with sensing, computation and wirelesscommunication capabilities these are used to provide information about the status of a specific system . Physical or environment parameter such as temperature, pressure, vibration could be measured by using these sensors. The information is sent wirelessly and received by central location for further analysis and usage. Maximizing node or network lifetime is primary objective in WSN because it is very difficult to charge or replace exhausted batteries. Thus energyefficientcommunication is very important part in WSN to reduce the device recharging cycle period and hence provide connectivity for longer duration. A major source of power drain in such networks is communication, energyefficientcommunication protocols that can be implemented with low hardware and software cost/complexity are thus of paramount importance in WSN stored the device recharging cycle periods and hence provide connectivity for longer durations at a stretch.
Multiple-antenna (MIMO) technology is becoming sophisticated for wireless networks and been integrated with wireless broadband standards like Wi-Fi and LTE. As the number of antennas increases, the performance of the signal path will also increase in terms of link reliability and data rate. Thus cost of WirelessCommunicationNetwork is increased due to the complexity of the hardware and energy consumption of the signal processing at both transmitter and receiver ends. In massive MIMO, the research challenges include appraisal of criticality of coherent channels propagation. Abolition for massive MIMO in present context could also be conceivably calculated on experimental basis for channel orthogonality. These challenges are can be taken care in further implementation of lower costs in the context of hardware power consumption in each of the antennas. Considering recent scenario 5G has many advantages over 4G and which are described below. En bloc in space
Abstract: WSN is one of the most forceful technologies of the current tech-savvy generation. WSN are made up of tens to potentially thousands of small, low-power sensor devices designed to sense information about their environment and then transmit that information to other network nodes or to a base station. Like other networks, sensor networks are vulnerable to malicious attack. One of the most valuable asset is the power supply, security and energy efficiency are critical problem in WSN. In power consumption related attacks an attacker tries to exhaust the wireless device’s power supply and it may degrade the lifetime of the network. The current design of MAC protocol are insufficient to protect the WSNs from power consumption attacks in MAC layer. This paper will present an energy-efficient security scheme against power exhausting attack.
ABSTRACT: Smart grid communication facilitate intelligent and distributed electric power transmission systems, but also introduces many security problems. In this paper the concept of dynamic secret is applied to design dynamic secret based authentication and encryption scheme for smart grid wirelesscommunication. Between two parties of communication, the previous packets are coded as retransmission sequence, where retransmitted packet is marked as “1” and the other is marked as “0.” During the communication, the retransmission sequence is generated at both sides to update the dynamic encryption key. Any missing or misjudging in retransmission sequence would prevent the adversary from achieving the keys. In addition with this we introduce a new protocol, Integrated Authentication and Confidentiality (IAC), to provide efficient secure AMI communications in smart grid. With the help of IAC, an AMI(Advanced Metering Infrastructure) system can provide trust services, data privacy, and integrity by mutual authentications whenever a new smart meter initiates and joins the smart grid AMI network.
The network in which the environmental conditions can be sensed and the information gathered is passed to the base station is known as wireless sensor network. In places where it is not possible for humans to reach, this type of network is deployed. The nodes present within the network are small in size and the battery power is also limited. Recharging or replacing the batteries is not possible in such far regions. The networks that do not involve any central controller are known as mobile ad hoc networks. Due to their decentralized nature this network is prone to various attacks. For reducing the energy consumption of nodes within the network, various methods have been established. The study related to various security threats as well as the different energyefficient techniques within mobile ad hoc networks are studied in this paper.
