Identifying possible variables that contribute to students’ inclination toward STEM careers is important for the sustainability of STEM fields. Identified variables can potentially serve as initial criteria for recruitment of students to STEM careers. Nicholls, Wolfe, Besterfield-Sacre, Shuman, and Larpkiattaworn (2007), using incoming freshmen data from the Cooperative Institution Research Program for two universities, tested a methodology for identifying variables that consistently showed significant differences between students intending to major in STEM subjects versus non-STEM subjects. The authors asserted that “variables that consistently show significant differences across numerous subgroups are valued more highly than variables that are significant for only two subgroups” (p. 36). The authors found quantitative measures of academic ability and qualitative measures of interests, attitudes, and personal characteristics provided the best predicators of students pursuing majors in STEM subjects. High SAT mathematics scores, high school grade point average and, to a lesser degree, SAT verbal scores were quantitative indicators of STEM interest while self-ratings of mathematical ability, computer skills, and academic ability were qualitative indicators of a STEM orientation. In general, students oriented toward majors in STEM subjects tended to spend more time studying, wanted to make theoretical contributions to the science field, had fewer focused personal goals, and were stable in their choice of major or career compared to students oriented toward majors in non-STEM subjects.
There are no classes or subjects for STEM education in the in-service training received by teacher candidates at university education in the national education structure in Turkey . The relevant topics in such training programs may be cognitive learning approaches, alternative measurement and evaluation, and educational technologies. In addition, teachers must have the skill of being able to use the four disciplines, which are Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, for a successful STEM Education. So, it is highly possible that teachers might face several problems in applying the STEM Education. For this reason, the analyses of the needs must be made very well for designing a STEM Education for teachers. Based on these facts, the aim of the present study was to determine the viewpoints and readiness of teachers working at primary and secondary schools on STEM Education. In this context, answers were sought to the following questions:
The “STEM Career Interest Survey” was developed by Kier, Blanchard, Osborne, and Albert (2013) and adapted to the Turkish context by Ünlü et al. (2016). This survey instrument was used to identify how effective the project activities were on increasing the interest of participants in having a career in the STEM fields. The STEM Career Interest Survey consists of 40 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The survey has four subdimensions: STEM with each subdimension having 10 items. Examples of survey subdimension items: Science - I am able to get a good grade in my science class. If I do well in science classes, it will help me in my future career. I am interested in careers that use science; Mathematics - I like my mathematics class. I would feel comfortable talking to people who work in mathematics careers. I have a role model in a mathematics career; Technology - I am able to do well in activities that involve technology. I am able to learn new technologies. I plan to use technology in my future career; and Engineering - I am interested in careers that involve engineering. I like activities that involve engineering. I have a role model in an engineering career. The survey is based on Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory. The total score to be earned for each subdimension varies between 10 and 50. STEM perception test
The general objective of SAGA is to contribute to reducing the gender gap in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields in all countries at all levels of education and research, by determining, measuring and assessing sex-disaggregated data, as well as supporting the design and implementation of policy instruments that affect gender equality in STEM.
There have been many scholarly attempts to improve STEM education program within the last decade. In this sectionwe review the existing research studies in the areas of STEM education programs. Kuenzi et.al 2006, evaluated the program based ongrowing concern that the United States was not preparing a sufficientnumber of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology,engineering, and mathematics (STEM). They then proposed an improvement plan to the US Congress in which many bills have been influenced by leading academic, scientific, and business organization reports.These recommendations to improve STEM policy concern every aspect ofthe educational pipeline.The focus of the report was on five areas: improving elementary and secondarypreparation in math and science, recruiting new elementary and secondary math andscience teachers, retooling current math and science teachers, increasing the numberof undergraduate STEM degrees awarded, and supporting graduate and early-careerresearch. Asundastudied STEM programs in a sense to offer a conceptual framework for integrating its subjects in a universal curriculum as well as preparing them for the future career. He then provided a premise foreducators who were interested in delivery of STEM content in CTE (curriculum and technologyeducation) may reflect upon as they prepare students for the 21 st century workforce. This framework includes four theoretical constructs—including system thinking, situated learning theory, constructivism, and goal orientation theory—that blend together to accentuate how students may learn STEM concepts in CTE (Asunda 2014).
