Top PDF Stability analysis in smart grid with renewable energy sources

Stability analysis in smart grid with renewable energy sources

Stability analysis in smart grid with renewable energy sources

station and consumers. With the phenomenal increase of power in recent times, the length of transmission lines have been continuously increasing to deliver power to consumers. Also transmission lines traverse harsh terrains and thus effective communication between substations has been a challenge. The above mentioned problems can be rectified by means of smart grid which support worldwide distributed energy resources by organizing, bidirectional transmission of power and real time information, alternating renewable generation and supply/demand balancing within the distributed networks. Such that with the adoption of new technologies makes consumer to monitor and routinely control energy use and provides opportunities for consumers to contribute in the market to meet demand. Integration of distributed power sources are renewable energy such as Fuel cells, Photovoltaic cells, Wind turbine, hydro generators etc. can provide the needs like stability in power, grid efficiency improvement, increase the use of the Plug-in EVs, support customer in changing their energy usage patterns, by reduction in power consumption and saving money.
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Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Smart Grid

Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Smart Grid

ABSTRACT:The complexity of the power grid, in addition with the ever increasing demand for electricity, creates the need for efficient analysis and control of the power system. Smart grid technology is the best key for an efficient use of distributed energy resources. The smart grid is the future solution for the techniques and strategies of production and the interaction of all the components of power grid. Noting the climate change becomes an important topic of concern, the whole world is currently facing the ever increasing price of petroleum products, coal etc. and also the renewable energy power systems have reduced cost, giving opportunities for renewable energy systems to address electricity generation. However, the integration of renewable energy systems (RESs) in smart grids (SGs) is a challenging task, mainly due to the intermittent and unpredictable nature of the sources, typically wind or sun. The Smart Grid uses two- way flow of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network, considered as the next generation power grid. It allows a better exploitation of renewable energy sources and a reduction of the customers’ energy consumption costs with both economic and environmental benefits. The grid flexibility and resilience can be improved through the active participation of distribution system operators (DSOs) and electricity supply/demand that, according to their preferences and costs, respond to real-time price signals using market processes. This paper presents the study of integrating renewable energy in smart grid system and the concept of smart grid plays a crucial role and can be successfully applied to the power systems.
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IOT based Smart Grid to remotely monitor and control Renewable Energy Sources

IOT based Smart Grid to remotely monitor and control Renewable Energy Sources

connected in the IOT landscape. Better decisions such as taking the best routes to work or choosing their favorite restaurant is done by people. The Web of Things vision to successfully emerge, the computing criterion will need to go beyond traditional mobile computing scenarios that use smart phones and portables, and evolve into connecting everyday existing objects and embedding intelligence into our environment.

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IOT based Smart Grid to remotely monitor and control Renewable Energy Sources

IOT based Smart Grid to remotely monitor and control Renewable Energy Sources

The user is authenticated as a user after he registers himself for a connection, by Applying for a new connection on the login screen. Proper verification an installation is carried out by professional to include the home in the smart grid. One of these options is to check for the power Consumption of a particular home. This supports the user to check his energy needs and plan the scheduling of his power sources. The user can check out his consumption day, month or year-wise. The data consumption can be compared to consumption data of other times by means of comparison of average consumption data. Based on the average power consumption data ,the user plans how and when to use its energy sources using the IOT .The IOT services allows the user to configure the switching of energy sources according to a preplanned schedule.
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Stability Analysis of Voltage Source Inverter Used in Grid Integrated Renewable Energy Sources
D Karuna & G Anitha

Stability Analysis of Voltage Source Inverter Used in Grid Integrated Renewable Energy Sources D Karuna & G Anitha

Other Grid Synchronization Methods: Some advanced PLL structures, such as the decoupled doublesynchronous PLL, use the same building block of Fig. 4 inmultiple stages, such that the same modeling method is applica- bleto them. Other forms of grid-synchronization, such as thosebased on the second-order generalized integrator fre- quency lockedloop (SOGI-FLL).Fig. 6 depicts the basic building block of the SOGI-FLL. Inthree-phase systems, two filters can be used in the αβ-referenceframe to extract sequence components. The basic functionalityof the filter is to extract a sinusoidal component in phase withvα in x1, and a quadrature component in x2 that lags x1 by 90◦. Applying a superimposed perturbation in vα.
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Segment Wise Communication Delay Measurement for Managing Renewable Energy Sources in Smart Grid

