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Accelerated solvent extraction of bioactive compounds from carrot – Optimization of response surface methodology (Short communication)

Accelerated solvent extraction of bioactive compounds from carrot – Optimization of response surface methodology (Short communication)

(Received 19 March, revised 9 August, accepted 10 August 2018) Abstract: Carrot is considered to be rich in bioactive antioxidants, both lipophilic (carotenoids) and hydrophilic (phenolic compounds). In the present study, the conditions for accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of bioactive compounds from carrots (Daucus carota L.) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Box–Behnken design was employed for the experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature, time, and number of extraction cycles. Total carotenoid content (TCar), total polyphenol content (TPh), free radical scavenging activity (SA) and reducing power (RP) of the obtained extracts were used as responses for the optimization. Considering the four quality indicators, the ideal extraction conditions were found to be: 120 °C, 60 min and three extraction cycles. Under these conditions, predicted values of 28.84 mg β-carotene/100 g for TCar; 530.81 mg GAE/100 g for TPh; 2572.29 μmol TE/100 g for SA and 1336.26 μmol TE/100 g for RP were obtained with high desirability (0.975) and no significant difference (p < 0.05) with the experimental values.
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Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Polyphenols from Dried Gabes Henna Leaves: Process Optimization for DIC treatment and Extraction

Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Polyphenols from Dried Gabes Henna Leaves: Process Optimization for DIC treatment and Extraction

Abstract—In this work, the process of ‘‘Détente Instantanée Contrôlee’’: DIC (French for Instant controlled pressure drop) assisted to water accelerated solvent extraction of secondary metabolites of Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves was studied. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was investigated for the extraction of polyphenols from raw material Henna leaves. The most important factors affecting the extraction results were found to be solvent extraction, particle size, temperature, static time and number of extraction static cycle. The maximum TPC yield extracted by water was 107 mg GAE per g of dry raw material, and the optimal conditions were: 75-300 µm, 40°C, 15 min and 2 cycles. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions of the operating parameters of DIC texturing taking place as pretreatment for getting the highest extraction yields of total phenolic compounds (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidants. Under the optimal accelerated solvent extraction conditions of the polyphenols extraction, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing DIC treatment. The yields of secondary metabolites of dry DIC-textured material were higher than that of untreated material with optimized values of, 122 mg GAE g -1 db under saturated steam pressure: P = 0.5 MPa and thermal treatment time t = 50s, 38.82 mg Quercetin E g -1 under (P=0.5MPa; t=40s) and 93.85% under (P=0.45MPa; t=44s) for TPC, TFC yields and % inhibition using DPPH radical assay, respectively. The results obtained confirmed that the DIC operating parameters were significant for all dependent variables. In addition, DIC assisted – accelerated solvent extraction was compared with DIC assisted– conventional solvent extraction. All findings indicated that accelerated solvent extraction was as effective as conventional methanol extraction for the recovery of phenolic compounds from Henna leaves and the use of DIC as an innovative process of texturing further intensified the recovery of phenolic compounds. The analyses of the physical and structural properties of untreated and DIC-textured powders were carried out and considered as response dependent variables.
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Development and Validation of a Method for the Simultaneous Determination of 20 Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Corn by Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detection

Development and Validation of a Method for the Simultaneous Determination of 20 Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Corn by Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detection

Due to the complex nature of cereals and the presence of lipids, fiber-carbohydrates (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin), non fiber carbohydrates (starch, sucrose and reducing sugars) and proteins, the selection of the appropriate technique of extraction, concentration and purification of the pesticides, and its optimization is the most laborious, but very important aspect of the analysis [12]. A lot of different extraction and cleanup methods including multiple solvent extractions, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid phase extraction (SPE) were used in the determination of pesticides in cereals but there is no universal technique, which would be entirely better than the others in terms of all analytical scopes [13-20]. Many of the traditional procedures used to perform the extractions for these analyses are time consuming and solvent intensive [13, 17].
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Comparison of Accelerated Solvent  Extraction, Soxhlet and Sonication  Techniques for the Extraction of  Estrogens, Androgens and  Progestogens from Soils