Wireless Sensor Network has energy efficiency as an important issue since the sensor nodes are battery powered. Lee and Heesan proposed an energy-efficient cooperative communication method which forms clusters and establishes inter cluster routes directly or via relay nodes . Bin Li et al studied CMIMO energy consumption in a random wireless sensor network where the nodes are distributed randomly. The clusters are formed to transmit the packets to the relay clusters using CMIMO . In the  done by, Cui et al proposed MIMO for WSNs, where MIMO is based on Alamouti diversity schemes and it is extended to individual single antenna array nodes. The array nodes cooperate with each other to form multiple antenna transmitters or receivers. By receiving and sending information jointly, a lot of energy can be saved. MIMO system outperforms SISO (Single Input Single Output) after a certain distance. Zhang and Dai focus on energy efficiency of the data collector nodes in the wireless sensor networks. The data collectors are equipped with antenna arrays (VMIMO) and superior processing capability . In  Chu et al focused on the MIMO-based ad hoc network. This paper exploits the use of cooperative relay transmission. Cooperative relay transmission is used when the direct transmission cannot successful. In  proposed an energy-efficient virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) can be approach of hundreds or even several minimal level indicator centers which have limitations of recognizing, working right up far off communications between each various other and also doing computational and also be prepared procedures . Each and every hub position can be of just one or simply a several sensor. Most of these indicator hub issues will be minimal within determine and also bring over the air correspondence. Sensor / probe frameworks get a broad set up of employments and also systems having incomprehensibly fluctuating personal needs and also qualities. The particular indicator systems can be utilized began this morning an unfathomable selection of career fields like army atmosphere, disaster administration, living space observing, medicinal and also cultural insurance policies, mechanical career fields, house systems, specific potion, healthy, radiological, nuclear, and also shaky substance and so on . Structure and also topology of WSN may vary from straightforward star technique to a advanced multi-hop instant fine mesh network. Strength wants, constrained tools, decreased dependability, and a usually increased fullness and also range of
Using these parameters as a node enters a discovery state, it sets its time Td (Discovery time) and sends discovery messages to all the nearest neighbors in its own grid. After broadcasting this discovery message it enters the active state. A node can fall into sleep state if there are other nodes in the grid which are equivalent in handling the fidelity before falling into the active state. In the active state the node sets a timeout value Ta which shows the remaining amount of time for which a node is intended to stay in active state. During its active state anode re-broadcasts its discovery message for given time intervals Td and goes into the sleep state if it finds another node which is equivalent or has an node with higher node rank that can handle communication or routing process. All these three types of state processing can be seen in the Figure given below, which shows node performance during the discovery, active and sleep state. A node enters into sleeping state either from the discovery state or the active state. Before it goes into the sleeping state it cancels all the timers like Ta and Td and power down the radio. In order to get back or wake up into the discovery state, the node has to complete the sleep time Ts, which is decided by the application or system. In order to maintain a constant communication medium or routing path between the nodes, GAF has to follow some load-balancing scheme so as to make all the nodes work efficiently and see that the nodes lifetime increases. This can be achieved by assuming that all the nodes in the region are equal, and no node is used fully or depleted till it dies. If the nodes that are inactive state for the time interval Ta are brought back to the discovery state, a chance is give into all those nodes which are in the discovery state to handle the further process, among those which strive to become active node members, there might be some nodes with more energy resources, or higher-rank nodes. These nodes set the timer Ta equal to enat and start advertising their discovery messages. The nodes which are in sleeping state set their timers equal to enat, i.e. the sleeping time.
Comparative Study On The Most Successful Existing Algorithms And Methods For Wireless Sensor Network Technology. This Is Most Challenging, Interesting And Demanding Area And Most Of The Scientist/Researcher Is Attract Toward The Field Of Research Study, I Had Overviewed Of The Past Researcher And Had Used The Effective And Efficient Ideas Here And Ongoing Studies Done By Other Researchers Related To The Same Subject. Eight Different Algorithms Have Been Preferred Based On The Most Widely Used Criteria. The Algorithms Are LowEnergy Adaptive Clustering Heirarchy (Leach), Pegasis , Time Division Multiple Acces, Hybrid Energy Effeciency Distributed Clustering, Teen, And Adaptive Periodical Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficiency Sensor Node Protocol (Apteen), Equalized Clustering Head Election Routing Protocol It Is A Novel Energy Routing Protocol(Echerp),Energy Efficiency Unequal Clustering(Eeuc), Energy Delay Index And Tradeoff (Edit), Energy Efficiency Varying Sized Clustering Algorithm(Eevsca), Static Clustering Based Multihop Routing In Wsn(Scrm). Routing Protocols Form One Of The Most Important Communication Paradigms That Greatly Affect The Performance Of The Wireless Sensor Networks Certain Parameters Have Been Taken Into Account For The Algorithms’ Comparative Based .The Parameters Are Size And Types Of Database Simulator Wireless Channel, Propagation Model, No. Of Nodes, Dimensions Of Simulated Area , Routing Protocol, Energy Model, Initial Energy. However Specific Justification Can Be Comparative Paper Based On Other Researches.
Wireless sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are generally battery powered and it is usually hard to change their batteries. Therefore, energy saving has always been the basic critical problem of wireless sensor networks. In recent years, network coding has become a promising technology to improve network throughput, reduce transmission number, and save energy, which has great potential to solve the energy efficiency problem of wireless sensor networks. In addition, some network coding aware routings have been proposed. However, the network coding condition of existing network coding aware routings may experience the problem of false-coding effect in some scenarios, and usually neglect node energy, which greatly influences the energy efficiency performance. Therefore, existing network coding aware routings are not suitable for wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes network coding aware energyefficient routing (NAER) for wireless sensor networks. In NAER, universal network coding condition is presented and proved to avoid false-coding problem. Besides, combined with the coverage control and topology control mechanism at lower layer, cross layer coding opportunity discover mechanism is presented to increase coding opportunities. In addition, a network coding aware energyefficient routing metric (NERM) is presented, which takes coding opportunity, node energy, and link quality into account jointly. Simulation results demonstrate that NAER improves the accuracy of coding discovery mechanism, increases the number of coding opportunities, saves node ’ s energy consumption, and prolongs network lifetime.