Segment Wise Communication Delay Measurement for Managing Renewable Energy Sources in Smart Grid

not possible without using communication technologies which supports various applications including AMI and Distributed Automation (DA) [10]. A strong communication architecture is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the SG application [19, 20]. Designing, developing, and integrating a high speed communication network are key focal points of a successful implementation of the SG [3, 21]. SG will need communication infrastructure at almost all the nodes of the system [12, 22]. Therefore, network architectures for Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), Home Area Network (HAN) or in-Home Energy Management (iHEM) were introduced to collect and transfer data from energy consumption points [5, 23-25] to utility centers using low cost public networks such as Internet [26].
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A Novel Implementation of Demand Response on Smart Grid using Renewable Energy Sources

A Novel Implementation of Demand Response on Smart Grid using Renewable Energy Sources

Photovolatic (PV) systems are a suitable option to produce clean electrical energy, since they can be dimensioned for a wide range of power ratings in both stand- alone and grid-connected applications. A typical PV system is composed by a PV array, a dc/dc converter to transform the power provided by the PV source, and an inverter. The PV array is characterized by a nonlinear behavior that changes significantly with the operating conditions, e.g., irradiance level, shades, temperature, among others, which makes difficult to predict the voltage and current to guarantee the maximum power production.
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A demand-side response smart grid scheme to mitigate electrical peak demands and access renewable energy sources

A demand-side response smart grid scheme to mitigate electrical peak demands and access renewable energy sources

Growing demands are causing increased pressure on the electricity infrastructure and perpetually escalated energy prices. Typically, there are daily and seasonal demand fluctuations oscillating between excessive- peak and equally excessive-low demands. Peak demands, at times, are causing congestions on the transmission and distribution network associated with compromised quality, risk of outages and high-priced energy supply. Expensive-to-run power plants are usually operated for short periods of time to meet peak demands what makes their operation even more expensive. Low-demands, usually supplied by base-load power stations, could be driving the electrical capacity and network to be operated well below a sustainable economic feasibility. Spreading out the demand profile on a moderated level would achieve an improved utilization of the electrical infrastructure. This research presents a demand-side response scheme to be implemented at end-user’s premises contributing shifting loads to the right time of the day targeting spreading out the demand profile and allowing utilization of renewable energy sources. The technology uses programmable internet relays controlling appliance switches to operate loads automatically. The paper presents simulations of the economic model corresponding to the above described scheme representing an incentive-based demand response. In the simulation the impact of these programs on load shape and peak load magnitudes, financial benefit to users as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. The results demonstrated more moderated load profile at lesser peak load magnitude and reduced energy cost.
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PLC Based Smart Grid Application to Curtail and Connect Renewable Energy Sources to the Grid

PLC Based Smart Grid Application to Curtail and Connect Renewable Energy Sources to the Grid

algorithm would curtail or connect the renewable energy to the grid. The serial communication from the Matlab is connected to the PLC and the PLC would connect the data from one end to the other end of the power line. The other end of the power line is connected to the serial communication and the microcontroller receives the data and curtails the renewable source when voltage amplitude is disturbed and connected when the voltage amplitude is settled.

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Distributed Voltage Regulation and Grid Connection of Renewable Energy Sources.

Distributed Voltage Regulation and Grid Connection of Renewable Energy Sources.

Communication among the inverters in a distribution system consists of several DES is a major factor for reactive power management. The need for global communication systems seriously limits the benefits of coordinated control to small distributed systems [41]. Centralized approach of voltage regulations can ensure optimization of reactive power management but it requires a robust communication structure. On the other hand distributed voltage regulation approach which coordinates DES to provide proper voltage regulation can accomplish the task with less communication requirements [103]. A two way communication based distributed voltage regulation for smart distribution feeders has been proposed in [106]. Power line communication (PLC) has been considered for communication of this scenario as it is the only technology that has a deployment cost comparable to wireless, since the lines are already there. Also wireless communication for smart grid has been discussed in [107]. An advanced communication architecture named SunWave Communicator is presented by Petra Solar in [108]. It features two way communication to each smart energy device connected to it, allowing both individual and system monitoring and control.
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Renewable Energy Integration into Smart Grid Energy Storage Technologies and Challenges

Renewable Energy Integration into Smart Grid Energy Storage Technologies and Challenges

Hydrogen and synthetic natural gas (SNG) are secondary energy carriers and can be used to store electrical energy via electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen and, in an additional step, methane if required. In fuel cells electricity is generated by oxidizing hydrogen or methane. This combined electrolysis is a fuel cell process and also an electrochemical EES. However, both gases are multi- purpose energy carriers. For example, electricity can be generated in a gas or steam turbine. Consequently, they are classified as chemical energy storage systems. Thermal energy storage system as well, although in most cases electricity is not the direct input to such storage systems. But with the help of thermal energy storage the energy from renewable energy sources can be buffered and thus electricity can be produced on demand. Examples are hot molten salts in concentrated solar power plants and the storage of heat in compressed air plants using an adiabatic process to gain efficiency.
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The Present Trends and Challenges in Renewable Energy Sources Connected to a Grid