Comparison of Accelerated Solvent Extraction, Soxhlet and Sonication Techniques for the Extraction of Estrogens, Androgens and Progestogens from Soils

cattle manure amended soil [3]-[6]. Thus, a technique that can efficiently extract and analyse estrogens, andro- gens and progestogens, as well as their metabolites, in soils with minimal sample processing, is needed. To this end, this study evaluated the efficacy of three techniques (accelerated solvent extraction [ASE], Soxhlet and so- nication) for the extraction of a large suite of synthetic and natural estrogens, androgens and progestogens, as well as their metabolites, that have been previously detected [3] [4] [18]-[21] or are likely to be present in ma- nure amended fields (Table 2), from various soil types (e.g., sand, silt loam, clay and high organic content) in order to assess which technique was most efficient for the simultaneous extraction of this large suite of analytes. Several isotopically (deuterium-d)-labeled standards (ISTDs, Table 2) were incorporated to account for extrac- tion inefficiency and losses that may occur during sample processing as well as matrix suppression and/or en- hancement effects that may take place in the ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer during sample analy- sis. Proper utilization of the appropriate ISTD for each target analyte is essential to the accurate and precise measurement of these analytes [22]. Incorporation of an ISTD that does not produce a similar recovery to its target analyte will result in the over- or underestimation of the analyte concentration [22]. As such, this study assesses the applicability of several ISTDs (Table 2) to appropriately account for analyte losses during sample extraction and analysis in order to minimize the potential for over- or underestimation of analyte concentrations when incorporating these ISTDs.
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Andrographolide from andrographis paniculata extract: optimization of accelerated solvent extraction technique

Andrographolide from andrographis paniculata extract: optimization of accelerated solvent extraction technique

Temperature, cycle number and time affect constituents extraction by ASE techniques. were studied using three factors, three level Box-Behnken response surface design. Process parameters, which affect the efficiency of ASE such as extraction temperature (60-100°C), Cycle number (1-3) and time (3-7 min) were investigated. Experiments (17 runs) were carried out in a single base block, of which three were replicates at the center point measuring experimental error. The level of independent variables studied and definition of dimensionless coded of the independent variables are given in Table 2. For statistical calculations, the independent variables were coded as A (coded temperature), B (coded cycle number) and C(coded time). The correspondence between coded and uncoded variables was fitted according to the linear equations showed in Table 1, which were deduced from their respective variations limits. The dependent variables were Y (andrographolide content, % w/w) .
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Extraction, Characterization and Application of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid from Cashew Nut Shells

Extraction, Characterization and Application of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid from Cashew Nut Shells

The extraction was performed using an accelerated solvent extractor (Thermo Scientific Dionex ASE 350 Waltham, USA). The dried and crushed shell (180 g) was mixed with diatomaceous earth (1:2) drying agent. Aliquots (20 g) of each were transferred into 9 sample cells and the end caps (each containing a frit) and tightened into the cells. The filled sample cells and collection vessels were loaded onto the cell and collection trays respectively. The samples were extracted with acetone using these accelerated solvent extraction conditions: 1000 psi, 80ºC, 5 minute heat up, three 5-minute static cycles, 100% rinse, 60-second purge, and nine 20 mL cell containing nine cellulose filter. The concentration of the cashew nut shell liquid was done under vacuum at 50ºC in a rotary evaporator (Cole - Parmer). The concentrate in a beaker, was wrapped in aluminium foil and stored at room temperature.
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Green technology: Economically and environmentally innovative methods for extraction of medicinal & aromatic plants (MAP) in Egypt

Green technology: Economically and environmentally innovative methods for extraction of medicinal & aromatic plants (MAP) in Egypt

