At present the amount of biodiesel available is less than that of diesel. The biodiesel blended with diesel by volume as B10 (10% karanjabiodiesel & 90% diesel fuel), B20 (20% karanjabiodiesel & 80% diesel fuel), B30 (30% karanjabiodiesel & 70% diesel fuel), B40 (40% karanjabiodiesel & 60% diesel fuel), B50 (50% karanjabiodiesel & 50% diesel fuel), B100 (100% karanjabiodiesel & 00% diesel fuel).
ABSTRACT: An ever-increasing drift of energy consumption, unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth and the quest for low carbon fuel for a cleaner environment are sparking the production and use of biodiesels in many countries around the globe. In this work, jatropha and karanja biodiesels were produced from the respective crude vegetable oils through transesterification, and the different physical properties of the produced biodiesels have been presented and found to be acceptable according to the ASTM biodiesel specification standard. This paper presents the experimental results of the research carried out to evaluate the BTH, BSFC exhaust emission characteristics of jatropha and karanja blends in a single-cylinder dieselengine at different engine load. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, and NO x
Biodiesel is gaining momentum across the globe due to worldwide energy crisis, dwindling of fossil fuel reserves and ever increasing price of crude oil. The past research reviews revealed that plant based biodiesel and their diesel blends have performance characteristics similar to diesel fuel. The use of edible oil as biodiesel feedstock has raised concerns of a food crisis. In this research work, the performance analysis of direct injection (DI) dieselengine was carried out usingjatropha curcas oil methyl (JCOME) as biodiesel. The engineperformance was measured in terms of brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT). The experimental results revealed that B20J biodiesel blend has comparable brake thermal efficiency to that of petro-diesel fuel and the lowest BSFC, BSEC with EGT in all tested biodiesel blends. Hence, B20J biodiesel blend can be used as alternative to diesel fuel in unmodified dieselengine.
The comparison between experimental and theoretical cylinder pressure at rated speed of 1500 rpm and full load are shown in Fig.(6). The experimental and theoretical cylinder pressures have good agreement at rated speed of 1500 rpm and full load. The trends of the cylinder pressure curves for Jatrophabiodiesel blends, preheated oil, unheated oil and diesel models and experimental exhibit the same trend. Also the predictions of the model are very close to the experimental results. The peak pressure values from simulation results, respectively, for diesel, B20, B100, PHJ90 and J100 are about 57.19, 54.8, 51.55, 49.4 and 48.08 bar. The peak pressure values from experimental results, respectively, for diesel, B20, B100, PHJ90 and J100 are about 59.72, 57.35, 52, 51.2 and 50 bar. The relative error of cylinder pressure between theoretical and experimental data for diesel fuel is less than about 4%, the relative error of cylinder pressure between theoretical and experimental data for B20 is less than about 5 %, the relative error of cylinder pressure between theoretical and experimental data for B100 is less than about 1 %, the relative error of cylinder pressure between theoretical and experimental data for PHJ90 is less than about 4 % and the relative error of cylinder pressure between theoretical and experimental data for J100 is less than about 4%.These results indicate that the assumptions of the model are quite reasonable. The model can be used to correctly predict dieselengineperformance burning biodiesel and preheated oil.
ABSTRACT: Now a day’s world is facing fuel problems due to increasing in automobiles, power plant and industries, increasing of these automobiles, power plant produce more emission like CO, HC and NOX. This situation leads to seek an alternative fuel for dieselengine .biodiesel is found as an alternative fuel for dieselengine .The ester of vegetable oil and animal fat are known as bio diesel .This paper investigates the prospect of making bio diesel from jatropha oil. Jatropha curcas is renewable and non edible plant. Jatropha is wildly grown in drought areas of the country on degraded soils having less fertility and moisture content. Jatropha bio diesel is an oxygenated fuel; it has more oxygen and can be used dieselengine without any modification. In present work studied the emission characteristics of jatrophabiodiesel the blends of jatropha methyl ester and diesel in the proportion B10, B20, B60, B80 and B100 are prepared analysed and their performance and emissions characteristics compared with the performance and emission characteristics of diesel. And obtained the emissions like CO, HC, NOX and CO2.The results are compared with pure diesel.
edible vegetable oils. Some of the promising tree species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot) etc. But most surprisingly as per their potential only a maximum of 6% is used. Biodiesel is a low-emissions diesel substitute fuel made from renewable resources and waste liqid. The most common way to produce biodiesel is through transesterification, especially alkali-catalyzed transesterification . In this present investigation blend of karanja and jatropha oil is selected for the test and it’s suitability as an alternate fuel is examined. This is accomplished by blending of karanja 50% and jatropha 50% by volume. Then the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of four cylinder dieselengineusing v blend is studied and result are compared with diesel fuel.
