This relationship provided the foundation for other important positive outcomes in the areas of education, social and family connectedness, health and so on. This is not a surprising finding, but it underscores the vital role that foster, kinship or residential carers – and others – play in driving better outcomes for children and young people. It also underscores the importance of knowing you are living in a stable, permanent home. Providing this crucial relationship in the life of all children and young people in care is at the heart of our long-term vision for out-of-home care in Victoria. The Report Card provides a comprehensive picture of the things that are important to children and young people. It echoes the findings of the survey and focus groups undertaken by the CREATE Foundation to support the work of the Protecting Victoria’s VulnerableChildren Inquiry (Cummins Inquiry). That research identified a number of issues of importance to children and young people in care, highlighting:
RESULTS. Of 252 families recruited, 56.6% of parents were monolingual Spanish speak- ers, 73.6% of mothers had not graduated from high school, and 24.5% of children were uninsured. Asthma severity was 27% mild persistent, 40.5% moderate persis- tent, and 32.5% severe persistent. In bivariate analyses, better access to care (being insured and having a regular provider) was related to better primary care experi- ences. Consistent with the hypothesis, multivariate regression analyses showed that fewer barriers (Barriers to Care Questionnaire scores) predicted better primary care (Parent’s Perceptions of Primary Care total and subscale scores), after controlling for access to care, demographic features, and asthma severity (a 1-point change in Barriers to Care Questionnaire scores was associated with a 0.59-point change in Parent’s Perceptions of Primary Care total scale scores). Having a regular doctor and not having experienced foregone care were also significant predictors of Parent’s Perceptions of Primary Care scores in the multivariate analysis.
Supporting the reduction of conceptions was a local authority target, so the coordinator felt that it was difficult to tease out the team’s specific contribution towards meeting that target. However, it was noted that some of the preventative work normally carried out by the team could not be completed because of funding issues: ‘It’s not that we haven’t got the money, it’s just that we haven’t got it for long enough to make it worth advertising a job’ (Coordinator). Nevertheless, some preventative group work was being carried out by a mentor in one of the key stage 3 PRUs and, until recently, in one of the high schools (however this had to be scaled down in the summer term as this is when the referrals increased). The team was also targeting schools in areas of high rates of conception and many schools they had worked with over the last four years were now carrying out their own independent sexual health work with vulnerable pupils via the learning mentor strand of Excellence in Cities. Preventative work in some of these target schools had not taken root subsequently, or in some cases got off the ground at all, so the team had developed a ‘sideways’ approach to working with them, via a project focusing on health notice boards and information about sexual health and other health issues. Not only was this less time- consuming for schools under pressure than running group work, it was hoped that this less ‘heavy-duty approach’ would help establish a relationship with the schools who were wary of doing more sexual health work. This approach had proved successful as the team had begun work in three schools who previously, over the past four years, had not taken up offers of support.
Information on children and young people who were placed in boarding school but whose placement subsequently broke down was gathered through discussions with local authority leads and, where possible, through conversations with the child’s social care key worker. Additionally, the views of boarding schools participating in the Boarding Pathfinder were obtained through a survey during June and July 2008. A survey questionnaire was sent electronically to a total of 80 boarding school head teachers using a database provided by the Boarding Schools’ Association (of all schools participating in the Pathfinder). After the initial deadline for return of the questionnaires, boarding schools who had not responded were contacted again by telephone. In total questionnaires were fully completed by senior members of staff at 37 of the participating schools. A further four head teachers wrote explaining why they had decided not to complete the questionnaire, mostly due to the fact that they felt they had not had enough involvement in the scheme (for example no contact with participating local authorities) to be able to comment on how it had developed. This gave a total response rate from schools of 52%. Key findings from the survey are presented in Chapter 4 of this report.