Extraction process forms the first basic step in medicinal plant research because the preparation of crude extracts from plants is the starting point for the isolation and purification of chemical constituents present in plants. Yet the extraction step remains often a neglected area, which over the years has received much less attention and research. Traditional methods of extraction and processing of herbs and medicinal plants such as solid liquid extraction (Soxhlet), steam distillation or cold press are still used in Egypt. These methods of extraction lack selectivity, give lower yields and because it uses large volume of organic solvents it present safety concern and environmental risk. Several new extraction techniques for improving efficiency and selectivity are now replacing the old methods of extraction. However, recently exports of medicinal and aromatic plants products from Egypt to other countries are becoming more and more restricted due to the presence of unacceptable levels of contaminants and occasionally the occurrences of heavy metals and pesticides that attributed to the drawbacks of traditional extraction methods. The fact that one single plant can contain several secondary metabolites makes the need for the development of high performance and rapid extraction methods an absolute necessity. Keeping in pace with such requirements, recent times has witnessed the use and growth of new extraction techniques with shortened extraction time, reduced solvent consumption, increased pollution prevention concern and with special care for thermolabile constituents. Novel extraction methods including Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE), Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SCFE), Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (USE) have drawn significant research attention in the last decade. In this review, we discussed the principles, affecting factors, advantages and disadvantages of traditional and innovative extraction techniques. We also suggested some ideas to establish these innovative technologies for extraction in Egypt.
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Pressurized hot water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutan leaves using accelerated solvent extractor

Pressurized hot water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutan leaves using accelerated solvent extractor

Extraction plays a crucial function for natural products extraction of herbal plants and foodstuffs and it is defined as a separation process to separate a solute from one phase into another (Herrero et al., 2006). In extraction of bioactive compounds from plant sources are widely used approach of pressurized hot water extraction that provides a vast benefits compare to the conventional method. Commonly, this technology used water as a main solvent at temperature of 100 to 374°C (Plaza et al., 2013). Capability in selection of different types of compound vastly be influenced by a temperature, whereby the high polar compound obtained at a low temperature and at high temperature is favorable for less polar compound. Pressurizes liquid extractor or known as accelerated solvent extractor has gained attention since this technique provides a fast extraction and consumes less solvent than other extraction technique (Kanmaz, 2014; Kanmaz and Ova, 2013). The process of accelerated solvent extraction usually consume less than 30 minutes under elevated pressure up to 1500psi and temperature around 100 to 200°C (Santos et al., 2012; Camel, 2001). Various plant matrices has been successfully extracted by this method to extract antioxidant, phenolic compounds and functional compounds such as mango leaves (Fernandez et al., 2012), sea buckthorn (Gong et al., 2015), thyme (Vergara-Salinas et al., 2012) and others.
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High Precision GC MS Analysis of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Isomer Ratios from Biomass Burning Emissions

High Precision GC MS Analysis of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Isomer Ratios from Biomass Burning Emissions

nology) [14,18]. However, the current demand for eco- friendly environment requires minimum consumption of solvents and rapid sample preparation, without compro- mising the accuracy and precision. Among the two con- ventional techniques (ultrasonication and Soxhlet extrac- tion), the former provides rapid sample preparation with comparatively lower consumption of solvent. An alterna- tive extraction technique involving supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) requires longer extraction time and also suffers from the incomplete recovery of PAHs in envi- ronmental samples due to analyte-matrix interactions [21]. In contrast, the microwave-assisted solvent extrac- tion (MASE) and the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) approach are beneficial in terms of lower consumption of solvent and perform extraction in shorter time [12,15, 22-24]. However, the MASE technique requires cen- trifugation and filtration; thus, amounting to the loss of analyte. For the quantitative determination of PAHs, gas chromatography (GC), for its high-resolution and sensi- tivity, is often preferred rather than liquid chromatogra- phy (LC). Recently, the wide range of applications of GC-MS technique has been reviewed [25].
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Determination of Polycyclic Arimatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) on Foods using Numerous Extraction Methods: A Review

Determination of Polycyclic Arimatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) on Foods using Numerous Extraction Methods: A Review

