CIOB’s findings are supported by other research and ideas. Sir John Egan’s report ‘Rethinking Construction’ 2 built on earlier reports (Latham 3 ) and placed the concept of integrated supply chains firmly on the map. The main purpose of Collaborative Working Agreements and integrated supply teams is to engage the client, design consultants, contractors, sub-contractors, vendors into one team, with incentives to establish a structure to ensure that everyone works together to achieve agreed shared targets. The unified team creates an environment where outstanding results can be achieved and the incentives are developed into a Gain / Pain Share arrangement and the schedule is a central tool in the arrangements. If the project is successful there will be Gain Share, if it is not then there may well be Pain Share.
Murali sambasivan (5) (2007): In this study the causes and effects of delays facing in the Malaysian construction indus- try. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the three major groups of participants (clients, consultants and contractors). We identified main causes of delay and ten most important causes were: (1) contractor’s improper plan- ning, (2) contractor’s poor site management, (3) inadequate contractor experience, (4) inadequate client’s finance and payments for completed work, (5) problems with subcontractors, (6) shortage in material, (7) labour supply, (8) equip- ment availability and failure, (9) lack of communication between parties, and (10) mistakes during the construction stage. We identified main effects of delay and they were: (1) time overrun, (2) cost overrun, (3) disputes, (4) arbitra- tion, (5) litigation, and (6) total abandonment. As an important contribution, we also studied the empirical relationships between the causes and effects of delays. We isolated the causes of delay for each of the six effects. We believe that the results of this study can be of immense help to the practitioners (clients, contractors and consultants) and academicians. The practitioners can better understand the dynamics of project management and make efforts to reduce the incidences of delays. The academicians can conduct similar studies in other parts of world and identify causes and effects of de- lays. As mentioned earlier, some causes and effects may be unique to certain countries.
The construction industry is almost as old as nature itself and unlike many manufacturing industries, is con- cerned mostly with one-off project. It is one of the major industries in the economic growth and civilization. A huge amount of money, time and energy consuming in this part indicate the important role of this industry. The construc- tion industry is very important in the economic development of any nation especially in an expanding economy. Con- struction sector has a significant impact on Palestinian economy and the tool through which a society achieves its goals of economic growth and development, its share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) about 20% in normal time. The sec- tor has played a crucial role in extending job opportunities for Palestinian labor force. Prior to the Israeli re-occupation of the territories on September 28, 2000 construction sector used to employ an average of 22.3% of labor force. How- ever, the sector now employs 10.8% of the labor force only; this sector also employs about 30% of laborers indirectly in industries related to the construction sector and other services and productive sectors. On the other hand, the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) showed that the value added of the construction sector in the has declined from RS 130.1thousand in 2005 to Rs 38.5 thousand in 2009, this is due to the general ban on the import of basic construction materials has been in place since the imposition of the blockade in 2007. During the period of 2010 – 2011 the contri- bution of construction sector in the GDP has increased gradually from 7.4% in Q1-2010 to 11.3% in Q3-2011 (MAS 2012). The rise contribution of the construction sector in GDP was mainly due to the significant growth in the construc- tion sector during 2010 - 2011. This growth was spurred by the Israeli‘s relative ease of the siege in terms of partially allowing construction material.
Change is considered to be one of the main risk factors for constructionprojects. Common consequences of changes include, inter alia, time and cost overruns, quality defects, conflict and safety issues. Existing research has largely focused on the identification of causes of change, analysis of potential change effects, and change management systems which help to minimise the occurrence or the effects of changes. Although these systems have indeed provided effective process support, they do not intend to measure the effectiveness of the change management process and thus, they do not provide clear evidence of the improvement of the change management capability of a project team. In construction, process capability measurement and improvement has evolved over the last decade principally based on capability maturity models (CMM). This paper presents a CMM which aims to provide a measurement framework for assessing the improvement of a project team‟s capability in dealing with contract changes. Following a review of the change management literature, a questionnaire survey and a number of interviews, a Change Management Maturity Model (CM3) is developed adopting the Capability Maturity Model Integration approach. The model defines five levels of maturity – ad hoc, informal, systematic, integrated and continuous improvement. Measurement is carried out on six key process areas – management process, risk management, communication, management information, collaboration, and leadership/objectives. The model is then evaluated through three case studies which assess its applicability in practice.
