Top PDF Nitrogen uptake and its efficiency in triticale (Triticosecale Witt ) – field beans (Vicia faba var minor L ) intercrop

Nitrogen uptake and its efficiency in triticale (Triticosecale Witt ) – field beans (Vicia faba var  minor L ) intercrop

Nitrogen uptake and its efficiency in triticale (Triticosecale Witt ) – field beans (Vicia faba var minor L ) intercrop

A field experiment of split-plot design was conducted in 1999 and 2000 on light soil to study the effect of different levels of mineral nitrogen fertilization: 0, 25 and 50 kg N/ha on dry ma�er yield, N uptake and N efficiency indices of spring triticale and field beans grown in pure stands and in intercrop. The intercrop was composed using half of the seeding densities from pure stands. Intercropping increased protein content in grain and plant biomass of triticale irrespective of N input. Increasing N rate from 0 to 25 kg/ha increased plant biomass yield of triticale and intercrop. Nitrogen uptake with grain and biomass of intercrop was significantly higher than by sole crops showing partial complementarity in N use by intercropped species despite strong dominance of triticale over field beans. The higher the N fertilizer rate, the lower was the gain from intercropping mainly due to increased suppression of field beans by triticale. Agronomic efficiency was similar for triticale and intercrop but it was significantly smaller for field beans indicating there were other limited resources hampering growth of the legume.
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Linear discriminant analysis reveals differences in root architecture in wheat seedlings by nitrogen uptake efficiency

Linear discriminant analysis reveals differences in root architecture in wheat seedlings by nitrogen uptake efficiency

Field trials were used to establish the nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) of the Watkins lines. From these trials, four low-NUpE lines and five high-NUpE lines were selected. For three of the low-NUpE lines and all of the high-NUpE lines, data under both low-and high-nitrogen growth conditions are available. The NUpE data for the nine lines across a 2-year Nottingham- based field study (Gaju et al., 2016) are shown in Supplementary Fig. S1. In order to obtain an overview of the root system archi- tecture of the approximately 300 wheat plants in the data set, the root systems of the plants for each line and each treatment condition are overlaid in Fig. 2. Between rows 1 and 2 and also between rows 3 and 4, the same wheat line occurs in each col- umn, with low nitrate in rows 1 and 3 and high nitrate in rows 2 and 4. For some of the lines, Fig. 2 enables an obvious visual comparison. For example, comparing the two nitrate treatment conditions, for lines W700 and W325 the plants grown on a high-nitrate medium are narrower. In line W145 the low-nitrate plants are shallower, and for line W637 the high-nitrate plants are shallower. But, in general, it is difficult to discern clear differ- ences in root system architecture from the images in Fig. 2.
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Influence of different types of Strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Nitrogen Uptake Efficiency and N2 Fixation of Soybean (Glycine max L. (Merrill)) in Ethiopia

Influence of different types of Strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Nitrogen Uptake Efficiency and N2 Fixation of Soybean (Glycine max L. (Merrill)) in Ethiopia

over control treatment (Table 4). The increase in nitrogen uptake efficiency of soybean could be due to B. japonicum strains inoculation and application of phosphorus rates which increased nitrogenease activity, and nodule mass that ultimately increased plant nitrogen uptake efficiency. In agreement with this study Tahir et al., (2009) reported that total nitrogen uptake efficiency of soybean increase by 123% over the control treatment with the interaction of phosphorus and Bradyrhizobium inoculation.

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Effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and nitrogen uptake and use efficiency of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties on the Vertisols of central highlands of Ethiopia

Effect of nitrogen fertilizer rates on grain yield and nitrogen uptake and use efficiency of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties on the Vertisols of central highlands of Ethiopia

resulted in a decline in yield of variety ET-13 under suitable rainfall condition (2015). Among the varie- ties, Tsehay showed the highest grain and straw nitro- gen concentration in the wetter and in the drier years. Moreover, varieties Tsehay and Menze showed higher nitrogen uptake as compared to variety ET-13 under the drier condition. Nitrogen fertilizer application led to a general decrease in nitrogen use efficiency traits in both growing seasons; these values were higher for the varieties tested in the second growing season. Moreo- ver, Menze and Tsehay varieties (newly released) are superior in yield than variety ET-13 (old variety) and there was no significant difference among these varie- ties for most of the nitrogen use efficiency traits. There- fore, breeding objectives should not only focus on the improvement of grain yield but also on varieties which are efficient in utilization of the applied nitrogen.
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Influence of Integrated In-soil Zinc Application and Organic Fertilization on Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Rice