Abstract - Current research proposes the Scheduling Based EnergyEfficient Mobile Node Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. In this work, hybrid network consists of two types of nodes one is static nodes and other are moving nodes. We will consider these mobile nodes as mobile sink. Each static sensor has fixed or lowenergy. They have limited memory buffer. According the size of the buffer we will fixes the interval of movement of the mobile sink. After each time interval mobile sink go at fixed location and send the signal to static nodes. Such that will represent their arrival. Immediately static sensor will start transmitting to the mobile sink. We will subdivide the total network into equal sized grid. Various grid cells will collectively be considered as cluster. Each cluster has equal geometry. Such that mobile sink movement cluster by cluster is having equals amount of energy dissipation. Each mobile sink burn energy in movement and transmission. Now we will schedule the movement of the mobile sink such that they can be energyefficient. At base location this mobile sink will collectively transmit the signal to UAV. It will save the time and energy of UAV and in result total network.
should sense the radio environment, and adaptively choose transmission parameters according to sensing outcomes to avoid the interference to primary (licensed) users (PUs). Spectrum Efficiency (SE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) are most important issues to be addressed. Cognitive radio based on battery- powered wireless devices can improve spectrum efficiency; meanwhile it will incur lower energy efficiency due to extra sensing time overhead and energy consumption. Therefore, research on energy efficiency of CRNs has been considered more and more important in future wireless systems. So, to maintain the Quality of Service (Qos) and transmit the power to the secondary users without interfering primary users the Energy Efficiency (EE) is required. The ability of energyefficient Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) is to transmit maximum data without interfering primary spectrum. The Energy Efficiency is defined as number of bits transmitted per total power consumption. Both sensing and transmission consume energy. For a given level of transmit power, sensing more channels can help explore the diversity among different channels, and possibly find a channel with higher transmission rate.
Wireless sensor network has gained increasing attention for the research community and users in the last years. In a wireless sensor network, sensor nodes have generally limited battery power so the critical aspect is to save the energy of nodes. Routing protocols plays the important role in energy consumption of nodes. In this paper we proposed energyefficientcommunication protocol based on energy and distance based cluster head selection. In this paper consider the remaining energy of nodes for cluster head selection when nodes are alive far from base station but clustering is not working well for alive nodes which are near to the base station then all nodes select as cluster head and communicate with base station directly. Simulation result with MATLAB show that this approach improves system lifetime 20 to30% more than LEACH and save residual energy by an order of magnitude compared to normal approach when energy is limited.
development of small sensor nodes dates back to the 1998 Smart dust project and the NASA Sensor Webs Project. One of the objectives of the Smart dust project was to create autonomous sensing and communication within a cubic millimeter of space. Though this project ended early on, it led to many more research projects. They include major research centres in Berkeley NEST and CENS. The researchers involved in these projects coined the term mote to refer to a sensor node. The equivalent term in the NASA Sensor Webs Project for a physical sensor node is pod, although the sensor node in a Sensor Web can be another Sensor Web itself. Physical sensor nodes have been able to increase their capability in conjunction with Moore's Law. The chip footprint contains more complex and lower powered microcontrollers [12-17]. Thus, for the same node footprint, more silicon capability can be packed into it. Nowadays, motes focus on providing the longest wireless range (dozens of km), the lowest energy consumption and the easiest development process for the user.
Clustering is the process of classifying the nodes into different groups by partitioning sets of data into a series of subsets called clusters. Clustering basically involved a set of cluster heads, which are selected as predefined criteria. The cluster heads carried out the other responsibilities like collecting data from all the sensor nodes in a cluster and transmits it to the base station. The role of each cluster head turns around after every round between all the nodes present in a cluster. It should be balanced, the energy level of the cluster head. It is assumed that each sensor node has an extensive range of communication and is able to reach CH directly and thereafter BS. LowEnergy Adoptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), EnergyEfficient sensor Network (TEEN), Adaptive Periodic EnergyEfficient sensor Network (APTEEN), and Power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems (PEGASIS) are cluster based routing protocols they have similar features and their architectures are to some extent similar. They have fixed infrastructure. The low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) proposed by Heinzelman et al. is a well-known hierarchical routing protocol applied in clustered wireless sensor networks. LEACH divides a wireless sensor network into a number of clusters, and sensor nodes in the same cluster can communicate with each other directly. A sensor node decides which cluster to join based on the strength of receiving signals.
