Cotton Soil and is done by Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) which contains Fly ash, M-Sand, Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) sludge, Cement with proper blending. CLSM is prepared by following the guidelines of ACI 229 R-99. ACI 229R-99 have proposed a mix proportioning system. Based on trial and error method, materials are blended until appropriate qualities are attained. In this paper the Black Cotton Soil was tested for Specific gravity test, Liquid limit test, Plastic limit test, and California bearing test. The total moulds prepared were 12. Among 12 moulds, 6 moulds were tested as un-soaked specimens and 6 moulds were tested as soaked specimens. From the California bearing test it is observed that the strength of the Black Cotton Soil is increased with the increase of CLSM proportions.
Abstract: - Strength is not the only property for which cement based composites are processed. There are many practical situations where enhanced workability is required for placement with the requirements of strength being far lower than normal for which cement mortars and concretes are processed. These are Controlled Low Strength Materials (CLSM) with required flow characteristics such as self-leveling ability, free from settlement after hardening with potential to develop low strength in the range of 1 to 10 MPa. Presently the use of CLSM in practice is ahead of development of appropriate technology to handle a very wide spectrum of practical needs of flow characteristics and to handle combinations with a wide spectrum of materials. In this investigation it is attempted to develop a phenomenologieal model within the basic framework of Lyse Rule, already explored in concrete technology. The basic tenet of this law is that the basic property of present mix is in a particulate state similar to saturated clays. In this fresh state, shearing resistance of the mix is a function of total water content similar to saturated clays. Spread flow test and strength test on mixes with low cement content and high volume fly ash and GGBFS combinations with Brick powder as fine aggregate as well as with only cement and fly ash pastes are conducted. Thus generated data is analyzed to advance a phenomenological model. The validity or this model is verified with an independent set of data generated for this purpose.
Naik et. al., (2004) prepared CLSM mix using wood ash, cement, sand, fly ash and water. Mix contained with 80% of wood ash, 15% of sand and 5% of cement showed strength of 0.8 N/mm2 in 28 days and attained 1.4N/mm2 after a year. Compressive strength test result is optimum for s-1 mix that is 0.8mpafor 28 days but for one year age s-2 mix gives 14.4mpa optimum strength because combination of wood fly ash and coal fly ash increases the compressive strength with the increase in age. Water permeability of s-2 and s-3 decreases with the increase in age when compare to s-1 mix because of the improvement. The researchers observed the reduction in permeability of CLSM with the age.
We presented an accuracy evaluation of 3D volume recon- struction from CLSM imagery that consists of image mo- saicking and image alignment registration steps. The con- tribution of this paper is not only in developing three reg- istration methods having di ﬀ erent levels of automation but also in proposing a methodology for conducting realistic evaluations and performing a thorough analysis of the ex- perimental results. We report accuracy evaluations for (1) three registration methods including manual (pixel-based), semiautomatic (region centroid feature-based), and fully au- tomatic (correlation-based) registration techniques, (2) two groups of human subjects (experts and novices), and (3) two types of registration problems (mosaicking and align- ment). Our study demonstrates significant benefits of au- tomation for 3D volume reconstruction in terms of achieved accuracy, consistency of results, and performance time. In addition, the results indicate that the di ﬀ erences between registration accuracy obtained by experts and by novices disappear with an advanced automation while the absolute registration accuracy increases. If one is interested in per- forming data-specific evaluations, then we prepared web- based tools  for better data understanding and analysis at http://isda.ncsa.uiuc.edu/MedVolume/.
