The results of our study are not in line with previous findings of Peters and colleagues , who showed that the presentation of less information resulted in higher- quality hospital choices. In their study, people were shown five aspects (only cost and quality aspects) or nine aspects (cost, quality and non-quality aspects) in an ordered or unordered way about three hospitals. The dif- ferent design and different aspects used in the two stud- ies may explain the differences in findings. More specifically, the higher-quality hospital choice in their study was a hospital with the highest quality and the highest cost. This is a more difficult choice, as partici- pants had to make a trade-off in their choice between quality and price. In our study, respondents did not need to make trade-offs, given that one hospital scored equally or better on all quality aspects compared to the other two hospitals. Considering the high levels of com- prehension demonstrated in our study, we may well as- sume that participants who saw fifteen aspects did not feel anymore overwhelmed compared to participants who saw fewer aspects. This might explain why the effects of the amount of information were not very strong, and why the choice of the hospital and ease of this choice were not influenced by it.
Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) has become a popular technique in evolutionary genetics for elucidating population structure and history due to its flexibility. The statistical inference framework has benefited from significant progress in recent years. In population genetics, however, its outcome depends heavily on the amount of information in the dataset, whether that be the level of genetic variation or the number of samples and loci. Here we look at the power to reject a simple constant population size coalescent model in favor of a bottleneck model in datasets of varying quality. Not only is this power dependent on the number of samples and loci, but it also depends strongly on the level of nucleotide diversity in the observed dataset. Whilst overall model choice in an ABC setting is fairly powerful and quite conservative with regard to false positives, detecting weaker bottlenecks is problematic in smaller or less genetically diverse datasets and limits the inferences possible in non-model organism where the amount of information regarding the two models is often limited. Our results show it is important to consider these limitations when performing an ABC analysis and that studies should perform simulations based on the size and nature of the dataset in order to fully assess the power of the study.
It thus appears likely that subjects in this experiment were using AT&T Communicator as a tool, rather than as a conversational or negotiating partner. That is, their goal was to use Communicator to quickly and efficiently select the single flight that best matched the criteria given to them in each task. Asking the system questions in order to get information relevant to this selection process, would decrease the speed and efficiency with which they were able to accomplish this task. So, subjects preferred the most verbose presentation of information in order to increase the speed and efficiency of the overall task.
Steganography applications conceal information in other, seemingly innocent media. Steganographic results may masquerade as other file for data types, be concealed within various media, or even hidden in network traffic or disk space. We are only limited by our imagination in the many ways information and data can be exploited to conceal additional information. 
therefore school studies become focused on student’s learning and his/her independent development. in latvia the reform of the basic education content marked the transition from acquirement of large amount of information to development of skills to work with information; introduction of modern topics into content of education and emphasis on verities and skills, which are useful for practical life; integration of the content and harmonisation between subjects; introduction of topics corresponding to the age of students (basic educational standards, 2004). it means that nowadays in the study process the main emphasis is put on the student as a subject of studies, on learning with understanding, therefore the teacher must be able to stimulate the student to study and develop himself in different ways. school personnel and teachers’ contribution is the basis of every school’s success. teacher is an intermediary between the rapidly changing world and students, who must get fully involved in it. in the teaching process the teacher’s task is to guide student’s knowledge purposefully – to create new notions and concepts in his consciousness, to help understand conformity to natural laws, to perfect skills and abilities, simultaneously developing his abilities and stimulating interests (Zelmenis, 2000). When learning natural sciences at the basic school stage, students should be given a possibility to investigate and understand natural processes, to find their causes, to perceive nature unity and effects caused by the human economic activity, to acquire research work skills, as well as to conceive of the necessity to take care about saving and improving the environment quality, realising responsibility for results of activities (basic educational standard, 2004).
Corrective saccades, amplitudes of which are bet- ween one and three degrees, direct the eyesight to- wards the target with high accuracy. The average of the standard deviations obtained during experiments is 0.15 deg in the horizontal direction and 0.19 deg. in vertical. Due to this the uncertainty of the target direc- tion at the endpoint of complete saccade is minimized, which means that the largest part of information transferred over oculomotor channel is made during the corrective saccade. Experimental results demonst- rate that the amount of information obtained during corrective saccades is two times bigger than during primary saccades.