Integrated STEAM education in South Korea is an approach to preparing a quality STEM workforce and literate citizens for highly technology-based society by integrating science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics in education. It is named differ- ently from STEM due to its emphasis on arts (fine arts, language arts, liberal arts, and physical arts) as an important component of integration. While the STEAM reform movement is in alignment with STEM reform in other countries, its added component, i.e., arts, was inspired by the concurrent social discourse on education for creativity and a well-rounded citizen in the twenty-first century (Baik et al., 2012). Also, the na- tional concern for students’ low confidence and interest in learning science regardless of high achievement (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2013) factored in promoting the integration of arts with STEM education for affective goals. A similar idea now can be found elsewhere (e.g., Henriksen, 2014; The STEAM journal, 2013). Since then, the South Korean government has allocated a substantial educational budget for promoting STEAM through various routes. With the idea of creating innovative thinkers by integrating ideas from STEAM fields, i.e., all subjects in schools, the term, ‘ convergence education ’ has been coined and used to refer to the in- tegrated STEAM education initiative. Convergence refers to creating new ideas or products formed by interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary thinking. Thus, the main goal of integrated STEAM education is to develop ‘talents in convergence’.
These results suggest that in recent years there has been increased interest in science and engineering bachelor’s degrees by Australian students, beyond the growth that could be expected from expansion of the entire system and separate from enrolment changes brought about by the introduction of the Melbourne model. Growth in student interest in science coincided with the HECS discount for science students introduced in 2009. By contrast, agriculture and environment numbers have not kept up with the expanding system, there being a reduced share of enrolments in 2012. While IT declined significantly in the early 2000s, following a global change in fortunes for technology industries (Cornell University et al. 2014), from 2008 onwards it grew in line with overall enrolment numbers. 8.6.3 Students completing STEM degrees Information about enrolments in particular degrees can cast light on the interests of students entering the higher education system. For many reasons, however, students might not continue in their enrolled degree, either changing to a different degree or discontinuing study. Completions are therefore an important measure of the output of the system: they directly measure the number of students that graduate in a specific field.
Many researchers believe that one of the most important factors that make females avoid the themes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in childhood and adolescence stage lies in the negative and stereotypical perceptions of these subjects (Schuster and Martyny, 2017). It is also attributed to the society’s view of the roles of males and females and what society expects from them. In childhood, girls begin to confront gender roles, which are meant to learn roles as defined by societal norms based on gender (Ismail, 1986). Children learn about gender from early childhood, and the behavior of individuals is determined by beliefs, values, models and attitudes. These roles or stereotypes are shaped by the adoption of specific expectations for both males and females by the family and the community. Parents and educators teach males to behave in a certain way. In this context, Lenore (2010) finds that male stereotypes lead males to acquire applied skills, discover the physical world, and focus on activities that emphasize problem solving, financial gain, information technology and numeracy skills, that encourage them to progress in the areas of STEM in the future. Female stereotypes also guide females to household management, focus on family and family formation, and on activities related to personal relationships, which limit their future orientation and involvement in areas such as mathematics and engineering, even if they excel in these areas. Therefore, parents begin to facilitate the male path towards mathematics and engineering and directing females to other fields such as natural sciences and education. According to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015 Assessment Frameworks, the number of males enrolled in advanced mathematics programs exceeds the number of female students in 6 countries, while the number of females exceeds the number of males in only two countries (Mullis et al., 2016