environment, those who are able to get these basic needs mostly miss out on proper healthcare and tend to perform poorly and often get interrupted in school due to sickness. Most of these children live on the streets or in the orphanages and therefore need to be provided for, which means that the government must set aside funds to provide for them; free school feeding, tuition free schooling, cash transfers and for those infected with HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral drugs must be provided to help them survive. There will therefore be limited resources for other developmental and infrastructural projects that may address the issues of healthcare, unemployment and inflation in the country (Nyawashaand Chipunza, 2012, Skovdal et al., 2013 and UNICEF, 2006). Most of the orphans and vulnerablechildren live with extended family relations. However, most of them end up in poorer households or with poverty-stricken caretakers, specifically the grandmothers who may not be able to provide the basic amenities and so tend to indulge in risky behaviors to fend for themselves. UNICEF (2006) indicate that orphaned girls have higher rates of reproductive health problems, pregnancy and HIV infection than those who are not orphaned. These individuals will not be healthy or even have the skills to work to improve their lives and increase the country’s productivity and eventually growth, but continuously drain the economy of its resources through diversion for the production of drugs.
Second, some evidence suggests that drivers of demand for children’s social services are on the rise. There is a strong association between deprivation and contact with social services. The latest official statistics show that 30 per cent of school-age children in mainstream provision on child in need plans and 37 per cent of those on child protection plans live in areas of high deprivation (based on IDACI bands), compared to 18 per cent of other children and 17 per cent of looked after
The program’s priority target groups are categorized as direct beneficiaries, indirect beneficiaries, and direct recipients. Under this program, about 30,000 children under the age of 18 will be prevented or withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor by the year 2010. To achieve this, four priority areas were selected and a number of chil- dren who would benefit were earmarked. The areas of priority are children in com- mercial sex work, Five thousand children were targeted for prevention withdrawal and rehabilitation in the districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke, Iringa Rural, Kondoa, Iramba and Arusha Municipal. An estimated 7,500 children were earmarked for being protection from the worst forms of domestic labor, withdrawn, and rehabilitated in the districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke, Iringa Rural, Kondoa, and Arusha. In the mining sector, 2,500 children were to be prevented from working and withdrawn in Mererani Simanjiro district. The target for commercial agriculture was 15,000 children to be prevented from working, withdrawn, and rehabilitated in Iringa Rural, Arumeru, Arusha, Urambo, and Mufindi. Children that are withdrawn from the worst forms of labor are subsequently rehabilitated through counseling, given psychosocial support, and ultimately reintegrated into society with concrete measures of ensuring that they are protected and will not return to the worst forms of child labor.
Following this a great deal of research has investigated four specific demographic ‘classes’: income, education, race or ethnicity and age. Demographic approaches are about who experiences vulnerability in consumption, which implies that some categories of people are inherently vulnerable (Ringold, 1995; Smith & Cooper-Martin, 1997). As Smith and Cooper- Martin (1997, p.6) explain, vulnerable consumers possess ‘a demographic characteristic generally perceived to limit the consumer’s ability to maximise utility and well-being in economic transactions’. Without exception the poor are considered more disadvantaged as consumers than the rich (Andreasen 1975, 1976, 1993; Barnhill, 1972; Morgan & Riordan, 1983). Those with less formal education are viewed as more vulnerable than the highly schooled and trained (Mitra, Hastak, Ford and Ringold, 1999; Ringold, 2005; Smith & Cooper-Martin, 1997). In a US context, African American and Hispanic consumers are seen as more disadvantaged (D’Rozario & Williams, 2005; Marlowe & Atilies, 2005; Penaloza, 1995) as are those with poor native language skills (Barnhill 1972; Marlowe and Atilies, 2005). And, interestingly for our paper, most age-related research on disadvantaged
Well in advance of any Anglican bishop, he stepped forward to bless the Nonconformist, Joseph Arch, and his Agricultural Labourers’ Union. He publicly defended ‘The Dignity and Rights of Labour’. To the scandal of the respectable, including some of his own priests, he endorsed the journalist W.T. Stead’s campaign against the horrors of the white slave trade in young girls, christened in Apocalyptic fashion, ‘the maiden tribute of modern Babylon’; and, when Stead was goaled, he sent him his blessing. He moved the Mansion House resolution against the pogroms against Russian Jews, and extolled General Booth of the Salvation Army. He combined with Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore to save the Knights of Labour from ecclesiastical censure. He wrote witheringly of English cruelty to children. He invited the land reformer, Henry George, and the trade union leaders, Tom Mann and Ben Tillett, into the sacred precincts of Archbishop’s House. He resolved the London Dock strike of 1899. With the reservation that he did not wish to lose the Irish Catholic members of the House of Commons, he approved Home Rule for Ireland. He demanded a just price for goods and a just wage for labour. 13