Due to the ductility of concrete, prefabricated pieces can be placed in various molds. The proper design of these templates can meet structural requirements on one hand and architectural needs on the other hand. As a result, elegant and durable structural elements can be designed simultaneously in a prefabricated concrete piece and easily executed. Precise control of concrete’s quality in prefabricated parts (due to its mass production in production line of the factory) increases the confidence coefficient and, as a result, reduces the design and construction costs. Today, pre-fabrication and industrialization are of the new technologies in construction. The upward trend in using the prefabricated components in construction continues with an impressive acceleration using the current technology. These days, various types of prefabricated pieces are used in many buildings. This industry reveals its value especially in unexpected events and natural disasters. Today's buildings including residential and office buildings, metal skeleton towers, space structures, sports stadiums, industrial halls, parts of bridges and tunnels, building facades, non-carriage parts of the building, water supply and sewage networks, power lines, airports, multi-story car parks, retaining walls and hundreds of other examples are the most representative of this industry in the world. Using new materials with desirable qualitative characteristics concurrently with the growing trend of using steel and concrete in prefabricated structures, has led to reducing the cost, constructiontime, ease of implementation and variety of structural systems, and the building industry has faced an appropriate prosperity along with the beautiful architecture, and approaching the golden age of transformations.
Planning is important for the success of the project. To know the project has been executed according to the planning, tracking has been takes place. Tracking helps to stick to the plan during execution. The tracking is the process of analyses the updated schedule whether the cost and units of the project are beyond or ahead or equal of the planning. The tracking is done by EVM (Earned Value Management).
ABSTRACT: Construction of Residential projects are initiated in complex and dynamic problems resulting in circumstances of high uncertainty and risk, which are compounded by demanding time and cost constrains. The general methodology is to study relies largely on the survey questionnaire which will be collect from the variousResidential project construction contractors and project manager of different sizes by mail or personnel meeting. The questionnaire prepared for the survey was formulated by seeing the relevant literatures in the area ofconstruction management. This research seeks to identify the risk factors that affect the performance of Residential projects as a whole and analyze by using appropriate tools and technique and to develop a risk management framework.Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. Project risk management includes the processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It includes maximizing the results of positive events and minimizing the consequences of adverse events.Project risk management includes the processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It includes maximizing the results of positive events and minimizing the consequences of adverse events.
Bar-coding and RFID are under the category of sophisticated ICT tools. The respondents are asked on the benefits they believe can be attained in the implementation of bar-coding and RFID in materials management processes. Respondent 1 suggested that bar- coding and RFID enable more convenient tracking and identification of material, thus making the follow up on material quantity an easy task. Respondent 2 believed that there will be improved material flow, lower operation expenses, lesser defect, effective info tracking, higher productivity and better space utilisation. Respondent 3 suggested that the implementation of bar-coding will improve the controlling and handling of material quantity as it is based on serial numbers. However, Respondent 3 has no knowledge of the benefits of RFID. Respondent 4 gave the same benefits with Respondent 2, and pointed out that handling of materials can just be executed from a spot. As for Respondent 5, he stated that bar-coding and RFID are able to improve material flow for expensive materials from factory, but bring lesser benefits in infrastructure works.
When it comes to financing a construction project, the contractor’s goal will be to finance the negative gap between project expenses and project revenues with the aim of achieving the optimum possible amount to finance; thus, the contractor’s loans cost will be the least (Halpin & Senior, 2009). Although the project’s financial nature is that an owner pays a contractor periodic (progress) payments, the contractor may face various financial problems along the project’s progress. The owner’s progress payments may be delayed, which will affect the progress of the project, unless the contractor has the financial ability to temporarily cover this negative cash value. Project expenses that exceed the cumulative progress payments paid by the owner to the contractor cause this situation. This gap between revenues and expenses is referred to as working capital, which is a source of power for a contractor in commencing a project. The term defines the remaining amount of available cash that the contractor has after deducting the amount of current liabilities. This working capital is the figure that will guide the contractor in the decision to use available credit lines or look for new sources of capital by using corporate finance.
In Covelo and Manpower’s (1985) article, and according to Grier (1981), the first signs of risk management go back as far as 3200 BC in the Tigris-Euphrates valley with a group of people called the Asipu. One of their functions was to act as risk consultants. Their procedure would be to identify the important dimensions of the problem, propose alternative actions, and collect data on the likely outcomes.
Material management is a management tool which controls the planning, scheduling and acquiring of materials that are required for the successful accomplishment of a project, ie it is a process of planning and controlling the flow of materials within a project. Material management make sure that it is able to buy materials at a reasonable price at required quality and quantity. It aims at utilising the materials at the most effective manner, thereby minimising the material wastage. It helps to produce the final product such that it will be successful in the market. Thus the activities in material management spans from the acquirement of raw materials to the final dispatch of the product.