In Turkey, the employment in STEM fields and the number of students who prefer these fields is quite low. The review of the occupational distribution of STEM fields in Turkey reveals that the employment in professions such as physics, mathematics, engineering, and software development is quite low (Ercan, 2011; ISKUR, 2017a; 2017b). These results are similar for the students who are enrolled in the university for these subjects. An analysis of new students to higher education shows that the number of students who are registered in the science, mathematics, statistics, information and communication technologies, and engineering departments is quite low (OECD, 2017; YOK, 2017). Moreover, the attendance to these fields is also low in terms of the number of current students (YOK, 2017). To promote students’ engagement toward STEM The purposes of this study were to determine whether the departments that high school students consider choosing for their university education belong to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields or not and to reveal the relationship between their choice and gender, grade, and type of institution. The research was conducted during the second semester of 2016–2017 academic year with 2129 students from five public schools located in the Kocasinan and Melikgazi districts of the Kayseri Province in Turkey. Data were collected through a survey instrument requesting students’ demographic information and the departments that they selected for university education. Afterward, the departments mentioned by the students were coded as STEM-related and STEM-unrelated departments. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 22.0 Statistic Software and frequencies, percentages, and Chi-square analysis were employed. Significant relationships were found between grade, gender, type of institution, and considering STEM-related department for university education. As a result, this study recommends that informative and stimulating activities involving STEM departments of universities should be organized for senior high school students to promote STEM fields.
The Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education and Professional Studies (STEMPS) is an academic leader in graduate studies related to education specialists, including career and technical education, instructional design and technology, marketing education, scienceeducation, mathematicseducation, technologyeducation, STEM education, community college teaching, and business and industry training. It offers the M.S., M.S.Ed, and the Ph.D. in Education with programs in occupational and technical studies (OTS) and instructional design and technology (IDT). The Ed.S. is offered in conjunction with the educational leadership program. The department also offers licensure and teaching endorsement programs. Due to changing University requirements, national accreditation standards, and Commonwealth licensure regulations, the programs in the Darden College of Education are under constant revision. Any changes resulting from these factors supersede the program requirements described in the catalog. Students should obtain current program information from their advisors and the Darden College of Education website at http://education.odu.edu/.
STEM Summit Planning Committee led by the UMass uses the Summits to attract educators, both PK-12 and higher education, community and business leaders and state and local-level policy makers to attack the challenge that currently, and in the foreseeable future, Massachusetts is not graduating enough students to fill the open STEM workforce positions. The purpose of the STEM Summit is to explore and analyze the problem and its solutions, extend exemplary, extant practices, determine the roles of the various players and mobilize the Commonwealth's STEM community to: increase student interest in and preparation for careers in STEM; increase the number of highly qualified teachers in STEM; and provide them with timely professional development programs support.
Next, we used the science performance data and attitude data (broad interest in science and enjoyment of science) to determine the percentage of female students who, in principle, could be successful in tertiary education in STEM. For this, we defined suitability as follows: A student would need to have at least proficiency level 4 in all three PISA domains (science, mathematics, and reading, see Method). Using these ability criteria, we would expect far more women among STEM graduates (international mean = 49%, SD = 4) than are actually found in any country (international mean = 28%, SD = 6 , Figure 5A). In regard to attitudes, we assumed that they should at least have the international median level of enjoyment science, interest in science, and science self-efficacy. Using these additional criteria, the percentage of girls likely to enjoy, feel capable, and be successful in tertiary STEM programs is still considerably higher in every country (international mean = 41%, SD = 6), except Tunisia, than is actually found (Figure 5B).
What Are STEM Fields? STEM fields can include a wide range of disciplines. For example, the National Science Foundation (NSF) defines STEM fields broadly, includ- ing not only the common categories of mathematics, natural sciences, engineering, and computer and infor- mation sciences, but also such social/behavioral sciences as psychology, economics, sociology, and political science (Green 2007). Many recent federal and state leg- islative efforts, however, are aimed at improving STEM education mainly in mathematics, natural sciences, engi- neering, and technologies (Kuenzi, Matthews, and Man- gan 2006; National Governors Association 2007). For this reason, this Statistics in Brief excludes social/ behavioral sciences from the definition of STEM fields. STEM fields, as defined here, include mathematics; nat- ural sciences (including physical sciences and biologi- cal/agricultural sciences); engineering/engineering technologies; and computer/information sciences. For more details about classifications of STEM fields, see the crosswalk in the Technical Notes section.
