Top PDF LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2010

LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2010

LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2010

The DEPOTEC project proposes a depolymerisation process that will add value to the waste tyres by pro- ducing products that can be used as substitute carbon filler materials in the rubber manufacturing process. This will ultimately lead to a reduction in stockpiling of tyres as they will now become valuable raw materials for the production of these products. It will also offer an alter- native to burning ELT to produce tyre-derived fuel. The project aims to design, plan and construct a dem- onstration ‘ZeroWaste’ plant for depolymerisation of end-of-life tyres that is able to recycle a significant quantity of waste tyres per year and be financially vi- able on the basis of its byproducts. This plant will be self sustained, and new products will be created from waste with minimal energy consumption. The project aims to demonstrate the viability of future main- streaming of the process by processing a significant volume of end-of-life tyres into a microporous carbon material with absorbent properties over the duration of the project. The most effective testing procedures for gauging the technical quality of the products of this process will be assessed and the project will also contribute to the development of a comprehensive se- ries of environmental standards that will facilitate the accreditation of the products of recycling of ELT (e.g. through the European Eco-Label). The end result will be the development of a technology that can be used throughout Europe to enable value-added products to be produced from waste.
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Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council concerning the Financial Instrument for the Environment (LIFE +). COM (2004) 621 final, 29 September 2004

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council concerning the Financial Instrument for the Environment (LIFE +). COM (2004) 621 final, 29 September 2004

This programme strand will generate improvement in the knowledge base of environment policy development and implementation. Future policy will be increasingly complex to devise, demanding more comprehensive data. It is widely recognised that, in the interests of better policy making and enhanced cost effectiveness, a major effort is needed to get better data on the state of the environment and to understand the linkages between air, water, soil and the cause and effect relationship between different activities and environment degradation. There is generally insufficient quantitative data and qualitative information reported to underpin comprehensive evaluation of environmental policies. For most environmental indicators, there is not full EU coverage. Data is often not comparable between countries due to diverging definitions and data collection practices. There are few common standards, insufficient inter-operability between monitoring systems and limited opportunities for data sharing. LIFE+ Implementation and Governance will support modelling and scenario building, studies as well as the conception, design and demonstration of new approaches to monitoring and assessment in key priority areas, including those covered by the thematic strategies (i.e. resources, waste prevention, air, soil, marine, pesticides and urban environment). This will contribute to consolidating the knowledge base, improve coherence and consistency of monitoring and assessment on a European basis and thereby significantly improve EU environmental policy development and implementation
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LIFE. Environment policy & governance and Information & communications projects 2007

LIFE. Environment policy & governance and Information & communications projects 2007

In the next 20 years, world carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emis- sions are expected to increase by 1.9% annually. This increase is mainly foreseen from the burning of fossil fu- els – coal, oil and natural gas – for energy production. Given the link between CO 2 emissions and climate change, a central objective of the European Commis- sion’s energy policy is to reduce these. To achieve this aim, the EU considers essential the development of re- newable energies as a clear alternative to fossil fuels. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a process in which micro- organisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It has direct environmental ben- efits since it reduces the negative impact of organic waste on the environment – from odours, leaching, soil and water pollution and pathogens – without re- leasing CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere.
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LIFE. Environment projects 2006

LIFE. Environment projects 2006

The implementation of the Water Framework Direc- tive policy to achieve a good chemical water status will lead Europe into a new phase of municipal waste- water treatment. Current techniques for the treatment of municipal wastewater are not designed to remove the priority substances mentioned in the WFD. The removal of the priority substances is possible through the use of a combination of innovative techniques. The combinations will be demonstrated on a full scale installation by the Dutch Water Board of Rijnland (HHR) and the Foundation for Applied Water Re- search (STOWA). The goal is to achieve the required water quality long before the deadline set by the WFD using these innovative and highly economical post- treatment technologies. These WFD-standards are to be met by 2015. However, plans for achieving these standards must be ready by 2009. This strict WFD-
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LIFE. Environment projects 2004