According to the European Union (EU) legislation, a strong attention has been focused on the presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) on the environment and also on foods. As known, the presence of PAH mainly on food leads to the activation of carcinogenic agent as the cause of the genotoxic and mutagenic production. Various analytical methods have been used to analyze the concentration of PAH on foods such as fruits and vegetables. The efficiency of PAH concentration on food samples depends on the types of extraction method implemented. The extraction methods were Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), QuEChERS (acronymic name from quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction, Supramolecular solvent extraction (SUPRAS), Ultrasonication Extraction, Soxhlet extraction method and Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (DLLME). Most of the mentioned extraction methods use the High- Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC), High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to carry the analysis of PAH in fruits and vegetables. The percentage recoveries of each method have been discussed and it was known that SUPRAS showed the best result in percentage recovery and relative standard deviation. In the present review, all the implemented extraction of PAH methods on food were analyzed and discussed in terms of the advantages and the limitations on each extraction methods as well as the analytical performances.
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Optimized method for determination of 16 FDA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mainstream cigarette smoke by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

Optimized method for determination of 16 FDA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mainstream cigarette smoke by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

ASE: accelerated solvent extraction; B[a]P: benzo[a]pyrene; CFP: Cambridge filter pad; CO: carbon monoxide; CTP: Center for Tobacco Products; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; GC: gas chromatography; GC–HRMS: gas chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry; GC–MS/MS: gas chro- matography–tandem mass spectrometry; GC–MS: gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; HCI: Health Canada Intense; HPHC: harmful or potentially harm- ful constituent; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; HPLC–MS/ MS: high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; HR: high resolution; IS: internal standard; LOD: limit of detection; LOQ: limit of quantification; MA: Massachusetts; MCS: mainstream cigarette smoke; MS: mass spectrometry; NA: not applicable; NFPDM: nicotine-free dry particulate matter (“tar”); NR: not reported; PAHs: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; QQQ: triple quadrupole; RMS: root-mean-square; RSD: relative standard deviation; S/N: signal to noise; SPE: solid-phase extraction; TPM: total particulate matter; UK: United Kingdom; US EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
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Spectrophotometric Determination of Colchicine by Phase Transfer Catalyst

Spectrophotometric Determination of Colchicine by Phase Transfer Catalyst

A series of volumes (4-20 ml) of aqueous solvent were used to estimate the influence of different volumes of aqueous solvent on the extraction. It is clear that the aqueous solvent containing colchicine increases while organic solvent volume is remained constant result in increasing of concentration of colchicine in extraction solvent and subsequently increase it absorbance. As shown in Fig. 5, when aqueous solvent volume was greater than 20 ml a deviation of linearity in graph of absorbance versus aqueous solvent volume is occur. Accordingly, 20 ml of aqueous solvent was selected as aqueous solvent volume. 24 ml of a binary mixture of aqueous solvent and extraction solvent in ratio of (5:1) has been developed for extraction of colchicine.
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A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO 2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in
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Efficacy of Extraction and Microencapsulation of Betacyanin extracted and Freeze-Dried from Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel

Efficacy of Extraction and Microencapsulation of Betacyanin extracted and Freeze-Dried from Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel

Both extraction and microencapsulation technique were found to significantly affect the stability of betacyanin pigment powder extracted and freeze-drized from dragon fruit peel waste. Microencapsulation is defined as the trapping process of both liquid, solid and gas particles in thin films that can provide a physical barrier between core compounds and other components. Freeze drying is one of the best strategies in microencapsulation technology for preserving the stability of sensitive pigments.

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Solvent Extraction of Oil and It's Economy

Solvent Extraction of Oil and It's Economy

temperature, has an appropriate boiling temperature, is noncorrosive to metal, inert to the oil. It is stable under the operating conditions, is immiscible with water, which cause easy separation of water from the oil, and it is easily and completely removed from the bottom product with low energy input and without harm of the raw oil. During solvent extraction of the oilseed, an intensive contact between solvent and press cake is necessary to achieve an complete removal of oil. The solvent is heated to 50–60°C, but it is important to avoid boiling when hot press cake comes into contact with the solvent. Press cake comes with high temperature from the mechanical pressing process, a further temperature increase is only necessary when the extractor starts working. Temperature is important for the extraction since viscosity of the solvent is reduced so it can easily flow into oilcake and the solubility of the extract increases with higher temperatures. The composition of the extract is influenced by the extraction temperature. While most oils mainly consist of triacylglycerides, minor components such as phospholipids, chlorophyll, free fatty acids, color pigments, and degradation products of oxidative reactions are co extracted by the solvent. This amount of minor components increases largely with the temperature. For example, an increase in temperature from 313 °K to 331°K raises the content of phospholipids in rapeseed oil from 0.2 to 0.8%. Important factor influencing the result of solvent extraction is moisture, which can come from the surface of the press cake or from poor water/hexane separation after distillation. This moisture can avoid an optimal penetration of the press cake by the solvent, resulting in low extraction rates and high residual
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Headspace-Single Drop Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatographic Determination of Key Aroma Compounds in Tomato Fruits and Their Sample Products