The Present Trends and Challenges in Renewable Energy Sources Connected to a Grid

Thirty of the U.S‘s biggest utilities have wholly installed smart meters for their customers [151]. Texas and California lead with the smart meter penetration [152]. Some utilities have even allowed for the likelihood of alternative programs of pricing or including bigger smart grid visibility with in-home displays and systems of energy management in Wisconsin and New York [153]. Unlike the European one, the American electricity industry mostly follows the integrated utility framework structure, and municipality utilities contract for a majority of the residential consumers [154]. Other than in Texas, retail choice is quite uncommon in the US [155]. Consequently, smart meter penetration is conducted in many states via centralized rollouts [156]. That is probably a result of the high concentration of integrated utilities with monopoly positions to do so [157]. Nevertheless, several states give customers the choice of opting out of the smart meters [158]. For the clients who take this option, ―an initial and monthly opt-out fees are charged‖ [159]. Even so, the number of customers who use this alternative is moderately low [160].
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Implementation of 3 Phase Electric Springs in Unbalanced Power Systems using Instantaneous Power Theory

Implementation of 3 Phase Electric Springs in Unbalanced Power Systems using Instantaneous Power Theory

implementation of the first generation of ES (i.e. ES-1) with capacitive storage have been reported. By working under inductive and capacitive mode, ES-1 is capable of regulating the mains voltage to its nominal value in the presence of intermittent power injected into the power grid. With input voltage control, ES can work with non-critical loads that have high tolerance of voltage fluctuation (e.g. with operating voltage range from 180 V to 265 V for a nominal mains voltage of 220 V). Examples of the non-critical loads are thermal loads such as ice-thermal storage systems, electric water heater systems, air-conditioning systems and some public lighting systems.The first version of ES provides only reactive power compensation for mains voltage regulation and simultaneously varies the non-critical load power so as to achieve automatic power balancing within the power capability of the ES and its associated non-critical load. This arrangement allows ES-2 to work in eight different operating modes and to provide both active and reactive power compensation. It also enables ES-2 to perform extra tasks such as power factor correction and load compensation. The first and second versions of ES are illustrated in (a) and (b), respectively. With many countries worldwide determined to decarbonize electric power generation within the next few decades, new concerns about power system stability have arisen from the increasing use of intermittent renewable energy sources. Due to the distributed and intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, power companies will find it impossible to instantaneously predict and control the total power generation in the entire power grid. Future smart grid requires a new control paradigm that the load demand should follow power generation, which is just opposite to existing control method of power generation following load demand.
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Development of a Micro grid with Renewable Energy Sources with Feedback Controller

Development of a Micro grid with Renewable Energy Sources with Feedback Controller

V Usha Rani, currently working as a Assistant professor in EEE department, GRIET -Hyderabad and doing Ph.D in KL University. She pursued B.Tech in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and M.Tech with the specialization of Power Electronics and Power Systems. She has teaching experience of 10 years. She is familiar with the softwares MATLAB, Pspice, Mi Power, Etap, PSCAD. LabView. She has published papers, Real time Web based Monitoring System for CO 2 (GWACS), Transmission Line Protection for Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Faults using Distance Relays, Optimal Operation of Distributed Generation Unit with Micro Grid Controlling to Improve Stability and Generation Hosting Capacity, Loss Minimization and Voltage Profile Improvement with Network Reconfiguration and Distributed Generation. Her Research areas of interest are Power Systems, Renewable Energy Sources, IoT applications, Smart Grid .
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Steady State Stability Analysis using Solar as Renewable Sources of Energy for Vehicle to Grid Energy Transfer

Steady State Stability Analysis using Solar as Renewable Sources of Energy for Vehicle to Grid Energy Transfer

Abstract: Nowadays, peoples are more attracted towards the Electric Vehicles (EVs) due to environmental pollution, its decreasing resources and also increasing prices of fossil fuel. But there should be new load occur on power system. The new challenges caused on power system i.e., frequency control and stability of power system. To avoid these problems, batteries are used in EVs to stored the energy. The PV panels are connected to batteries to charge. EVs batteries are stored in Grid when necessary. It is known as Vehicle to Grid (V2G) concept. This concept is used to improve State of Charge (SOC) of batteries. Keywords: Smart grid, Deregulated grid, Vehicle to grid, Renewable energy.
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Integration of Renewable Energy in Smart Grid

