Top PDF Method and apparatus for bone sensing

Method and apparatus for bone sensing

Method and apparatus for bone sensing

The invention discloses an improved bone conduction sensor capable of use within a voice sound transmitting apparatus. The bone conduction sensor is adapted for placement in the external auditory canal of the user in a nonocclusive fashion. The bone conduction sensor has a contoured surface adapted-to fit against a wall of the external auditory canal increasing the surface area contact between the bone conduction sensor and the wall of the external auditory canal. The bone conduction sensor may also be associated with one or more contact sensors adjacent the bone conduction sensor for determining contact between the bone conduction sensor and the wall of the external auditory canal. In addition, the invention provides for the bone sensing element to be separated from the circuit portion of the bone conduction sensor so that the circuitry may be removed to the behind the ear portion of the earpiece.
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Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular
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Method and apparatus for attaching two members together from one side thereof

Method and apparatus for attaching two members together from one side thereof

A method and apparatus for attaching two members together which includes forming an opening through a first member. A second member has a first portion thereof which is larger than the opening in the first member and a second portion disposed about a longitudinal axis. The second portion is smaller than the opening in the first member and the second portion is divided along the longitudinal axis into at least two sections. A hole is formed through the second member along the longitudinal axis. An elongated member having an enlarged head thereon is placed through a washer, the enlarged portion of the elongated member being larger than the opening in the washer, but smaller than the hole through the second member. The elongated member is placed first through the opening in the washer, then through the hole in the second member from the second portion side to the first portion side of the second member whereby the enlarged portion of the elongated member engages the washer and the washer engages the second portion of the second member. Then the second member is placed in a position wherein the first portion thereof is disposed on one side of the first member and the second portion of the second member extends through the opening unit disposed on the other side of the first member. The elongated member is then pulled from the first portion side of the second member until the washer bends the sections of the second portion apart to the point that the second portion cannot be withdrawn from the opening in the first member, and further pulling the elongated member until the enlarged portion thereof is forced through the opening in the washer whereupon further pulling of the elongated member is accomplished until it has pulled completely through the hole in the second member whereby the second member will be secured through the first member and the elongated member will be discarded.
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Acceptance of the bodypainting as supportive method to learn the surface locomotor apparatus anatomy of the horse

Acceptance of the bodypainting as supportive method to learn the surface locomotor apparatus anatomy of the horse

Although bodypainting has been reported as a great resource for teaching surface anatomy of humans, its use in veterinary anatomy has not been scienti- fically reported. In the present study, bodypainting was performed on 4 horses for anatomy teaching purposes of the equine locomotor apparatus. We aimed to use the bodypainting method as an additional tool to classic teaching and to test the relevance of our purpose. Twenty one Brazilian veterinary students were given a 90-min session, which included a presentation of painted horses, with opportunities for the students to ask questions and to palpate anatomic locations on the horses. Based on a questionnaire, there was unanimous student satisfaction with this technique. Furthermore, student scores on practical tests to evaluate the attention retain given immediately before and 1 h after the session were 33.9 ± 19.8% and 69.0 ± 18.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). We concluded that bodypainting has great potential for support the classic lectures of the equine locomotor apparatus. (Folia Morphol 2015; 74, 4: 503–507)
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Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self- absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.
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Apparatus and method for reducing anhydrous ammonia application by optimizing distribution

Apparatus and method for reducing anhydrous ammonia application by optimizing distribution

An apparatus, method, and system for distributing gas and/or liquid phase substance from an inlet to multiple outlets with reduced variations and distribution. The apparatus includes a body having an inlet and a plurality of outlets. In one aspect, a rotatable impeller is positioned between inlet and plurality of outlets. The impeller includes a spiral fluid pathway relative to direction of substance through the inlet so that the substance passes through the impeller and is distributed to the outlets through a spinning impeller.

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Simulation Vacuum Preloading Method by Tri Axial Apparatus

Simulation Vacuum Preloading Method by Tri Axial Apparatus

some sections during simulate vacuum preloading me- thod, pre-consolidation (AB), vacuum application (BC), surcharge loading (CDEF). Under vacuum condition, the stress path of soil moves from B to C far from the failure line, while it changes from D to E close to the failure line when surcharge was applied. The behavior of soil speci- men under vacuum preloading method simulated by Tri-axial apparatus is well matched the before studies.