11 Read more
The principal of confocal microscopy was patented by Marvin Minsky in 1957 but it took a good few years before it was fully developed to incorporate a laser scanning process. The technique essentially scans an object point-by-point using a focused laser beam to allow for a 3-D reconstruction. In a conventional microscope you can only see as far as the light can penetrate whereas a confocal microscope images one depth level at a time. The Coherent Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) works by passing a laser beam through a light source aperture which is then focused by an objective lens into a small area on the surface of your sample and an image is built up pixel-by-pixel by collecting the emitted photons from the fluorophores in the sample. Consequently, in a confocal microscope, the object is illuminated with the focused image of a point source, and the reflected (or transmitted) light intensity is measured with a point detector
11 Read more
Disposal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash and quarry dust causes environmental problems. Disposal of these wastes into landfill needs to be reduced or rather discontinued for sustainable development. Hence there is a necessity to find ways of reusing these materials in bulk quantities. Oneway is to use the bottom ash and quarry dust in CLSM applications. CLSM refers to cementitious slurry consisting of a mixture of fine aggregate or filler and water, which is used as a backfill and structural fill. This mixture is capable of filling all voids in irregular excavations and hard to reach places (such as under and around pipes), is self-leveling, and hardens in a matter of a few hours without the need for compaction in layers. The compressive strength of flowable fill mixtures should be less than 8.3 MPa. It is possible to use these materials in CLSM (Sivakumar et al., 2012). The corrosivity and leachate analysis were done by the authors on bleed, and, leachate collected by soaking the hardened CLSM up to 28th day (Sivakumar et al., 2012, 2009a,b). However rigorous testing on CLSM for corrosivity and leaching behavior such as long term leaching and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) have not been carried out.
ASTM D 6103 “Standard Test Method for Flow Consistency of Controlled Low Strength Material.” procedure consists of placing 75 mm diameter x 150 mm long (3 in. diameter x 6 in. long) open ended cylinder vertically on flat surface and filling cylinder to top with CLSM. Cylinder is then lifted vertically to let the material to flow out onto level surface. Good flowability is attained when there is no noticeable segregation and material spread is at least 200 mm in diameter. The flow data is synthesized to arrive at relative flow area (RFA) which is calculated from the relation:
on the endothelial cell. Shear stress increases the expres- sion of PDGF-B mRNA and of bFGF mRNA in endothelial cells  and also stimulates SMC function, including the release of PDGF-A , bFGF  and nitric oxide . Pulsatile pressure increases the growth of SMCs  and also their migration and cytokine expression . It can therefore be assumed that these factors are playing a role in the stabilization of capillary-like structures in vitro. The remodelling process, which is also dependent on the pres- ence of mural cells , is presumably regulated by the same factors, thus providing an explanation for the improved network formation in the perfused tubes. It has to be conceded, that there was variability in the results of the different experiments, especially in the his- tological appearance of the capillary-like structures and in the degree of mural cell differentiation. Furthermore, due to methodological reasons of this vessel model, it was dif- ficult to determine exactly the pressure and the shear forces, which were applied. Therefore it is difficult to draw exact and quantifiable conclusions concerning the influ- ence of the hydrodynamic forces. However it becomes clear, that physical parameters support tissue differentia- tion also on the level of the vascular system. The CLSM pictures (Fig. 4) show that perfusion culture clearly pro- motes the more physiological appearance of an intercon- nected capillary-like network, whereas the structures in a rotating culture remained short and were incoherent. CLSM images of perfused and rotated specimen
To study the structure of liposomes by confocal microscopy (CLSM), we loaded the liposomes with a fluorochrome marker which localizes in the lipidic bilayer. This approach could be considered innovative with reference to the potential for high-resolution imaging, as the nondestructive technique allows a 3D reconstruction using a sophistical and sensible range of fluorochromes (commercially available fluoroprobes are designed sensible to the environment in order to operate within different physiological ranges of pH, ionic strength, and water content with high sensitivity, selectivity and versatility). 28,29 The literature describing the physical charac-
[44,45], which was followed ~ 60 years later by descrip- tions of ultrastructure using transmission electron micros- copy [1,14,33,36]. More recently, kinorhynch musculature was examined by a combination of cytochemical staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in the cyclorhagid, Antygomonas sp. , and homalorhagid, Pycnophyes kielensis [5,30]. Although each confocal study was limited in scope, and to a single species, musculature was selectively labeled and examined as an organ system, setting up the first comparisons between kinorhynchs and other ecdysozoans, and metazoans in general. In this manuscript, we present a comprehensive description of the muscular organ system in Echinoderes, the largest kinorhynch genus with nearly 80 species and a global distribution. We have selected five species, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, that exemplify morphological variability within the genus based upon a range of taxo- nomic characters: Echinoderes horni Higgins, 1983 ; Echinoderes spinifurca Sørensen et al., 2005 ; Echino- deres dujardinii Claparède, 1863 ; Echinoderes hispa- nicus Pardos Higgins and Benito,  and Echinoderes sp. (see Table 1). Thus far, the myoanatomy of Echinoderes has not been investigated with confocal laser scanning technology. Therefore, we have utilized a comparative multi- species approach, and have rendered the first complete three-dimensional reconstructions of kinorhynch muscu- lature with 3D imaging software. Particular emphasis has been placed on the arrangement and function of muscles within the introvert, pharynx and associated structures at the anterior end of the kinorhynch body plan. Results of our investigation supplement previous studies with new observations and interpretations, and enable a broader dis- cussion of comparative myoanatomy within Kinorhyncha, and between kinorhynchs and closely related groups, the Loricifera, Priapulida and Nematomorpha.