1.9 Other departments also play an important role. The Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS) is concerned with the broad development of digital and cyber security skills, and encouraging businesses to take appropriate action to defend themselves and their customers from cyber attack. The Ministry of Defence has a large apprenticeships programme, mainly in STEM areas, and has a particular need for engineering skills. The Department for Transport is interested in skills among its workforce that support national infrastructure projects, such as building the High Speed 2 rail line. Most STEM definitions exclude medicine and dentistry, so we do not specifically consider the healthcare sector in this report.
Employer respondents deplored the lack of mathematics and STEM skills in general among graduate pools, whilst others indicated that current graduates are not proficient in applying technical skills. A quarter of employers additionally expressed a strong lack of business skills among STEM graduates.
• Technical Approach and Justification – The proposal should consist of a clear description of the technical approach being proposed and its potential Naval relevance and contribution to the agency’s specific education and science and engineering workforce. Discuss scientific and technical merits and its potential to achieve the objectives of the program, including the extent to which the proposed effort would enhance current capabilities. Identify metrics used to determine impact and/or success of the program and the methodology for obtaining and validating the metrics. Identify proposed efforts for increasing or maintaining the educational pipeline and the potential of the proposed program to educate future scientists and engineers in STEM disciplines critical to the Naval mission. Discuss increased or enhanced opportunities to disseminate information on Naval programs and careers. Discuss impact of the initiatives toward improving science and engineeringeducation in the United States. Discuss potential and extent to which the proposed program engages Naval laboratories as active participants in program execution. Limit the number of pages for this section to 13.
The 2010 Success through STEM Strategy highlights the actions taken by the Department to promote STEM. For example, it notes that the revised curriculum includes a clear focus on numeracy and a specific focus on science and technology, and that the Entitlement Framework will provide increased choice in the range of courses available to young people aged 14 and above. Other actions and details of progress made against them, where available, are outlined in the following table. 5
The idea of STEM education has been contemplated since the 1990s in the USA, few teachers seemed to know how to operationalize STEM education several decades later. Americans realized the country may fall behind in the global economy and began to heavily focus on STEM education and careers . STEM funding for research and education then increased significantly in the USA . The urgency to improve achievement in American Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematicseducation is evident by the massive educational reforms that have occurred in the last two decades within these STEM education disciplines.
Due to the fast economic, social, scientific and technological developments of our age, students need to be raised as individuals with twenty first century skills such as creative and innovative, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making skills as well acknowledge about scientific reading-writing, life and career, and sense of responsibility. The twenty first century skills and competencies are quite an endeavor for any educational system. It involves not only a continuous change in decision-making, but also the society as a whole has to care about the future of children, and provide what is necessary to help them to achieve their own personal goals, empowering and nurturing them from their early years as autonomous citizens who will have the self-confidence to create their own future .However, this does not seem possible with a scienceeducation that teaches only the basic concepts. In other words, skills like creativity, critical thinking, problem solving and collaborative working skills cannot be acquired to students with the classical education approach . Therefore, application of new approaches and practices in education institutions becomes a necessity . It is intended to educate students in an integrated way and allow them to gain twenty first century skills through the STEM education. In this regard, science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines play a significant role in developing these twenty first century skills [1, 4, 24]. Gaining these skills is also important for making decisions in social, economic and political issues .It is noted that students trained with STEM education grow up to be problem solver, innovative, self-confident, logically thinker, science and technology author-reader individuals and those STEM programs using information technologies contribute the development of critical thinking skills of students . However, students lacking STEM skills could not head towards science and engineering related professions or disciplines that require literacy in mathematics, science and technology .