LIFE. Environment projects 2004

105 projects were selected in 2004. The EUR 76 million in funding provided by LIFE-Environment strand of the LIFE programme will cover approximately 33% of the project costs. The remaining 67% will be provid- ed by the beneficiaries, partners and co-financiers. Integrated product policy takes the lead with 29 projects in this area (26% of projects selected). Out of those, 18 projects target integrated environmental management audit systems (i.e. EMAS), while the remaining projects deal with eco-design, eco-efficien- cy, eco-labelling and green financial products. Another 24 (21%) projects seek to mitigate the envi- ronmental impact of economic activities, covering clean technologies and reduction of greenhouse gases. A further 22 projects (19%) focus on integrat- ed environmental considerations, which includes urban environment, air quality and noise abatement, integrated coastal zone management, land-use development and planning and sustainable tourism.
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Compact cities: everyday life, governance and the built environment: an annotated bibliography and literature review

Compact cities: everyday life, governance and the built environment: an annotated bibliography and literature review

The article explores the factors that contribute to, or impede, citizen participation in housing renewal projects based on Israel's Project Renewal. The delicacy of the area, and its social diversity, called for a new approach that the author called ‘‘Democracy Shock,’’ where residents and government officials came together in the neighborhood itself to try and work out an acceptable approach to managing the neighborhood's problems. Though this worked for a time, participation declined over the years, thus the notion of Leading Interest Groups of voluntary activists was developed. These aim to circumvent problems associated with local leadership ('such as political influences, self-interests, few activists, years of personal grind, leadership that remained in power too long, and lack of innovative leadership') by encouraging residents to be leaders of change. LIGs The Think Tank staff, heads of local authority departments, community social workers, residents and leading interest group representatives. Uniquely, aspects of this public decision-making process led to a government legal decision which entitled residents to a certain measure of influence, thus creating a different balance of power.
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LIFE. Information & communication projects 2010

LIFE. Information & communication projects 2010

Some harmful chemical substances produced by in- dustrial activities remain in the environment for a very long time once released. There they can accumulate via the food chain and, if toxic, exert harmful effects on living organisms. These so-called persistent bio-ac- cumulative toxic (PBT) substances can also be trans- ported very long distances from their original emission source, causing significant damage to ecosystems. PBT contamination is a recognised problem in the Bal- tic Sea region, however there is a lack of reliable in- formation about the occurrence of these harmful sub- stances and their sources. Earlier actions, including the activities of HELCOM, Baltic Sea Action programmes and work at EU level with bans, restrictions and other measures have led to noticeable improvements and are helping to repair the damage to the marine envi- ronment. However, there are still issues to be resolved concerning the environment and individual products; the impacts are complex and therefore require com- plex solutions for mitigation.
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LIFE. Environment projects 2002

LIFE. Environment projects 2002

The shift from traditional forms of farming and grazing to "modernised" forms that are intensive and heavily industrialised, and the disappearance in parallel to this of farming in large spaces, have created clear problems of environmental, economic and social sustainability. The dehesas, which are forested areas used for grazing and visible models of sustainable management of agri- pastoral resources, are confronted with this situation. The techniques to domesticate the Mediterranean for- est have generated an ecosystem of great biological and ecological diversity. The traditional dehesa's sur- vival and adaptation to the present and future eco- nomic system is faced with serious difficulties. One of these difficulties is the small amount of capital available in relation to the amount of capital tied up. The result of this today is that the dehesa's profitability is more linked to the increase in value of the farm than to the income generated by what the farm produces. The owners therefore tend not to be interested in sustain- able farming, lacking the available funds to make improvements that would preserve the dehesas. The farms exceed their natural capacity to feed the livestock by giving them artificial feed and in so doing contribute to the widespread intensification of farming. This not only leads to erosion and causes water pollution because of the rampant use of fertilizer and liquid manure but also reduces the biodiversity of the area where endangered species are the first victims. However, the gradual disappearance of extensive meth- ods of farming which are sustainable and a traditional characteristic of the dehesas is a trend that is continuing. In a bid to remedy this situation and find a solution to the excessive cost of subsiding agriculture, the new Common Agricultural Policy is trying to replace produc- tion subsidies with quality subsidies and is giving special attention to the development of agri-environmental measures.
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Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council on the establishment of a programme for the environment and climate action (LIFE). Annex to the impact assessment. Commission staff working document. SEC (2011) 1543 final, 12 December 2