Influence of Integrated In-soil Zinc Application and Organic Fertilization on Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Rice

In-soil zinc application is the principal method and a simple and effective solution for Zn supply in rice production systems (Naik & Das 2007 and Ghasal et al., 2016). Zinc fertilizer had a decisive influence on rice growth features, e.g dry matter creation, leaf area indicator and yield traits, i.e. panicle number/hill, plant height, panicle length, panicle weight, filled grains/panicle, 1000-grain weight, straw and grain yields under saline soil condition (El-Hadidi et al. 2016 and Khafagy et al., 2017). In additions, Bharat (2006) stated that zinc employment had raised rice grain and straw yields and harvest index under saline sodic conditions. A lot of investigators announced that escalated zinc rates expanded grain yield and its properties (Tariq et al., 2007; Metwally, 2011 and El- Hissewy et al., 2016).
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Compost and manure effects on sugarbeet nitrogen uptake, nitrogen recovery, and nitrogen use efficiency

Compost and manure effects on sugarbeet nitrogen uptake, nitrogen recovery, and nitrogen use efficiency

Root N uptake varied by year, though dependent on treat- ment (Table 4). Though statistically indistinguishable, overall root N uptake was nearly 1.35-fold greater in 2004 than in 2003 (Table 5). The tendency for root N uptake to be greater in 2004 than 2003 may have been due to 1.6-fold more residual inorganic N in the 0.6-m profile (Table 1), more available N being applied by the manure treatments (Table 3), or both. Another factor that contributed to poor N uptake in 2003 was compacted soil (Lehrsch et al., 2015) that physically limited fibrous rooting and storage root penetration, development, and enlargement (Baver and Farnsworth, 1941; Smith, 2001) that, in turn, decreased the yields of roots and sucrose in 2003 relative to 2004 (Lehrsch et al., 2015). Moreover, inorganic N could have been lost in 2003 via denitrification (not measured) from anaerobic microsites in transient saturated areas in Field D-2’s compacted zones, that likely had poorer structure, greater bulk density, and fewer large pores to maintain adequate aera- tion (Nieder et al., 1989; McNeill et al., 2005). Thus, in fall 2003 next year’s field (E-5) was subsoiled to the 0.3-m depth following winter wheat harvest but before amendment applica- tion and fall bedding. Whole-plant N uptake was 1.21-fold greater in 2004 than 2003 (Table 5), due at least in part to subsoiling, one might assume.
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Nitrogen uptake, quality parameters and post harvest soil status of transplanted finger millet by organic, inorganic and biofertilizers

Nitrogen uptake, quality parameters and post harvest soil status of transplanted finger millet by organic, inorganic and biofertilizers

14 on sandy loam soils of Agricultural college to observe the nitrogen use efficiency by organic, Randomized Block Design with nine uptake were observed 75 and highest straw uptake was recorded with 125% The overall N-uptake + 0.2% Zn spray at flowering stage.

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Effects of Three Nitrification Inhibitors on the Nitrogen Conversion in Purple Soil and Its Effect on the Nitrogen Uptake of Citrus Seedlings

Effects of Three Nitrification Inhibitors on the Nitrogen Conversion in Purple Soil and Its Effect on the Nitrogen Uptake of Citrus Seedlings

The results of this study show that after 7 months of potted citrus planting, compared with the control, the three nitrification inhibitors can increase the plant height and dry matter accumulation of citrus seedlings, and promote the absorption and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients by citrus roots and leaves, but no difference in effect between the three nitrification inhi- bitors (Figure 3, Figure 4 and Table 5). At present, there are few reports on the application of nitrification inhibitors to the nutrient and dry matter accumula- tion of citrus seedlings, but there have been reports on other crops such as vege- tables, and this result is similar to other literature reports [28] [29]. The reason why using nitrification inhibitors can increase the accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in seedlings may be that nitrification inhibitors can significantly in- hibit denitrification and slow down the conversion of nitrogen from ammonium to nitrate in fertilizers. The presence of ammonium in the form of ammonium reduces nitrogen loss and increases nitrogen use efficiency [30]. Compared with urea alone (CK), applying nitrification inhibitors can increase the content of soil total nitrogen, alkaline nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen con- tent (Figure 6). This may be due to the conversion of most of ammonium
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Dynamics of the nitrogen uptake by spring barley at injection application of nitrogen fertilizers
 