Headspace-Single Drop Microextraction Followed by Gas Chromatographic Determination of Key Aroma Compounds in Tomato Fruits and Their Sample Products

Sample volume relates directly to the magnitude of the headspace, and may relate to an extraction efficiency. The effect of sample volume on the extraction efficiency was studied in range of 1-7 mL. According to this observation, the highest peak area occurred at 3 mL (Fig. 6). By increasing the sample volume up to 3 mL, the extraction efficiency increased and the peak area of the target analytes decreased above 3 mL with some fluctuation between 5 mL and 7 mL. This phenomenon could be attributed to the fact that an increasing of the sample volume can lead to the decrease of the headspace volume, which accelerates the diffusion of the analytes into the suspended solvent until they reach their equilibrium saturation. Under fixed stirring speed with a large volume, the convection is not as good in the sample solution, resulting in less extraction. Thus, 3 mL of the sample volume was chosen.
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Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and GC MS Analysis of Zanthoxylum Oil from Zanthoxylum

Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and GC MS Analysis of Zanthoxylum Oil from Zanthoxylum

Under the grain size 60 mesh, other conditions as above, the influence of material liquid ratio on oil rate as shown in figure 3. The figure 3 shows that when the material liquid is small, when the material liquid ratio is small, oil rate increases with the increase of material liquid ratio increasing, when solid-to-solvent ratio 1:30 the maximum yield efficiency is got, and then decreases with the increase of material liquid ratio. This is due to excessive solvent in the process of exsolution flavor material loss bigger, and material liquid ratio is too large, the subsequent processing costs will increase. So the solid-to-solvent ratio is suitable for 1:30.
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Hazards and Safety Measures Regarding to Fire and Explosion in Solvent Extraction Plant

Hazards and Safety Measures Regarding to Fire and Explosion in Solvent Extraction Plant

After performing hazard identification and risk assessment of solvent extraction plant and process, we identified all potential hazards and risk present in solvent extraction process which may cause major accident, Damage to people, property, environment and according to the risk category we have provided suitable controls including engineering, administrative works and practice and personal protective equipment’s to eliminate the hazard and reduce the risk up to the tolerable limit and risk assessment is done to calculate the risk score to classify the risk as severe and non-severe. And made the working process and atmosphere safer.
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Liquid Liquid Extraction of V(IV) from Sulphate Medium by Cyanex 301 Dissolved in Kerosene

Liquid Liquid Extraction of V(IV) from Sulphate Medium by Cyanex 301 Dissolved in Kerosene

saturated with 5.07 g V(IV) and so the loading capacity is calculated as 7.87 g V(IV) per 100 g HA. The loading capacity is considerably high, and so it can be recom- mended for a large scale separation of V(IV) from an aqueous solution. The extraction of 5.07 g V(IV)/L by 1 L 0.20 molar HA at saturated loading implies the HA/V(IV) mole ratio of 2.01 which is identical to that obtained from the extractant dependence study. The loading results indicate that the mechanism of extraction at high loading is not changed from that suggested at low loading.

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Solvent Extraction Equilibria of FeCl3 with TBP

Solvent Extraction Equilibria of FeCl3 with TBP

Table 4 gives the experimental conditions together with the results of extraction experiment. Equilibrium constant of eq. (15) was obtained from the experimental data by applying ionic equilibria and was found to be 4:5 10 2 . The distribution coefficients of iron predicted by this equilibrium

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