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council on the establishment of a programme for the environment and climate action (LIFE). Annex to the impact assessment. Commission staff working document. SEC (2011) 1543 final, 12 December 2011

When asked how many legislative, policy or planning documents were to be politically approved as a result of their activity, answers ranged from 0 to 7 with an average response of one per project. In addition, for 61% of projects it was anticipated that new management systems or plans would be introduced. Projects expected these management systems to be realised at the local (49%), regional (41%), national (12%) and EU (18%) scales. Over half of projects (59%) will include implementation of new monitoring or assessment systems. This will occur across all levels, particularly the local and regional scale (45% and 37% respectively). 72% of project beneficiaries felt that their project activity would help to improve the capacity of the area’s stakeholders, through training, awareness raising, knowledge sharing and the development of new processes and systems. Approximately two- thirds of respondents stated that partnerships would be established. For example, one project was to establish a collaborative network among technical staff to control performance in terms of reducing the environmental impact of the use of chemicals. Transnational co-operation is likely to be established through just over half of projects (54%), with all stating that this would improve project results or help projects to achieve results at least to some extent. The table below summarises the intended management results of the projects. Key results include developing early warning systems and monitoring systems for climate change management and introducing life-cycle analysis, waste management strategies and introduction of systems for sustainable management of limited resources.
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LIFE. Nature & biodiversity projects 2010

LIFE. Nature & biodiversity projects 2010

Good water management is necessary for human de- velopment to be sustainable: factors affecting rivers have led to the disappearance or decline of important species and to a loss of biodiversity. Water manage- ment, in particular, requires the protection and conser- vation of species that are reliable indicators of the eco- logical status of rivers. Thus, three species, identified as priority for conservation by the Habitats Directive, are targeted by this project: the white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes), freshwater pearl mus- sel (Margaritifera margaritifera), and the thick shelled river mussel (Unio crassus). Other important species are also concerned: Brook lamprey (Lampetra plan- eri), European bullhead (Cottus gobio), and, indirectly, brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). All of these species, which are in significant decline, are very sensitive to physical modifications of their environment and/or to water quality.
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Crown finance and governance under James I : projects and fiscal policy 1603 1625

Crown finance and governance under James I : projects and fiscal policy 1603 1625

this thesis will justify some measure of the promise he always claimed to see in me and his comments and criticism throughout its development have been deeply appreciated. Professor Linda Levy Peck has been generous with information and advice from the early days, I am grateful to Jenny Wormald for many positive thoughts about and stimulating discussion of my research at the NACBS in Chicago in 1996; as well as her useful and generous commentary of our panel at that conference. The pleasant discussions on topics far and wide with members of the St. Andrews School of History greatly enhanced my experience there: thanks to Bruce P. Lenman, Roger Mason, Normal MacDougall, and Mark White. Lorna Harris, Elsie Johnstone, Norma Porter, and Maijoiy Bruce were expert at getting things done at St. Andrews Univer sity which made my life as a research student easier. The friendships of my two fellow Ph.D. students at St. Andrews, Stephen Alford and James Plampson, have been the most meaningful outcome of our three years together there. They have read, listened to and commented upon my ideas and prose, and offered many positive and helpful suggestions on all facets of this work. They made the professional side of the last three years a truly collegial, rewarding experience. On a personal level, Jamie's undying optimism was often a welcome tonic while Stephen and I now seem to have been the closest of friends our whole lives. In the often-times narrow world of historical research and writing, it was a godsend to have a friend who also asked, 'What does god need with a starship?' and took many a figurative leap over Springfield Gorge with me. Finally, Todd Doran and Leslie Sawers made life in miserable student accommodation bearable. Leslie particularly deserves thanks for many days of football, NY, pizza, and fine ale. Cheers one and all!!
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2009 Environment policy review. Commission staff working document SEC (2010) 975 final, 2 August 2010