27 Read more
The images of the top surfaces of specimens captured by a digital microscope in the heartwood area during drying are shown in Fig. 4. These images were captured every minute, when the specimens were dried. No micro- cracks could be distinguished on the specimen surface immediately after drying commenced (Fig. 4a). A micro- crack first appeared in the latewood region adjacent to the ray parenchyma, after 12 min (Fig. 4b: white arrow) although the MC of the specimen for MC measurement (No. 2 in Fig. 1) was above 86.9% at 15 min, which is not only the MC of heartwood but that of the entire speci- men including heartwood, intermediate wood, and sap- wood. Further, several microcracks appeared and become wider and longer during the drying process (Fig. 4c: black arrows). The microcracks widened to a maximum Fig. 2 Visualization method with the CLSM system. The temperature
Abstract: Large quantities of sludge generated from wastewater treatment plant are being disposed as landfills affecting the environment. This has prompted many investigations into alternative reuse techniques and disposal routes for sludge. The main focus of the present investigation was to explore the possibility of reuse of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) Sludge and also to determine its applicability in the construction sector. CETP sludge is tested for its suitability and included in proportioning of CLSM. ACI-229R defines Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) as a self-compacting material with a compressive strength of 8.2 MPa or less. It is a versatile and flowable mix whose proportions can be suitably adjusted to meet specified requirements.The present investigation aimed at developing the CLSM by utilizing CETP sludge in partial quantities. The mixes were subjected to fresh and hardened property tests. The experimental results showed the feasibility of partial replacement of cement by CETP sludge thus by highlighting the efficient reusability of industrial by-product as a construction material. A mixture of 10% CETP sludge, 90 kg/m 3 Cement, 600 kg/m 3 Class F FlyAsh with water provided unconfined compressive strength values within the range for classification as CLSM. This mixture satisfies the excavatability and walkability requirements as well as the hardening time and stability
11 Read more
In this study, SLD was successfully used to optimize the composition of the ASI-NEs formulation. According to the ex vivo permeation study, the ASI-NEs exhibited signi ﬁ cantly higher transdermal permeation than that of the enhancer groups. The nanoscale size and suf ﬁ cient drug load of the ASI-NEs contributed to the transfer of ASI from the nanovehicle to the skin. Studies on mouse skin pharmacokinetics have shown that after local administration, the drug in ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs reached the peak value in the skin quickly, maintained stable release for a long time and keep the drug mass concentration in the subcutaneous tissue at a relatively constant level with high bioavailability. In addition, the transcutaneous mechanism of ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs, studied by HE stained and CLSM, showed that the drug can play a therapeutic role mainly by disrupting microstructure of the cuticle and by means of the skin adnexal pathways. As summarized above, the ASI-NBGs is a promising topically administered preparation for the treat- ment of skin scar in future clinical.
14 Read more
Using FISH and CLSM we have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species including pathogens associated with acute OM, are present intracellularly and/or in bio- film in the mucosa of 82% of children undergoing venti- lation tube insertion for COME and rAOM. Separately, 64% of biopsies were positive for biofilm, while 71% were positive for intracellular bacteria. No difference was observed between children with either rAOM or COME, with biofilm and intracellular bacteria being demonstrated at similar rates in both. These findings are similar to those described by Hall-Stoodley et al, the only study using FISH to evaluate biopsies from a com- parable cohort, showing bacterial clusters containing otopathogens, on the middle ear mucosa of children with both rAOM and COME . Importantly, at least one of the known OM pathogens was demonstrated in 12 of the 14 samples positive for biofilm or intracellular infection, and no bacteria were seen on the healthy con- trol middle ear mucosa. These findings support the hypothesis that the bacterial OM pathogens are present either intracellularly or in bacterial biofilms or both. The presence of otopathogens may play an important role in OM pathogenesis and could be a source of chronic inflammation and/or recurrent infection.