Our ﬁndings are consistent with emotion research in social psychology. According to , the expression of positive emotions increases the level of communication and strengthens social links. This would lead to stronger pro-social behaviour and cooper- ation, giving evolutionary advantage to societies whose communication shows a positive bias. As a consequence, positive sentences would become more frequent and even advance to a social norm (cf. “Have a nice day”), but they would provide less information when ex- pressed. Our analysis provides insights on the asymmetry of evaluative processes, as fre- quent positive expression is consistent with the concept of positivity oﬀset introduced in  and recently reviewed in . In addition, Miller’s negativity bias (stronger inﬂuence of proximal negative stimuli) found in experiments provides an explanation for the higher information content of negative expression. When writing, people could have a tendency to avoid certain negative topics and bring up positive ones just because it feels better to talk about nice things. That would lower the frequency of negative words and lower the amount of information carried by positive expression, as negative expression would be necessary to transmit information about urgent threats and dangerous events.
In chapter one, to describe the amount of information of a source, we developed the theory of entropy. Specifically, we defined Shannon entropy for finite scheme and some of its properties. We showed some examples by finding the entropy of Bernoulli, Geometric, and Poisson probability distributions. We also defined the entropy function and provided a useful inequality in coding theory. In next chapter, we defined a dynamical system and a measurable partition to define the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Next, we stated and proved the Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem. We defined and showed that Bernoulli Shifts with the same entropy are isomorphic. To finish, we calculated the entropy of Markov Shifts by also using Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem.
Abstract— Typically large amount of information is present on the webpages rather than the main information which is actually useful to the user. so there is need to separate men content block from other content for that we use algorithm based on the content structure tree(CST) , which part of CST is more important and which part of the CST is less important according to the information required to the user is decided by the cosine similarity and the search based genetic algorithm measure in the fallowing paper is about detailed working of the cosine similarity and the different type of cosine similarity measure along with the genetic algorithm.
Data mining contains differentsubfields includes, web mining,graph mining, sequence mining, temporal data mining,mining of multimedia, distributed data mining,text mining, and spatial data mining.Here system considers text mining for its main procedure.Text databases consist of huge collection of documents. They collect this information from several sources such as news articles, books, digital libraries, e-mail messages, web pages, etc. Due to increase in the amount of information, the text databases are growing rapidly. In many of the text databases, the data is semi- structured. For example, a document may contain a few structured fields, such as title, author, publishing date, etc. But along with the structure data, the document also contains unstructured text components, such as abstract and contents. Without knowing what could be in the documents, it is difficult to formulate effective queries for analyzing and extracting useful information from the data. Users require tools to compare the documents and rank their importance and relevance. Therefore, text mining has become popular and an essential theme in data mining.
Since color flow imaging provides a limited amount of information over a large region, and spectral Doppler provides more detailed information about a small region, the two modes are complementary and, in practice, are used as such . Color flow imaging can be used to identify vessels requiring examination, to identify the presence and direction of flow, to highlight gross circulation anomalies, throughout the entire color flow image, and to provide beam/vessel angle correction for velocity measurements. Pulsed wave Doppler is used to provide analysis of the flow at specific sites in the vessel under investigation. When using color flow imaging with pulsed wave Doppler, the color flow/ B mode image is frozen while the pulsed wave Doppler is activated .Recently, some manufacturers have produced
In order to support individual user perspectives and differ- ent retrieval tasks, music similarity can no longer be con- sidered as a static element of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) systems. Various approaches have been proposed recently that allow dynamic adaptation of music similarity measures. This paper provides a systematic comparison of algorithms for metric learning and higher-level facet dis- tance weighting on the MagnaTagATune dataset. A cross- validation variant taking into account clip availability is presented. Applied on user generated similarity data, its effect on adaptation performance is analyzed. Special at- tention is paid to the amount of training data necessary for making similarity predictions on unknown data, the num- ber of model parameters and the amount of information available about the music itself.
of the information requested is closely related with the amount of information which the consumer has, based on previous experience and the cost that he takes in the case of a wrong decision (cost of error). Speaking of looking for information, it can be said that this is both a physical and mental activity. Thus, the search takes place both in interior and exterior plan. Internal search involves checking existing knowledge about the need in question: "How we did last time?", "Where can I find what I need?".