Fig 06 shows the effect on break thermal efficiency of the engine. It is observed that the efficiency of the pure Karanja Biofuel (K) is more than that of the dieselengine. Pure Karanja fuel is having a more fuel consumption as compare with the diesel fuel how ever the heating value is less than that of the diesel fuel. It is also observed that the break power developed by the engine is almost same at all the loads. Theses observations may be the cause that the thermal efficiency of he Karanja fuel is more than that of the diesel fuel. It is also observed that the break thermal efficiency is quite better for biodiesel blends (BK 20 to BK60) compare with the Karanja fuel only. The break thermal efficiency at above 60 % loading is observed as quite high this may be due to the lower exhaust gas temperature as compare with diesel.
In this study, the engineperformance and emissions characteristics of the dieselengine with Jatrophabiodiesel and its blends such as JB5, JB10, and J5W5 were investigated and compared with diesel fuel. The torque of the motor fuelled with DF is higher than that of mix energizes. Over the whole speed run, the normal torque decrease contrasted with DF is found as 0.63% for JB5, 1.63% for JB10 and 1.44% for J5W5. Motor torque and brake control for mix energizes were diminished when contrasted with diesel fuel, principally because of their particular lower warming qualities. Nonetheless, J5W5 indicated a lower decrease contrasted with JB10. The bsfc for the tried energizes is found somewhat higher than that for DF. The bsfc values for mix powers were higher than that of DF because of lower warming qualities and higher densities. It is likewise noticed that at some lower motor speeds, the bsfc values for mix fills were discovered lower than that of DF on account of the improved burning due to the innately oxygen-containing.In the instance of motor fumes gas emissions, decrease in HC, CO, and CO2 were found for JB5, JB10 and J5W5 when contrasted with DF at both motor working conditions. While, NOx emanation for all mix energizes was expanded when contrasted with DF. However, J5W5 was found to be comparable with JB10 and produced better results except for NOx .
connector rods. For biodiesel-powered motors, wear of large end rods, core bearings or pins has been found to be higher. The cylindrical surface texture was an appropriate following endurance test of both mineral diesel as well as biodiesel blend of Karanja . KeshiniBeetulet. al. (2014)This study examined lipid content and biodiesel potential for different microalgae produced in Mauritian marine water. The measurements were gravimetrically quantified and analyzed with spectroscopy 1H & 13C NMR. An attempt was made to synthesize biodiesel through an alkaline reaction as well as a biodiesel presence was found using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The infrared analysis brought in peaks of carbonyl or ether characteristics. 1738cm-1 or 1200cm-1 indicating biodiesel presence. In this study, preliminary data showed the capacity for the production of biodiesel in various microalgae found in Mauritian waters . Prem Kumar et. al. (2014)The biodiesel is regarded as a replacement for diesel, which has been investigated for the demand for transport fuel, captive power generation or agriculture industries. The performance of the dieselengine under loading conditions showed that B10 or diesel fuel has almost equal maximum power output at the full load level. Biodiesel with a light reduction in SO2 and HC emissions or increased NOX emission when biodiesel or its mixtures are used have been observed in combustion characteristics for less inflammable time or lower peak heat release rates. The study includes biodiesel as well as its blends with diesel combustion, performance or emission characteristics. Biopower, torque and Brake Specific Fuel Control (BSFC), thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust emissions for the output of the diesel engines and its blends with Petro
In 21st century energy demand was increased by reason of development of Industries, population, amount of vehicles. But availability of fuel is not satisfied. In other routes to solve the energ y demand and control the pollution under using of alternative fuels. The usage of fossil fuel is causes to more pollution and change environmental conditions. The use of biodiesel is one of the major solution for this kind of problems. Our project work is used Karanjabiodiesel for potentiate the diesel. The Karanja oil is readily available in India and it has more potential to use as alternative fuel in dieselengine without modification. Experimental is going conduct to study the performance and emissions characteristics of biodiesel; additive used biodiesel and compared with diesel. Similarly, the properties like calorific value, flash point, viscosity and fire point also going to study.