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Apparatus and method for driving an ultrasonic transducer

Apparatus and method for driving an ultrasonic transducer

A method and apparatus for electronically driving an ultrasonic acoustic transducer. The transducer is operable in two modes; in a first mode, the lock-in frequency of the transducer is determined; in a second mode, the lock-in frequency determined in the first mode is used to modulate a tone-burst pulse to drive the transducer in an efficient manner. Operating in the first mode, the lock-in frequency is determined by exciting the transducer with a series of tone bursts, where each tone burst comprises an electronic pulse modulated by a tone of one frequency selected from a range of frequencies, and measuring the response of the transducer to each tone burst. In an alternative embodiment, the excitation of the transducer in the first mode is provided by a signal whose frequency is swept over a range. The response of the transducer is sampled at various times during the sweep. The lock-in frequency is chosen by examining the responses and choosing the frequency which gives the best response. Operating in the second mode, the transducer is driven with an electronic tone burst generated by modulating said an electronic pulse with a tone of the determined lock-in frequency.
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Apparatus and method for on line barkhausen measurement

Apparatus and method for on-line barkhausen measurement

Apparatus and method for measuring the Barkhausen signal of a moving magnetic film, ribbon or fiber wherein first and second stationary electromagnet coils are arranged and separated by a distance, d, along the path of movement of the film, ribbon or fiber. The first and second coils are energized in a manner to generate first and second opposing DC magnetic fields through which the moving film, ribbon or fiber passes along its path of movement. As the film, ribbon or fiber moves through the first and second opposing magnetic fields at a velocity, v, it experiences one complete cycle of magnetization in a period of time equal to d/v. A stationary third signal pick-up coil is disposed between the first and second coils to detect the Barkhausen signal from the moving film, ribbon or fiber. The pick-up coil typically is disposed midway between the first and second coils where the Barkhausen signal will be approximately maximum.
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Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.
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Method and apparatus for controlling the approach angle of a plow unit in response to speed variations

Method and apparatus for controlling the approach angle of a plow unit in response to speed variations

A variable approach angle moldboard plow implement for forming furrows of a predetermined width including an elongated tool bar connectible to a tractor, comprising: a a plurality of mol[r]

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Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity

Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity

A method of measuring electrical conductivity in a material, said method including the steps of: mounting a pair of electrically conducting elements to be in 15 contact with said materia[r]

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Method and apparatus for magnetoresistive monitoring of analytes in flow streams

Method and apparatus for magnetoresistive monitoring of analytes in flow streams

magnetoresistive sensor has an array of sensing elements that produce electrical output signals which vary in dependence on changes in the magnetic field proximate the sensing elements. The analyte is included in a stream, such that the stream has a magnetic property which is dependent on the concentration and distribution on the analyte therein. The stream is flowed past the giant magnetoresistive sensor and in

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COMPARISON OF CARDIAC OUTPUT DETERMINED BY THE BALLISTOCARDIOGRAPH (NICKERSON APPARATUS) AND BY THE DIRECT FICK METHOD

COMPARISON OF CARDIAC OUTPUT DETERMINED BY THE BALLISTOCARDIOGRAPH (NICKERSON APPARATUS) AND BY THE DIRECT FICK METHOD

As indicated above, the purpose of the present investigation is to analyze further the use of the Nickerson ballistocardiograph as a means of measuring cardiac output, comparing values s[r]

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Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

Method and apparatus using selected superparamagnetic labels for rapid quantification of immunochromatographic tests

Abstract: A rapid method and instrumentation for quantifi cation of immunochromatographic tests (ICT) are described. The principle and performance of the method was demonstrated by measuring the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) present in urine. The test format was a sandwich assay using two distinct monoclonal antibodies directed against hCG. The fi rst anti-hCG antibody was labeled with superparamagnetic particles whereas the second was immobilized as a narrow detection zone on a porous membrane. The human urine sample was mixed with superparamagnetic particles coated with the fi rst anti-hCG antibody, and the mixture was allowed to migrate past the detection zone containing the second anti-hCG antibody. Capillary forces facilitated migration of the immune complexes along the porous membrane. The amount of superparamagnetic particle-labelled monoclonal anti-hCG bound to the detec- tion zone was directly proportional to the amount of hCG present in the sample as detected by measuring magnetization in the detector coil. The method had a practical detection limit of 20 U/l (54 nM) of hCG per 5 μ l of human urine and a linear range of three decades from 20 U/l to 10 000 U/l. In addition, the analysis was completed within less than 10 minutes. Thus, the test format should be suitable for fast detection and monitoring of a large variety of clinically important parameters and analytes.
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The Golgi apparatus acts as a platform for TBK1 activation after viral RNA sensing