Integration of Renewable Energy in Smart Grid

Due to availability of wind renewable energy sources abundantly, wind energy generation is increasing day by day to develop rural electrification, increase job opportunities in technology. But there are some restrictions to the powerful wind energy into the grid. Wind speed forecasting has high uncertainty, high volatility and low predictability reduces the system security and wind revenue. Problem in maintaining voltage profile. Most of the wind turbines are coupled with SCIG, which are not able to support reactive power within the system. More stress on breaker, transmission line, bus bar at the time of fault occurs, due to high penetration of wind energy resources due to low fault ride-through (FRT) capability of wind generator. High pungent of wind energy creates stability problem, and possible blackouts thus wind energy penetration is limited by ATC (available transfer capability) of the system. Frequency behavior of the system also changes with wind pungent due to lower inertia of distributed wind generators. Finally, wind energy pungent reduces overall efficiency and power quality
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Hardware in Loop of a Generalized Predictive Controller for a Micro Grid DC System of Renewable Energy Sources

Hardware in Loop of a Generalized Predictive Controller for a Micro Grid DC System of Renewable Energy Sources

Then the problem lays on how to improve the efficient and performance of these renewable energies, so here is when terms like smart grid and micro grid appear. A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources [4], in the other side, a micro grid is a small, independent power system, which increase reliability with distributed generation, efficiency with reduced transmission length and Combined Heat and Power (CHP), at the same time, this kind of grids integrate alternative energy sources easier than conventional grids [5].
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Economic Evaluation of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electricity Generation in Nigeria: A Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Economic Evaluation of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electricity Generation in Nigeria: A Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Nigeria has great renewable energy resource potential comprising solar, wind, biomass and hydro and much work has been done on estimation of this potential. Variability of a single resource type, high cost of energy from renewable sources and impracticability of grid extension to distant rural areas from the national grid has led to the development of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES). Although Nigeria is rich in these renewable resources, a hybrid application approach seems more feasible to ensure a reliable and cost-effective power supply from these sources. This study was conducted to assess Nigeria’s technological readiness for adopting HRES, its environmental impact and its viability over a 20-year period. A review of past literature was carried out to ascertain the country’s readiness for HRES and its environmental impact, while the discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, along with other economic indicators of net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payout period (PO) were adopted to estimate the economic viability of the system. The outcome of this paper shows that HRES for power generation in Nigeria is economically viable.
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Buffer Cluster Scheduling Scheme for Smart Grid Advanced Metering Applications

Buffer Cluster Scheduling Scheme for Smart Grid Advanced Metering Applications

use non-renewable sources of energy (e.g. coal fired plants) to generate additional supply of energy to cope with the demand. The provisioning for peak load approach is wasteful when the average demand is much lower than the peak because electricity, once produced, has to be consumed as grid energy storage is expensive [2]. Secondly, setting up and maintaining the peaker plants are not only environmentally unfriendly but also expensive. Also, given the increasing demand for energy, it may be difficult, perhaps impossible in the longer run, to match the supply to this peak demand. What is attractive in such a situation then, is to match the demand to the available supply by using communication technology (two way communications between the grid and the customer premises) and providing incentives (e.g. through variable pricing) to the consumer to defer (reschedule) the load during times when the expected demand is lower so as to improve utilization of the available capacity. This necessitates the flow of metering information from the customer premises to the grid to identify the demand, and control information (e.g. pricing information) in the other direction to coerce the customer into adapting their demand. As mentioned earlier, since the legacy grid is a broadcast grid, this motivates the need for a communications infrastructure and protocols to support the aforementioned functionalities. While the legacy grid has served well for the last century or so, there is a growing need to update it, from the points of view of both the aging infrastructure and the new environmental and societal challenges. As a result, national governments and relevant stakeholders are making significant efforts in the development of future electrical grids or Smart Grids.
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Solution for Sustainable Clean Energy: Smart Grid

Solution for Sustainable Clean Energy: Smart Grid

At present level the integration of renewable sources of energy as main source of energy to power our conventional grid is not feasible as their uptime and efficiency is not adequate to meet the current energy demands. Smart Grid offers a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio when considering both direct and indirect economic benefits. Smart Grid has proven significant reductions in environmental impact too, including both measurable and non-measurable benefits. Measured environmental impact reductions of almost 600 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per customer per year are available in the Ideal Case from the conservation impact offered by Smart Grid. Therefore by implementing solutions such as smart grid we can cut our carbon footprints and create a smarter solution for the future world which will not only be reliable but also address the problem of powering remote areas.
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