Dynamics of the nitrogen uptake by spring barley at injection application of nitrogen fertilizers  

Influence of CULTAN system (controlled uptake long term ammonium nutrition) on the nitrogen uptake by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was observed at 5-year small-plot field experiments under conditions of the Czech Republic (central Europe). Nitrogen uptake by CULTAN-fertilized plants was more even during vegetation period probably due to delayed term of fertilizer application. Nitrogen concentration in the aboveground biomass at BBCH 51 and in straw had no effect on grain yield. Post-heading nitrogen uptake as well as contribution of nitrogen trans- location to total nitrogen in grain did not differ among both nitrogen fertilization treatments. Increase in grain size of spring barley by the CULTAN system can be explained by tendency to lower number of ears per area rather than by prolonged nitrogen uptake from soil. Lower protein content in grain of CULTAN-fertilized spring barley can be caused by increase in grain retained on a 2.5 mm sieve and also decrease in total nitrogen concentration in above- ground biomass at BBCH 51. No significant effect of CULTAN treatment on nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake efficiency was recorded. Significantly higher nitrogen utilization efficiency at CULTAN treatment could be explained by lower grain protein content compared to conventional treatment.
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6. Seed priming improves yield and nitrogen uptake in wheat under varying nitrogen and moisture regimes

6. Seed priming improves yield and nitrogen uptake in wheat under varying nitrogen and moisture regimes

resulted in high pigmentation and protein values. When irrigation was applied at sowing and jointing, but not at anthesis, with water stress occurring only at grain filling, the quality of grain was positively affected. Globally, fertilizer nitrogen (N) applications are approximately 80 million tones, with half being applied in developing countries and the other half in developed countries [8]. It has been estimated that by the year 2025 the consumption of nitrogen fertilizer will increase 60 to 90 percent, with two-third of this being applied in the developing world [9]. This trend in fertilizer use is mostly driven by the need of developing countries to keep food supply up with population growth. It has been projected that by year 2020 world population will be more than 8 billion people, with more than 90 percent of this additional growth concentrated in developing countries [10]. However, the efficiency of N fertilizer use tends to be low in this system [11].
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Drip irrigation and fertilization improve yield, uptake of nitrogen, and water-nitrogen use efficiency in cucumbers grown in substrate bags

Drip irrigation and fertilization improve yield, uptake of nitrogen, and water-nitrogen use efficiency in cucumbers grown in substrate bags

Cucumber is commercially important worldwide, and the demand for it continues to increase an- nually. Farmers who grow cucumbers often irri- gate and fertilize them excessively (Du et al. 2017). Understanding the interactive effects of water and nutrient availability, and the cucumber’s ability to ef- ficiently use these resources, are crucial for improving the plants’ water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, most of the studies relevant to water and fertilization use efficiency in cucumber have been done for cucumbers grown in soil conditions (Cao et al. 2016, Wang et al. 2017), which does not necessarily pertain to cucumbers grown in substrate-bag culture. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate the interac- tive effect of irrigation and fertilization strategy on cucumber yield, nitrogen uptake and use efficiency, and WUE in a substrate-bag culture system.
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Effects of zeolite application on grain yield, water use and nitrogen uptake of rice under alternate wetting and drying irrigation

Effects of zeolite application on grain yield, water use and nitrogen uptake of rice under alternate wetting and drying irrigation

nitrogen loss not only lead to low nitrogen use efficiency, but also cause serious environmental risk such as eutrophication, groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases and so on [18] . In order to improve N use efficiency and increase rice yield, many N-saving techniques have been developed, i.e. N fertilizer split application, application of controlled-release N fertilizers, and adoption of soil amendments. Recently, zeolite has been widely used in agriculture as inorganic soil amendment to decrease N leaching, improve N use efficiency and increase crop yield. Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates materials, characterized by high cation exchange capacity, high adsorption capacity and water holding capacity which have promoted their widespread use in agriculture [19] . The high affinity of zeolite for plant nutrients especially NH 4 + have made it to be used to improve
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Soil acidification of alfisols influenced by nitrate and ammonium nitrogen level in tea plantation

Soil acidification of alfisols influenced by nitrate and ammonium nitrogen level in tea plantation