combustion points according to ISO norms. Viscosity is one of the most important properties that should be considered while usingbiodiesel, as it affects the fuel injection equipment. Sometimes, especially during cold weather preheating is necessary to increase the viscosity of the oil. Density is another important property of biodiesel. It is greater than that of diesel. Fuel injection equipment operates on a volume metering system, hence a higher density for biodiesel results in the delivery of a slightly greater mass of fuel. Calorific value (CV) of biodiesel is a very interesting property which is always lower than that of diesel. The biodiesel consists of more amount of O2 than petro diesel. But this higher amount of O2 is related with the low amount of C and H2 which are the sources of thermal energy. Thus biodiesel has lower CV than diesel. Biodiesel can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications (Kim et al, 2004). These blends are denoted by acronyms such as B20, which indicates 20% blend of biodiesel and 80% of petro- diesel. B100 is denominated pure
The main aim of the present experiment was to use the non- edible oil like jatropha, karanja and kusum oil in diesel engines. We reduced the oil density close to that of diesel without using any external power source and evaluating the performance of engine with the modified oils. The density of jatropha, karanja and kusum oil was reduced by transesterification process. It was found that in the above cases the density was close to that of diesel –which would be suitable for the engines. The performance tests were conducted with diesel, From the experimental investigation it was concluded that the performance of jatropha, karanja and kusum oil is similar to that of diesel, without any operational difficulties. In comparison to each oil defined below.
In this process, the carbonyl carbon of the starting ester carry out nucleophilic attack by the ar alkoxide (R2O−) to give a tetrahedral intermediate, which either reverts to the starting material or proceeds to the transesterified product (RCOOR2). further reported that the esters of sunflower oil were found to be better than ester of castor oil. It was also noticed 25% of less smoke emissions for both the methyl esters than diesel fuel . Milán et al. (2010) were investigated the performance and emissions of Kubota IDI natural aspirated agricultural dieselengine fueled with biodiesel of methyl ester derived from mixture of 75% (v/v) sunflower oil and 25% (v/v) used cooking oil and its diesel blends and reported that engineperformance was satisfactory without a substantial decrease in torque with diesel blends, but higher fuel consumptions with biodiesel was noticed . Sirivella (2017) has carried-out an experimental e of dieselengineusingjatropha curcas oil methyl ester as fuel and his experimental results revealed that B20J biodiesel blend has comparable brake thermal efficiency to that diesel fuel and the lowest BSFC, BSEC with
recirculation (EGR) is an effective method to reduce NOx from biodiesel fuelled engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. However, EGR results in higher smoke opacity .The objective of current research work are to investigate the usage of biodiesel, Ethanol and EGR simultaneously in order to reduce the emissions of all regulated pollutants from dieselengine. A single cylinder, air-cooled, constant speed direct injection small capacity dieselengine was used for the experimental work. Ethanol is an oxygenated fuel and lead to smooth and efficient combustion. Atomization of ethanol results in lower combustion temperature. In this study an EGR system was developed and used for experimentation. Ethanol was added in a fixed proportion as suggested by most of the researcher in the field which is 20% the quantity and Jatrophabiodiesel in the blend varied from 10, 20 up to maximum 30% and EGR was implemented from 10%, 15% and 20%. From the experimental work, it can be concluded that addition of ethanol and biodiesel along with EGR gives better performance and comparable results among all E15B20 (EGR15%) is turn out to be the best combination in most of the parameters.
In this research, a 118kW, 06 cylinder, four stroke, variable speed, and turbocharged with intercooled, Military CIDI dieselengine was tested. The engine was coupled to a 1125kW hydraulic dynamometer (SAJ). The basic specifications of the engine are given in Table 2. An electronic fuel meter was used to measure the fuel flow rate. For the measurement of the engine exhaust emission, Indus Automotive Exhaust Monitor, model PEA 205, gas analyzer (CO, HC, NOx) using electrochemical sensors was used to measure emissions on a dry basis, and the results were subsequently converted to a wet basis. In the gas analyzer, a probe is inserted into the exhaust pipe line and the other end is connected to the data acquisition system. A variable speed range from 1200-2400 engine rpm with full load condition was selected for performance test. Whereas a constant speed 1800 engine rpm with part load condition was maintained throughout the wear test for both the test fuels. The engine was operated for 100h with both test fuels. Samples of lubricating oil were collected through a one way valve connected to the crankcase sump at 10h intervals. The first sample was collected immediately after the engine had warmed up. The test was carried out with diesel fuel using new lubricating oil first. After100h operation, the fuel and lubricating oil were replaced with Karanjabiodiesel and fresh lubricating oil and the same procedure was followed for both the test fuels. Immediately after collection, test samples were analyzed to obtain wear results. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (model: GBC, Avanta, Australia) with dry ash technique was used for extracting metals from the lubricating oil samples (10 ml).