2009 Environment policy review. Commission staff working document SEC (2010) 975 final, 2 August 2010

To encourage cities to improve the quality of urban life by taking the environment systematically into account in urban planning, the Commission introduced a new award scheme, the European Green Capital award. Stockholm and Hamburg were named as the fi rst winners of this award. The Swedish capital will be European Green Capital in 2010, followed by Hamburg in 2011. Stockholm has an Integrated Management System that ensures environmental issues are included in the city’s budget, operational planning, reporting and monitoring. It has set itself the ambitious target of becoming fossil-fuel-free by 2050. In Hamburg, air quality is very good, there are numerous awareness-raising programmes, and the city has introduced ambitious climate protection goals. Regarding civil protection, further steps were taken towards testing innovative arrangements for a European rapid response capacity based on standby intervention modules and supplementing EU-level capacities. This included setting up a European Forest Fires Tactical Reserve on a pilot basis, with two water-bombing aircraft available to assist in response to major forest fi res in the summer of 2009. Throughout the year 2009, the European Civil Protection Mechanism was activated 28 times: 10 cases concerned disasters within the
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Multilevel Fiscal Governance in a Balanced Policy Environment

Multilevel Fiscal Governance in a Balanced Policy Environment

Hettich and Winer advocated the unanimity rule because it prevents special interest groups from influencing fiscal outcomes. However, since unanimous voting is not a realistic possibility, the authors recommended a requirement to make decisions by pluralities larger than 50%. Lazar et al. (2004) and Dahlby (2005) argue that VFI exists when a particular level of government complains about insufficient funding and/or tax room and a wide majority of the public supports its cause. Though a public opinion poll is a significant factor, yet it is not sufficient because political leaders can always manipulate the voters by appealing to their prejudices, their parochial feelings, and their desire for short)term gains, even at the cost of long)term gains (Chelliah 2010, p. 22).
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LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2012

LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2012

The control of bacterial diseases in plants is largely based on the use of copper salts, which are some of the few chemicals still allowed in organic agriculture. How- ever, copper derivatives do not degrade in the environ- ment and their tendency to accumulate in soil and wa- ter poses a serious threat to a wide range of organisms and micro-organisms, and to their ecosystems. Moreo- ver, copper-contaminated agricultural soils have been shown to contain high proportions of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in comparison with non-contaminated soils. Therefore copper-contaminated soils should be consid- ered a dangerous reservoir of genes for antibiotic resist- ance, easily transmitted to pathogenic bacteria infecting animals and humans, with a significant impact on their health. The replacement of copper with more favourable alternatives is a priority for European agricultural policy. Surprisingly, no copper-free substitutes for copper fungi- cides have so far been found, though some preparations appeared to have potential. This research needs to be further investigated and built on, however.
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LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2011

LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2011

The excessive use of chemical de-icers for winter road maintenance can lead to environmental damage and jeopardise the protection of natural ecosystems close to busy roads. Several studies have demonstrated already that road salt has a negative impact on the surround- ing environment, with short and long term damage to aquatic systems, vegetation, air quality, wildlife and hu- man health, as well as to the road infrastructure and vehicles. Today, the salting of roads in wintertime is car- ried out in a subjective manner, without the use of quan- titative data. This can lead to an overestimation of the amount of salt required and thus a waste of resources. The target area (Bolzano province, northern Italy) was selected as particularly suitable because of its high chemical usage (mainly of salt - sodium chloride) for de-icing of roads in wintertime. Since there is heavy traf- fic on major routes in this frontier region, even at night, the decision on whether to salt or not can be difficult to make: and the overestimation of quantities of salt also impacts on road safety levels.
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LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2009

LIFE. Environment policy & governance projects 2009

The core of the project is a new descaling and scale milling mechanical process. This innovative dry micro- layering treatment will descale using mechanical and abrasive actions. It will be applied after the wires are drawn and use microwave plasma surface treatment, which favours the subsequent hot deposition of a high performance Zn-Al-Mg based alloy. Iron-based parti- cles recovered during descaling are to be separated and reused as pigments, or within metal processing plants. Further environmental impact reductions will be gained during the wire surface preparation and zinc coating stages. A new pre-treatment stage of surface clean- ing and activation by microwave plasma will be tested, which should reduce the amount of zinc coating re- quired and also use high performance ternary alloys of the Zn-Al-Mg system. The overall aims of the project are to reduce raw material use, drastically decrease acid and pickling bath use, reduce the production of pollut- ant zinc ashes, increase the useful life of the manufac- tured products and make them more suitable for weld- ing without affecting the protective surface coating. Expected results
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LIFE Environment policy & governance projects 2008