Uganda faces many challenges as it pursues human development goals. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Human Development Indicators place Uganda near the bottom of the ranking of nations (163 out of 188 countries) (UNDP, 2015). The UNDP’s most recent health indicators show a life expectancy at birth of 58.5 years, an under-5 mortality rate of 66/1000, and 33.7% of children under the age of 5 moderately or severely stunted in growth due to malnutrition (UNDP, 2015). All of these indicators reflect the devastating effects of poverty, hunger, disease, and lack of access to adequate healthcare. In addition, as of 2014 Uganda had an HIV/AIDS infection rate of 7.25% (CIA World Fact Book, 2015). Uganda has the fourteenth highest fertility rate in the world (5.89 children/woman), which has resulted in a country that is largely composed of children and youth (CIA World Fact Book, 2015).
In the case of children and young people who require informed consent to be granted by an agreed adult, parent or carer, their role at the start of the interview process would be that of compliance. This corresponds to the second mode of participation shown in model (3a) of Diagram 3a and 3b: Modes of research participation and outcomes: comparison between general model and PhD research project, (after Truman 2001), which describes a subject’s role as compliant, or agreed. For both my research studies, the participation of a child or vulnerable young person will be agreed for them by a responsible adult – a case worker, parent or carer. Diagram 3a, shows the type of research outcome that is usually associated with a compliant participant as beneficial, such as in the case of research trials for drugs or a certain type of treatment in health care. This would be consistent with the rationale of my proposed research project. I have stated in the ethics section (Appendix Example A1) that I hope the findings from this research will go towards supporting – and informing – those who work towards achieving the aims of the Every Child/Youth Matters
Living alone also appears to pose a high risk for an older person, accounting for 35.4% of SRV’s clients. 24 Living alone might mean that an older person has less opportunity to talk about problems in their lives and seek support and/or make them more vulnerable to having someone intrude into their life and exert control over an aspect of it, for example, their finances.
Despite the renewed attention by academics to the efficacy of mega events as a redevelopment tool, the existing literature on mega events is largely limited to first world urban centres. Mega events have also played an increasingly prominent role in the developing world, however, and in recent years several developing cities have aggressively pursued bids to host international sporting events, such as Olympic Games, and ATA (Matheson and Baade, 2002). While literature on mega events in the developed world often focuses on the trend toward revitalizing post industrial urban centres through consumption-based economic development, (Roche, 1994) , mega events in the developing world are often motivated, at least in part, by a desire to demonstrate that the host country embraces international legal norms (Ritchie, 1974). In addition, to recasting the image of the host city as a hospitable location for tourism and leisure activities through physical improvements, mega events in the developing world can help the host country assure tourists and potential investors that it respects human rights and the rule of law (Hiller, 1990). By selecting a country to host their mega event, international institutions such as WB, IMF, United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), ATA, and World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) seemingly place their stamp of approval on the host country`s legal and political institutions (Berner, 1996). The use of mega events as a means of show casing political stability and legal maturity in developing countries promises to intensify as development scholars increasingly emphasise the links between economic development and strong legal institutions and as international aid organizations condition assistance on legal reform (Roche, 1994). Perhaps more surprising than the lack of scholarship on the role of mega events in developing countries is the dearth of research on the impact of event related development on low-income communities, vulnerable under-privileged groups of people, either in wealthy or developing countries. Few researchers have asked critical questions about the ways in which mega events impact the lives of the most economically and socially disadvantaged in host cities (Matheson and Baade, 2002). ATA congress fall under event tourism which is a growing sector in the tourism industry (Page and Connell, 2009; Carlsen and Taylor, 2003).
