives lost through systematic inequality, occupation, displacement, warfare and migration.” After a few moments of quiet looking, student volunteers pointed out parts that they thought were interesting and parts about which that they wanted to know more. In wondering, students realized that there are people, events, and issues they needed to learn more about. As student Leslie described in a reflection about this experience, “art can also be a way to raise awareness of issues that are occurring in different communities and bring people together to protest racial and cultural injustices” (personal communication, December, 2016).
associations with dominant group privilege create expectations in dominant group members that their concerns must always be addressed and that they will be in control” (p. 258). Thus, being allowed to have an opinion and explain why a marginalized person’s daily experience is not evidence enough of a phenomenon, a phenomenon that “The Cynic” will never experience, is a privilege only afforded to dominant group members. The teacher’s decision not to intervene reified the dominant position of “The Cynic” and my subordinate position. This discourse pattern is typical of dominant group members, the group to which the instructor also belonged. Therefore, no intervention may have seemed warranted from the instructor’s perspective. In an outline of critiques of multicultural education from the Left and the Right, Nieto (1995, 2009) touched on the superficial acceptance of diverse perspectives, which can lead to the dangerous assumption that all perspectives are equal and valid. It is possible to analyze the professor’s choice not to challenge “The Cynic” through this lens. In other words, the professor potentially chose not to intervene because she believed that “The Cynic’s” opinions on racism were equally valid as mine from a Person of Color. It is impossible to know what was in the professor’s mind in that moment. However, what I can communicate with certainty is how triggered and disillusioned this situation left me, especially since there was no debriefing or check-in by the professor afterwards.
The work life balance is a very important and sensitive issue which is talked about in every seminar and conference; it requires considerable attention from the society also. Hectic schedules and increasing work demand has made Work Life Balance a very difficult task for men as well as women but women have to struggle more for it. As this study is in Indian context so the researcher found that working women face lot of pressure at home and at profession to perform the best. Women are occupying all type of positions in job and responsibilities for home and society are also increasing. The Role conflict between competing work demands and family needs seem to be the most probable reason for selecting this topic for research. The objective of the study is to construct a Work Life Balance Models which will explain the whole scenario of the working women. It is to draw the attention of HR fraternity to make such policies and strategies which will solve the problems of working women. The Model will cover the Needs, Consequences, Benefits and Coping up strategies/ Techniques to create work life balance in working women. All these factors are divided into two categories: Individual Level and Organization Level. The Models will help in understanding every facets of working women and will be significant across the world.
As expected in a group where most people study in a language which is not their first language, this issue was also brought into attention, in the form of “language barrier issues and misunderstandings”. Moreover, one participant pointed out that “the group might be divided into smaller subgroups with little socialising between them if students from one culture are less likely to want to integrate into the class”. As can be observed, various cultural-related issues are brought up as being significant in an international/multicultural educational environment.