children are faced with a dichotomous choice—the basket, or the box. For each response option, children possess a specific level of certainty. If their level of uncertainty regarding the agent’s belief that it is in, say, the basket is high, then they will not choose that response option. From this standpoint, young children who fail false-belief tests may simply require more information to reduce their uncertainty about the character’s mental state (i.e., Sally’s belief about the ball’s location). In the standard FB task, Sally’s hiding of the ball into a basket only occurs once after which a series of other events occur, so it is possible that the amount of information pertaining to Sally’s belief about the ball’s location is inadequate. Children are required to make a mental state inference on the basis of one and only one piece of information; namely, that Sally put the ball into the basket. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that for the young child—making an inference about Sally’s beliefs is difficult. In essence, the impoverished nature of the information provided to children may be a critical factor that places performance demands on children. Consequently, we must enrich the amount of information that children are given, therefore reducing their level of uncertainty regarding the agent’s belief in standard tests of false-belief reasoning.
Biofield can also be used for medical well-being of an individual like other signals are used to analyze human body. In healthcare informatics, human health related data is analyzed and based on these analyzed results various predictions and outcomes are concluded. Human health related data require high amount of biological information of an individual, whereas biofield contains high amount of information related to the human body. Human biofield carries information like mental health, status of well-being, emotion, anger, stress level and many other . Using AI, it is possible to design a device that must analyze the status of individual’s biofield and gives the result of individual’s well-being. For instance, imagine you have a biofield analysis device and when you wake up in the morning it captures your biofield and generates a report. This report highlights all the parameters stating your current physical and mental health related issues, including progresses or concerns, if any, based on previous evaluations. The device is smart enough to suggest an individual about their diet plan, work schedule, exercise or any other relaxation plans which should be followed in order to recover or preserve (based on status) your optimal level of health.
Within the direction factor, and throughout the phases, it was also found that personal contact is of great importance, as it is also stipulated as the most preferred information source, next to its manifold use in practice, e.g. during the collection phase. This was mostly due to the fact that participants experienced the provision of information through personal contact as the way through which the clearest information was provided. When receiving information in this manner, the information is tailored to the participant, and the full amount of information needed can be received in a quick manner. These findings are echoed by various studies. Firstly, in the study of Hertzum and Pejtersen (2000), it was found that “engineers get most of their information from colleagues and internal reports”. Rosenberg (1967) also concluded that visiting a knowledgeable person who may be able to help, ranked third in the top eight of information-gathering methods used in problem solving among industrial personnel.
We systematically investigate the effects of the possibility of social communication on incentives to acquire costly information as well as on the characteristics of secu- rity prices. We report data from a series of laboratory markets for an asset whose terminal payoff is contingent upon an unknown state of the world. Prior to trad- ing, investors may purchase imperfect signals themselves and learn from their peers through an exogenous information network. Previous studies on experimental asset markets consider traders to be isolated which fails to take into account the aspect of social communication that is ubiquitous in today’s world. When information is costly to obtain, the probability of acquiring information and amount of signals purchased decreases with the number of neighbors of an investor. We provide evi- dence that ignoring the investors’ information networks results in overestimation of the amount of information available in the market. Due to cost savings from lower information acquisition, communication network increases traders’ earnings.
Figure 1 shows the architecture of the proposed system. In the encoding procedure, the object region is extracted using adaptive Gaussian mixture model [16, 17], where the object region is defined as the least rectangular area containing human body. Then, the privacy-protected image of the object region is produced by expanding the low-resolution image obtained by DWT. Next, the privacy information of the object is extracted. In this case the privacy information of the object region is defined as the information from which the person corresponding to the region is identified, that is, a set of wavelet coe ﬃ cients obtained by DWT for the region. Finally, the extracted privacy information and region information are embedded into the surveillance video using the amplitude modulo modulation-based information hiding scheme . The locations and the order of the embedded pixels are described by their corresponding secret key.
through the presentation of the framework’s phases) of benefit to companies, and felt that enterprises would and should be open to it. Some of the benefits they quoted included the fact that detail would force people to consider all the factors, and give structured ways—especially for inexperienced persons—to solve security problems. Another benefit seen in the framework was the visibility and ability to audit, it would bring to all aspects of the cross-enterprise scenario. According to Matthew, head of Information Secu- rity and Risk Management at a higher educational institution, “An audit department would absolutely love this”. This was stated because the framework would define a structure that audit departments, even though not security specialist, could follow and use to track and compare projects and other company interactions. It should be noted that Matthew has worked in other businesses in IT security roles previously. He also expressed that issues in core business and education (at his institution’s level) were very similar.