Supply chain management (SCM) has been widely regarded as an effective and efficient management measure and strategy to improve the performance of the construction industry, which has suffered from high fragmentation, large waste, poor productivity, cost and time overruns, and conflicts and disputes for many years. It has become a major subject of management research and manufacturing theory recently. Currently supply chain management is in its developing stage. The construction sector players including engineers, contractors, suppliers and clients. Every product that reaches an end user represents a cumulative effort of multiple organizations. These organizations refer collectively as a supply chain.
ABSTRACT: Construction industry is considered as one of the most important industries in India. It is well known that most constructionprojects exposed to time and cost overrun or both. These phenomena may affect the progress of construction industry in India as well as may expose many institutions of construction to be destroyed. Literatures of previous studies were classified into two main parts which are: (1) Factors influencing time overruns of project; (2) Factors influencing cost overrun. Most related studies were revised which included the study of these factors in many countries The aim of this study is to assess factors influencing time and cost overruns on constructionprojects in our country. The objectives of the study were achieved through valid questionnaire.The study clarified that “Low productivity of labour", “Delaying in Bill settlement”, “Lack of maintenance of the equipment” “Poor procurement programming of materials, Strikes, riots and other external factors was the most critical factor that influence project delay.The study illustrated that "delay in preliminary handing over the site" was one of the most important factors that may lead to cost overrun. Also it clarified that contractor's delay of material delivery and equipment has led to cost overrun. The study also clarified that prices inflation highly contributes to cost overrun.
Abstract – This dissertation presents a study made on causes, effects and controls of change orders in large building construction in Morena city. To achieve the study objective, the researcher carried a literature review of the subject covering periodicals, dissertations, previous research studies and books written on the subject of change orders. In light of the literature study the researcher developed a survey questionnaire.
Abstract: Time and cost performance is that the basic criteria for achievement of any project. Unfortunately construction industry in India has been regarded as industry facing poor performance leading to failure in achieving effectivetime and cost performance. As a consequence most of the project face huge amount of time and cost overrun. This study assessed the time and cost performance of constructionprojects in India using structured questionnaire survey. This study can facilitate the practitioners to implement the mitigation live at starting stage so as to attain palmy constructionprojects.
If we focus on construction, projects are intricate, time-consuming undertakings. The total development of a project normally consists of several phases requiring a diverse range of specialized services. In progressing from initial planning to project completion, the typical job passes through successive and distinct stages that demand input from such disparate areas as financial organizations, governmental agencies, engineers, architects, lawyers, insurance and surety companies, contractors, material manufacturers and suppliers, builders, etc. During the construction process itself, even a modest structure involves many skills, materials, and literally hundreds of different operations. The assembly process must follow a natural order of events that constitutes a complicated pattern of individual time requirements and restrictive sequential relationships among the structure’s many segments.
8) Monte Carlo Simulation: A project simulation is done using a model to show the potential impact of different level of uncertainties on project objectives. Monte Carlo Simulation is generally used for this analysis. It can quantify the effect of uncertainties and risks on project budget and schedule. It simulates the full system many times, each time randomly choosing a value for each factor from its probability distribution. It uses three point estimates like most likely, worst case and best case duration for each task in timemanagement.
Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 1382 proportion picks up warms amid summers and daytime and correspondingly loses lesser warmth amid winters and night. Low s/v proportion is viewed as ideal for hot dry and composite atmospheres as it lessens the warmth pick up and warm misfortune, which thus decreases the cooling and warming heap of building. The s/v proportion shows warm execution of fundamental shapes as opposed to complex ones. The most reduced symmetrical building would be a solid shape. In any case, for day lighting and ventilation, extensive zones presented to outside surfaces are viewed as great. Subsequently 3D shape is extended to expand its surface region and frame cuboids, which is a square shape in design. The bargain made with the thermal performance of the external envelop can be compensated by using insulating material in outside texture. The effectiveness accomplished through legitimate day lighting and ventilation by expanded surface region is an extra preferred standpoint. The warm execution could be balanced by appropriate introduction of building square.
2. Teo AL, Chong FW. Understanding construction fatalities in Singapore: prevention versus cure – a dynamic approach. Joint international symposium of CIB working commissions of W55: building economics; W65: organization and management of construction; W107: construction in developing countries, 22–24 October 2003, Singapore