Nitrogen use efficiency is the percentage of nitrogen absorption in plant utilization of the total nitrogen in soil. Nitrogen use efficiency is an important indicator to measure the rationality of nitrogen fertilizer. As seen from Table 2, a similar pattern of utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer with nitrogen uptake was discovered. After the four kinds of soil are applied with NO 3 - 15 N fertilizer, utilization rate of 0 to 56 d is continuously

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Effects of micro-nano bubble aerated irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer level on tillering, nitrogen uptake and utilization of early rice

Effects of micro-nano bubble aerated irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer level on tillering, nitrogen uptake and utilization of early rice

gation can significantly increase the number of peppers, individual weight and yield. Oliveira and Sodek (2013) studies indicated that an oxygen- rich environment is beneficial for the absorption of N to soybean. Micro-nano bubble aerated ir- rigation is based on the original aeration irriga- tion technology, through the micro-nano bubble device, so that air can be dissolved in water with nanometer or micro and nano diameter bubbles for long time. It has many advantages, such as long time (Ohgaki et al. 2010), large surface area (Tasaki et al. 2009), strong adsorbability (Bunkin et al. 2012), good stability (Feng et al. 2009) and so on. Currently, the study of oxygen micro-nano bubble enhancement in water purification and medical care is more (Yoshida et al. 2008, Zheng et al. 2016). However, there are few studies on micro-nano bubble aeration in agricultural ir- rigation, especially in rice irrigation. Therefore, the objective of this study were: (1) investigate the effects of variable irrigation methods and N application ratios on the tillering, yield and N utilization of early rice; (2) provide a theoretical basis and technical reference for increasing the N utilization efficiency and reducing agricultural non-point source pollution.
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Citation : Wysokinski A., Kuziemska B. (2019): The sources of nitrogen for yellow lupine and spring triticale in their

Citation : Wysokinski A., Kuziemska B. (2019): The sources of nitrogen for yellow lupine and spring triticale in their

pure sowing. The greater the share of triticale and the smaller the share of lupine in the sown mixture, the smaller the total amount of nitrogen – sum for both – taken up by test plants. The percentage of nitrogen taken up by lupine from the atmosphere in total uptake ranged from 63.0% to 67.5%. In quantitative terms, most nitrogen from the atmosphere was taken up by lupine grown in pure sowing (135.4 kg/ha). As a result of decreasing the lupine share while in- creasing the amount of triticale in the sown mixture, the amount of nitrogen taken up by lupine from this source in the area of 1 hectare decreased. In comparison to sole cropping of lupine and combina- tions of 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 this plant took up less nitrogen from the air, by 40.4, 55.2 and 79.1%, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen from the fixation process by lupine in the total mass of triti- cale cultivated in treatments 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 was 15.2, 9.7 and 5.5%, respectively. The amount of nitrogen taken up by cereal from this source was similar to all combinations: 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 – 6.52, 6.16 and 4.38 kg/ha, respectively. The small amount of nitrogen from nitrogen fixation by lupine in triticale and its small variation in all intercrop- ping combinations resulted in the variability of the sum of nitrogen taken by both test plants from the atmosphere within these treatments subjected to the same dependencies as in the case of lupine. In total, both plants growing in combinations 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 took up 87.2, 71.1 and 34.7 kg N/ha from air. For the listed treatments, the share of nitrogen from this source in the total uptake by both plants was 50.9, 44.3 and 27.8%, respectively.
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CONTRIBUTION OF PIGEON PEA ROOTS TO NITROGEN AND
PHOSPHORUS YIELDS IN THE PIGEON PEA-GROUNDNUT
INTERCROP SYSTEM

CONTRIBUTION OF PIGEON PEA ROOTS TO NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS YIELDS IN THE PIGEON PEA-GROUNDNUT INTERCROP SYSTEM