The Golgi apparatus acts as a platform for TBK1 activation after viral RNA sensing

For further confirmation of the requirement of OPTN for TBK1 activation, we used primary cells from mice in which both the UBD and ZF domains of OPTN had been deleted (OPTN 470T ) [27]. The truncated protein was produced in smaller amounts than the WT protein, allowing to investigate the effects of both defective Ub binding and OPTN insufficiency [27]. First, primary MEFs were infected with Sendai virus. OPTN 470T MEFs displayed weaker TBK1 activation than WT MEFs, to- gether with lower levels of phosphorylation of IRF3, with no effect on ERK or NF-κB signaling (Fig. 6a). Con- firming these observations, levels of IFNB1 mRNA and of IFNβ release were lower in the OPTN 470T MEFs, whereas the production and secretion of IL-6 were un- affected (Fig. 6b–e). Furthermore, consistent with OPTN being required for recruiting ubiquitinated TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus, significantly less TBK1 aggregation was observed with the mutated OPTN (Fig. 6f ). Finally, the comparison of WT and OPTN 470T bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) stimulated with poly(I:C) also confirmed that OPTN positively regulates TBK1 activa- tion and downstream signaling after TLR3 stimulation without influencing NF-κB or ERK signaling (Fig. 6g–k).
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Original Article Multi-directional core decompression apparatus with impaction bone grafting for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis

Original Article Multi-directional core decompression apparatus with impaction bone grafting for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis

Since isolated CD is relating to the problems of a lack of structural support, the surgical tech- nique was modified by additional interventions such as implantation of growth factors, bone marrow mononuclear cells, fibular grafting, tan- talum rod implantation or others [1, 2, 10, 21- 24]. CD using large-diameter drilling combined with fibular allograft implantation has obtained satisfactory clinical outcomes recently [1-3, 6, 25]. This surgical combination can be used not only on the patients at pre-collapse stage as a salvage intervention, but also on the patients at post-collapse stage for the purpose of delay- ing THA. In order to resist the decrement of bio- mechanical properties and avoid the occurren- ce of collapse, beside fibular allograft implan- tation, we performed impaction bone grafting procedure using autogenous bone to fill up the bone cavity formed after decompression pro- cess. Particulate bone has strong osteoinduc- tive and osteoconductive properties [2, 17, 20, 25], and its porous structure is suitable for sur- rounding bone tissue growing in. After particu- late bone compacting tightly with surrounding bone, the stress would disperse into surround- ing uniformly, which averts the generation of stress concentration. As the graft exists, it also could help to repair bone defects and restore bone stock faster. After impaction bone graft- ing, we did fibular allograft implantation on the patients of experimental group. As the fibular allograft could be surrounded by bone graft with no cavity existing, the biomechanical stru- cture support was well reconstructed and str- ong osteoinductive property was ensured at the same time.
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Touchless 3D Controller Using Capacitive Sensing Method

Touchless 3D Controller Using Capacitive Sensing Method

For Chapter 1, the introduction for project is explained. The contents of the first chapter are the background and objectives for the project. Furthermore, the problem statement that inspired for making this project was thoroughly explained and lastly in this chapter is the scope of work for overall overview of the 3D Gesture Controller Using Capacitive Sensing method development project.

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Environmental control system fluid sensing system and method

Environmental control system fluid sensing system and method

A method for monitoring a thermal change fluid in an environmental control system, the method comprising operating a mechanical resonator in an environmental control system selected from[r]

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A Fast Explicit FETD Method Based on Compressed Sensing

A Fast Explicit FETD Method Based on Compressed Sensing

∂t {b} a× 1 = − [ C ] a×d {e} d× 1 (4) where {e} and {b} are the interpolation coefficients of E and B, respectively, and [ C ] is the Curl operator. [ T ] is the 1-form mass matrix with the material property function is used to represent the dielectric properties, and [ K ] is the 2-form mass matrix with the material property function μ − 1 is used to represent the magnetic permeability. a and d define the dimension of mass matrix. Applying the leap frog method to (3) and (4) with a stable time step Δ t , one can obtain

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