In 21st century energy demand was increased by reason of development of Industries, population, amount of vehicles. But availability of fuel is not satisfied. In other routes to solve the energy demand and control the pollution under using of alternative fuels. The usage of fossil fuel is causes to more pollution and change environmental conditions. The use of biodiesel is one of the major solution for this kind of problems. Our project work is used Karanjabiodiesel for potentiate the diesel. The Karanja o il is readily available in India and it has more potential to use as alternative fuel in dieselengine without modification. Experimental is going conduct to study the performance and emissions characteristics of biodiesel; additive used biodiesel and compared with diesel. Similarly, the properties like calorific value, flash point, viscosity and fire point also going to study.
A four strokes single cylinder directs injection water cooled, dieselengine was used to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of the engine when fueled by Diesel-Ethanol- Jatropha blend. The brake power , brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and concentration of exhaust gas emissions (carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides) were conducted at speeds ranging from 1200 to -2000 rpm at zero and 80% load of the engine. A pure diesel and four blends (B20D80, B25E5D70, B30E5D65 and B40E5D55) were tested. The results showed that the brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and the nitrogen oxides increased with the rise of Jatropha-Ethanol percentage while the carbon monoxide decreased. This study recommends that further investigations of the blend ratios are required for the same engine by increasing ethanol percentage, which reduced the viscosity of the blend.
Dhruv V. Patel , stated that according to statistical review of world energy published by British Petroleum the increase of oil reserves in world from 2012 to 2013 is 0.60% whereas oil consumption increases from 2012 to 2013 is 1.40%. Due to the increasing take care of fossil fuels and environmental issues, biodiesel are more used in recent years. In this experimental study has been carried out for Jatrophabiodiesel blended with diesel used in single cylinder dieselengine. Consumption of diesel fuel is reduced when jatrophabiodiesel is blended with dieselengine with high proportion. In this study, the input parameter are taken as blends, load and compression ratio for optimize the dieselengine parameter. The results of the taguchi experiment identifies that 0% blend ratio, compression ratio 18 and engine load 10kg are optimum parameter setting for lowest bsfc. Blending means to form the biodiesel by using the diesel and vegetable oil. We used 50% blend and pure biodiesel. A method called ‘Taguchi’ was used in the experiment for simultaneous optimization of engine such as compression ratio, blend composition and load condition. The taguchi method is the simplest method of optimization. Engine load is greatly affected and compression ratio are least affected on engineperformance.
 Dyed Tessa et al (2014) analyzed in detail for application in weight start (CI) engines achieving stimulating potential opportunities to assemble imperativeness security and reduce gas releases. Bio diesel is one of the elective empowers which is economical and environmentally neighborly and can be used as a piece of diesel engines with essentially zero alterations. The target of the examination is to research the impacts of bio diesel writes and bio diesel portion on the discharge qualities of a CI motor. The trial work was done on four barrel, four strokes, coordinate infusion (DI) and turbo charged diesel motor by utilizing bio diesel produced using waste oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil and contrasting them with ordinary diesel. The powers utilized as a part of the investigations are B10, B20, B50, B100 and slick diesel. The motor was worked over a scope of motor rates. In view of the deliberate parameters, itemized investigations were done on major controlled outflows, for example, NOx, CO, CO₂, and THC. It has been seen that the bio diesel composes (sources) don't bring about any huge contrasts in emanations.
stationary engines, and in spite of the dominant position in now holds in many application, it is today the subject of intensive development and capable of improvements. Before 1914, building on the work of Dr Rudolf Diesel in Germany and Hubert Akroyd Stuart in the UK, the dieselengine was used primarily in stationary and ship propulsion applications in the form of relatively low speed four-stroke normally aspirated engines. Dr. Rudolf Diesel invented the dieselengine to run on a host of fuels including coal dust suspended in water, heavy mineral oil, and, vegetable oils. Dr. Diesel’s first engine experiments were catastrophic failures, but by the time he showed his engine at the world exhibition in Paris in 1900, his engine was running on 100% peanut oil. Dr. Diesel was visionary.