A less emphasized dimension on the role of legumes in recharging soil fertility is their contribution to the soil nutrient pool by decayed roots especially for leguminous plants like pigeon pea (Guretzky et al., 2004; Cherr et al., 2006). Crops and trees root residues contribute substancially to nutrient dynamics and pools and carbon turnover in agricultural ecosystems (Egbe et al., 2013). Roots of plants also accord pathways for channeling of carbon and energy from the canopies to the soil (Egbe et al., 2013). Implicitly therefore, root production and turnover directly impact the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems (McGroddy et al., 2004; Majdi et al., 2005; Espeleta and Clark, 2007). Decomposition of root biomass and subsequent mineralization of the organically bound nutrients from the roots might have a positive influence on the growth of succeeding crops in rotational cropping systems such as the pigeon pea-groundnut intercrop maize rotational cropping system. Nnadi and Haque, (1986), reported that under intercropping, legume roots can contribute between 5 and 15 kg N ha -1 to soil N pool. In a study conducted by Phiri et al., (2013b), the root component and the accompaning nutrient yields for two pigeon pea varieties used in the study were not assessed, thus under estimating the amount of nutrients returnable to the soil. Not with standing this however, their study indicate that this cropping system returns significant amount of nutrients which can benefit the succeeding maize crop. It was necessary therefore, to reassess biomass and nutrient yields, including that for roots of the pigeon pea inorder to quantify the total amount of nutrient yields in this system. In gross terms, the amount of nutrients added to a legume-cereal rotation cropping system depends on the total legume biomass yields (Giller, 2001). The following were the study objectives: (i) assess biomass and nutrient yields for the legumes (ii) Quantify N yields returned to the soil for the monoculture of groundnut and pigeon pea and the intercrop of the groundnut and pigeon pea (iii) Quantify the contribution of pigeon pea root biomass to the soil N pool.
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Phosphorus use efficiency, grain yield, and quality of triticale and durum wheat under irrigated conditions

Phosphorus use efficiency, grain yield, and quality of triticale and durum wheat under irrigated conditions

three replications. The effect of phosphorus deficiency was severe: only 43% of the achievable yield was obtained with no P application. The modern durum wheat and triticale genotypes included in this study equaled Barrigon Yaqui in phosphorus use efficiency (performance under low P conditions). In contrast, all modern durum wheat and triticale genotypes (except for Tehuacan 60, Tehuacan 67, and Beagle_1) were more responsive to P applications with grain yields in some genotypes almost three times higher in the 80 kg P 2 O 5 application treatment.

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Comparative proteomic analysis between nitrogen supplemented and starved conditions in Magnaporthe oryzae

Comparative proteomic analysis between nitrogen supplemented and starved conditions in Magnaporthe oryzae

suggesting that nitrogen starvation is a driving force for successful fungal infection of their host organisms [1 – 3]. Unlike their plant hosts, fungi can utilize diverse com- pounds as nitrogen sources from primary preferred sources such as ammonium, glutamine and glutamate to other non-preferred secondary forms including nitrate, nitrite, other amino acids and proteins. Assimilation of nitrogen is tightly regulated by global regulators that ensure use of preferential nitrogen sources over less desirable sources [4]. AreA, Nit2 and NUT1, which encode GATA type tran- scription factors are well known as a key regulatory genes in Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa and Magnaporthe oryzae respectively [5 – 7]. A number of studies have linked nitrogen metabolism regulation with the ability to cause disease by plant pathogenic
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Effect of ethrel spray and nitrogen on growth, photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency and water –use efficiency of mustard (brassica juncea l )

Effect of ethrel spray and nitrogen on growth, photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency and water –use efficiency of mustard (brassica juncea l )

Crop nitrogen status also affects photosynthetic rate (Dhoble, 1998; Boltan and Brown, 1980; Nova and Loomis 1981; Wong et al., 1995; Sinclair, 1990), because N is a major constituent of chlorophyll (Pham et al., 1981), thylakoid proteins, and many enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (Evans and Seemann, 1989). For some species, the rate of photosynthesis is linearly related to leaf nitrogen content (Sage et al., 1987; Evans, 1989; Nobel, 1999). Leaves with greater N content utilize high photon flux densities more effectively (Field, 1983; DeJong and Doyle, 1985). For example, Varade et al. (1995) increased the rate of photosynthesis by 43% in soybean (Glycine max L.) by adding nitrate. Nitrogen application can also enhance soil water extraction and increase water use (Saran and Girri, 1990, Vyas et al., 1995; Thakral et al., 1997; Zaman and Choudhari 1998; Dodd, 2001).
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EFFECT OF NITROGEN LEVELS ON DUAL PURPOSE USE OF TRITICALE

EFFECT OF NITROGEN LEVELS ON DUAL PURPOSE USE OF TRITICALE

cut and cut before tillering stage). Cutting treatments were kept in main plots while nitrogen application was allotted to sub plots. The experiment was carried out by using randomized complete block design with three replication with split plot arrangement having sub plot size of 3 X 7 m 2 . Sowing was done in November having

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