sentencing for children, this shift has not always been reflected in sentencing practice - or, indeed, in the wider, generally more punitive, youth justice policy agenda. As discussed by Solomon and Garside (2008), the YJB has been setting targets for reducing the number of children in custody since it began to commission secure accommodation in 2001, but these targets have been successively modified. The latest YJB corporate plan, for 2008-2011 (YJB, 2008), does not refer to its previous targets, or include any specific future targets, for reducing use of custody. Youth justice practitioners and children’s charities remain highly concerned about what is perceived to be excessive custodial sentencing of children in England and Wales. It is widely observed that this jurisdiction – reflecting, in part, its low age of criminal responsibility – has many more children in custody than any other western European country. 54 In 2008 the UN Committee for the Rights of the Child noted that ‘the
“The right to food is an human right recognized by the international right which protects each human being to eat in the dignity, either he produces himself his food or he buys it”. “The right to an adequate food is realized when each man, each women, and each child individual or in community with other has access at any time physically and economically, to an adequate food or by the means to have it” (deSchutter, 1999). It is in this context that to relieve the OVC and to allow them to live and to blossom like thoseof their ages some services are given by the ministry of the family on their behalf among which the nutritional support.It will allow them tobenefit of a good food which ensure them a good health and a well- being because the malnutrition within the poor household unbalance the children. For a child who doesn’t eat well, cannot follow at school and will steal. That’s why Massoda (2008) reveals that the children need a minimum of goodsand services necessary to their development. But, due to the poverty, some household eat once a day. That is the reason why this support comes at the right moment in order to help them to overcome the psychosocial disruptions linked to the malnutrition. Besides, a parent shares this point of view by underlining that “sometimes we have nothing toeat and it is the received food which helps us” and the graph1 shows us that on a total of 56 children 48 benefit of nutritional support that is to say 85,72% against 8 children that is to say 14,28% who don’t benefit. It is already a feat which is going to be completed by a medical support.
Although there have been media reports on OCHH still there is some sort of a denial that such children exist in the country. For example an official with UNICEF in Dar es Salaam [Interview 6: Appendix 7.3. 8/01/2010] was not sure if such a category really existed irrespective of the fact that there are reports on such children. He was of the view that although reports indicate the existence of CHH when one goes to the field those children are not visible. He wanted to know what my field experience was. There are also Tanzanians who are not convinced that there are children who are staying with no adult at all in their households. This might be explained in different ways. First, in towns such children might not be visible as people are not so much concerned with other people’s lives. An example in the situations in town can be explained by a household in the Kurasini area of Dar-es-salaam, which was not known to people in the same area. This was also manifested in one of the villages in Karagwe district (the village is earmarked to be a small town) where the village chairperson was not aware (or so he claimed) of a child headed household which was about two hundred meters away from his house. The teachers where these children go to school were also not aware that the children were on their own with a 14 year old girl heading such a household. Secondly, the assumption may be that since these children have relatives all matters concerning their welfare can be addressed by the relatives, so they cannot be said to be heading a household.