LIFE Environment policy & governance projects 2008

In Greece and adjacent Mediterranean countries, con- ventional agricultural practices are affected by water scarcity because of water over-consumption for irriga- tion of agricultural crops, the intensive use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers and, ultimately, the depletion and contamination of groundwater. Consequently, there is an increased interest in crop production sys- tems that optimise yields while conserving soil, wa- ter and energy and protecting the environment. The Thessaly Plain is one of Greece’s main agricultural pro- duction areas. The Pinios river drainage basin occupies most of the Thessaly Plain region, and the proposed demonstration area, the Gonni-Sikourion-Platikambos basin, is part of the Pinios watershed. Significant wa- ter-bearing geologic formations are few and are lo- cated close to the alluvial deposits of the Pinios river and its tributaries. The water resources (surface and groundwater) are minimal, and support irrigation of limited acreage. Irrigation is mainly based on pump- ing water from groundwater aquifers using private boreholes and pumping units, which has resulted in continuously declining aquifer depths. Water pricing could help tackle this major environmental problem. Intensive agriculture has also led to excessive fertiliser and pesticide inputs, resulting in soil and water ni- trate concentrations often exceeding EU limits. Over- use of water for irrigation accelerates the leaching of agrichemicals into groundwater.
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Failed IT projects: is poor IT governance to blame?

Failed IT projects: is poor IT governance to blame?

Recent rapid advancements in IT platforms and related technologies (for instance networking technologies and cloud computing solutions) have introduced an increased layer of complexity in IT planning and decision-making processes (Asgarkhani, 2012; Mandala, & Chandra, 2012; Wen-Hsi, 2012). The literature on ITG provides advice and recommendations on models and frameworks for ITG implementation (De Haes & Van Grembergen, 2010; Van Grembergen & De Haes, 2009; Weill & Ross, 2004; Weill & Vitale, 2002; Williams, 2012). The literature outlined in this section highlights that previous studies on ITG tend to assume that recommended models and practices lead to effective governance, although we could find no empirical evidence to support this assumption. Despite the number of prescriptive models and ‘best practice frameworks’ available in the field, and an increased uptake of ITG in organisations, achieving key ITG outcomes is consistently ranked as one of the top concerns of management (Gartner, 2016).
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Marine planning: applying the UK tradition of discretionary planning to the seas

Marine planning: applying the UK tradition of discretionary planning to the seas

However, the emphasis was not on gathering as much data as possible, but on the data that was necessary to achieve the plans’ objectives, as determined through consultation and issue identification. Objectives reflect those of the UK-wide Marine Policy Statement, with particular emphasis on offshore wind energy, which is presented as of major importance for the plan areas, especially the offshore plan:

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As science becomes more data-intensive and collaborative, researchers increasingly use larger and more complex data to answer research questions. The capacity of storage infrastructure, the increased sophistication and deployment of sensors, the ubiquitous availability of computer clusters, the development of new analysis techniques, and larger collaborations allow researchers to address grand societal challenges in a way that is unprecedented. In parallel, research data repositories have been built to host research data in response to the requirements of sponsors that research data be publicly available. Libraries are re-inventing themselves to respond to a growing demand to manage, store, curate and preserve the data produced in the course of publicly funded research. As librarians and data managers are developing the tools and knowledge they need to meet these new expectations, they inevitably encounter conversations around Big Data. This paper explores definitions of Big Data that have coalesced in the last decade around four commonly mentioned characteristics: volume, variety, velocity, and veracity. We highlight the issues associated with each characteristic, particularly their impact on data management and curation. We use the methodological framework of the data life cycle model, assessing two models developed in the context of Big Data projects and find them lacking. We propose a Big Data life cycle model that includes activities focused on Big Data and more closely integrates curation with the research life cycle. These activities include planning, acquiring, preparing, analyzing, preserving, and discovering, with describing the data and assuring quality being an integral part of each activity. We discuss the relationship between institutional data curation repositories and new long-term data resources associated with high
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