is one of the most emerging fields there are large amount of research going on how we can efficiently uses WSN in various area. WSN consist of various components in that communication is most important because while communication between nodes lots of energy wasted for communication there are various Energyefficient saving scheme are proposed One of the technique is clustering. A cluster-based approach is used to minimise energy expenditure in WSN. In this paper, a uniform cluster concept is proposed to minimise data transmission distance of sensor nodes in WSN. The residual energy is calculated for selecting the appropriate cluster head nodes and the average distance between sensor nodes. To increase the lifetime of sensor node in WSNs and for increasing energy efficiency, new efficientenergy saving schemes EECBS (EnergyEfficient Cluster-Base Scheme) is proposed and developed. Lifetime of WSN is increased effectively by using the uniform cluster and balancing the network load among the clusters. The proposed EECBS algorithm achieves less energy expenditure and better WSN life-time, as it find the dead nodes from the sensing region and these dead nodes are energize with the solar power and again moved to active node for next operation.
Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a method of combining and collecting significant information in some appropriate region of interest. The efficacy of the communication between the nodes relies on the techniques of the data aggregation being utilized. It could be taken as an elementary processing method for the reduction of energy consumption and for saving limited resources. The enhancement of network lifetime and energy efficiency is dependent on an efficient data aggregation technique. This paper introduces a clustering mechanism adopted from Low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol in the data aggregation architecture . LEACH is a method of cluster formation by means of energy conserving. It utilizes the process of randomization for the dispersing of energy expenditure between the sensor nodes. The cluster-based mechanism is considered to carry out data aggregation and Cluster head (CH) and is contemplated as Aggregator. It also utilizes the radio energy model for the proportionate energy utilization structure . The aggregation model also requires a root discovery process and
Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO), or multiple antenna, communication is one of the techniques that has gained considerable importance in wireless systems during recent years. However, a drawback of MIMO techniques is that they could require complex transceiver circuitry and large amount of signal processing power that may lead to large power consumptions at the circuit level. Thus, in evaluating the applicability of MIMO techniques to energy-limited wireless sensor networks, one should take into account the circuit power consumption as well as the transmit power consumption. In virtual MIMO-based cooperative communications architecture for energy-limited wireless sensor networks. Virtual multiple transmit antenna arrays are created out of single antenna sensor nodes via local transmissions. The sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network can be of small dimensions. Thus, it may not be realistic for these sensor nodes to have multiple antennas. However, it is possible to implement a virtual MIMO communication architecture in such energy-limited, distributed wireless sensor networks via sensor cooperation, as reported in .
In this paper, design of the subsampling architecture should be tradeoff between integration, sensitivity, noise figure, and power consumption for the applica- tion of IoT. In order to solve the problem of noise folding, the subsampling receiver with integrated filter before the subsampling mixer can be used. In terms of sensitivity and integration of the system, the balun- LNA based on the inductively degenerated structure is used to achieve high voltage gain and low noise figure. And it adopts the common-gate and common- source cascade topology to provide differential output signal. Moreover, the sampling frequency with high sampling ratio can be used to further reduce the power consumption. And quadrature sampling tech- nique can acquire high energy efficiency. Therefore, the subsampling architecture with on-chip balun-LNA is proposed in this paper, which can achieve the quadrature sampling frequency conversion by low sampling frequency. This paper is organized as fol- lows: a brief overview of related works is described in Section 2. And the theory analysis of it is introduced in Section 3. The proposed RF subsampling receiver and its building blocks are introduced in Section 4. The performance of the subsampling receiver is ex- hibited in Section 5. Finally, conclusions and discus- sion are drawn in Section 6.
Wirelesscommunication technologies have seen a tremendous growth in diverse areas, leading to provide new opportunities for networking and services. WSNs are the products which incorporate the sensing techniques, the embedded techniques, as well as the communication techniques. The emergence of WSNs is a revolution in communication scenario and has generated an unparalleled interest among the researchers due to the sheer number of applications in which they may be used in the near future. The applications of WSNs are endless and limited only by human imagination. Cluster-based routing protocols, better known as hierarchical routing protocols, are based on the grouping of sensor nodes into clusters in order to address some of the weaknesses of flat routing protocols, like network lifetime, scalability and efficiency. The main idea is that the sensors communicate only with a leader in their own cluster, known as a Cluster Head (CH). These CHs are then responsible for aggregating and propagating data from