focused on understanding the kinds of institutional support and provisions provided in the field of CSA. For instance, Jaswal (2005) researched the profile and patterns of cases of CSA being reported at public health facilities such as urban health centers, maternity hospitals, dispensaries and municipal hospitals. Both male and female children reported their first sexual encounter at about the same age, indicating that children of both sexes are equally vulnerable to abuse in the absence of protection by parents, guardians or organizations. In addition, the findings indicate that children who are isolated from others, especially children living on the streets without adult care are more susceptible to CSA. The attitude of the health providers added to the discomfort and feelings of shame and guilt felt by the victims and their families. Prabhu’s (2008) study on a national NGO’s CSA intervention helped identify and highlight the needs and gaps in interventions faced by the NGO as well as other allied systems like the police, health facilities, amongst others whilst handling cases of CSA. The study revealed that intervention in CSA requires sensitivity and expertise on the issue necessitating an urgent need for training and capacity building. A study by Bhaskaran & Seshadri (2016) recognizes and documents common clinical challenges that emerge during their work with sexually abused children, and provide suggestions to render assistance and services in an effective manner. For instance, instead of asking CSA survivors directly about their distressing history of abuse, ask children for details about their early childhood, schooling, family environment, adolescence, relationships and sexuality.
"UNICEF and global partners define an orphan as a child who has lost one [“single” or “semi-orphan”] or both parents [double orphan]. [..]. This definition contrasts with concepts of orphan in many industrialized countries, where a child must have lost both parents to qualify as an orphan."However, "[t]he vast majority of children in residential care globally are not double orphans. Depending on the region, upwards of 50-90% of children living in orphanages have at least one living parent."Significant reasons to place children in orphanages apart from poverty, is disability, child neglect or abuse.Orphans and vulnerablechildren (OVCs) come from various backgrounds, especially until the time get into an orphan care, shelter. Semi-orphans may come from poverty, a background of abuse, with a possible history of being a street children, victim of trafficking, etc. And abuse may not stop even in diverse shelters. Researches found that children living in orphanages are much more exposed to all forms of violence, from caregivers, volunteers, or even by running the institution as a brothel. And in case of human trafficking, sometimes it works on a less known level. Such as in Nepal, where orphanage has also become a business by receiving financial aid and charities. "NGN has received reports of orphanage managers in Nepal asking traffickers to "bring them children" specifically because they have foreign donors willing to support their children's home.
The study revealed that the Heads of the homes understood the psychosocial wellbeing requirements of orphaned and vulnerablechildren as the total experiences within the interpersonal contexts of wider family and community networks in which they are located. This may be because the caregivers and Home heads are well trained personnel in the welfare of the orphaned and vulnerablechildren. It may also be because any other person who played a part in their lives besides the Heads and the caregivers impacted on their lives either positively or negatively. This concurs with Cummings, Sherryl and Kropf-Nancy (2013) who revealed that, promoting the psychosocial wellbeing of orphaned and vulnerablechildren aims at easing resumption of normal life and preventing potentially traumatic situations. The people in the communities visited the homes and gave support whether by just playing the children and providing material resources needed in the homes and prayed with them. This promoted the holistic development of the children and consequently supported the wellbeing of the children. This concurs with Mosina (2012) who notes that, even if support is provided by all different kinds of people with the simplest gestures of playing with them they would at least be offering and addressing the psychosocial needs of children though it is not adequate due to their incompetence. This made the children feel that they were not alone and that other people out there cared about them.
The study revealed that psychosocial support is very necessary to the children. This could be because they were at a disadvantage compared to children who had parents to guide them in all areas of development. This concurs with Mosina (2012) who says, psychosocial support aims to help children to come to terms with loss, makes them feel grounded, returns their self-esteem and gives them hope for the future. It could also be because the Heads of the homes and caregivers understood that orphaned and vulnerablechildren lacked of parental love and guidance. Responses to children’s questions about their origins were developmentally appropriate. This could be because the caregivers had some training of child care which made it ieasy for them to communicate effectively. This concurs with Chipungu and Bent-Godley (2004) who highlighted that, simple language that the child understands is used for the child to understand difficulties or disturbing events they were going through.