10 Read more
The aqueous solution contained the pH-sensitive fluorophore fluorescein, the fluorescence intensity of which is high in alkaline, and low in acidic environments. The pH of the bulk solution was adjusted to 7.8 so that the initial fluorescence intensity was high (approximately 90% of the maximum intensity, see Figure 7.3). As the anodic current was applied to the UME, generating protons, the pH around the tip decreased, causing a reduction in fluorescence intensity. Using the confocal laser scanning microscope, line scans were taken at the midpoint between the substrate and UME every 2 ms, recording the change in fluorescence intensity over time. Figure 7.2 shows the experimental setup indicating the positioning of the UME and CLSM lens with respect to the substrate. For each line scan recorded after the application of the anodic current, the fluorescence intensity was lowest directly beneath the Pt tip, gradually increasing with increasing distance from the centre of the UME. Over longer time periods, the fluorescence intensity beneath the UME decreased as the proton concentration increased, and a faster change in this intensity was observed at higher currents, as the flux of protons increased more rapidly.
220 Read more
Fig 6 shows comparison among the different antenna configurations. As it is expected that CLSM with 4x4 antenna configuration gives you the higher throughput it approximately it is 3 times higher than the SISO and 2 time higher CLSM 2x2. Spectral efficiency almost in reverse situation where CLSM 4x4 configuration is shown poor spectral efficiency than the other configurations.
To estimate the effect of MF on the particle pen- etration, an in vitro study was conducted on tumor spheroids incubated with Lf-MIONs/PFH for 4 h, and then, the tumor spheroids were subjected to the MF for 1 min. As shown in Figure 6a, a 3D-reconstructed cell image showed that large amounts of Lf-MIONs/PFH with bright red fluorescence ap- peared on the cells before the MF treatment. A closer observation revealed that parts of the particles could penetrate the inner regions and resided in the dense cell skeletons (Figure 6b and 6c). The result showed that the tumor spheroids still maintained the mor- phology constructed by compact cells. In contrast, once the MF was applied for 1 min, clear damage and deformation of the tumor spheroids were observed, as shown in Figure 6d. Parts of the boundary of the tu- mor spheroid seemed to be ruptured, and higher quantities of Lf-MIONs accumulated in the spheroid. In high-magnification CLSM images (Figure 6d and 6e), the cells exhibited shrinking morphologies, and clear gaps between cells could also be observed. The results indicated that the gasification of PFH, which was triggered in a few seconds, significantly influ- enced the intercellular structures of tumor spheroids and destroyed the dense cell skeletons of compact
16 Read more
A novel compound functional plant beverage could be formed by blending soy milk with konjac glucomannan (KGM), a beneficial polysaccharide. Both the phase behavior and the stability of KGM-soy milk blend system were studied. The phase diagram showed that the KGM-soy milk blend system could form three regions: i.e., Unstable zone, metastable zone and stable zone. The stability of the blend system was investigated by measuring turbidity, viscosity, Zeta potential, particle size and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The microstructure of the KGM-soy milk mixed system was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), which indicated that KGM and soy milk could be evenly dispersed under certain conditions. The mixtures with relatively low KGM component were unstable and easy to sedimentation. However, the blend systems with high KGM component were relatively stable and were not easy to occur phase separation. The results implied that KGM could act not only as a functional ingredient, but also as a stabilizer in the compound plant beverage.
Recently, and due to the increased need for recycling industrial by-products, many researchers have successfully used and tested by-products as a filler material such as scrap tire rubber, spent foundry sand, coal bottom ash and quarry waste (Siddique, 2009). CLSM offers a great opportunity for recycling by-products and non-standard materials not meeting (ASTM C33) for its filler aggregates. Non-standard materials like stone quarry may contain granular materials which do not satisfy the graduation requirements for ASTM C33; this material can be used in CLSM as a filler occupying the major portion of the mixture. All new materials should be tested in CLSM to see if it has any undesirable effects on the different properties of CLSM mixtures. Using non-standard materials have greatly reduced the cost of CLSM mixture making it a very cost-effective compared to conventional backfill materials.
136 Read more
In addition to the AE measurements, optical Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) observation (and video recording) of the surface of the SMA was carried out in order to gain a better insight into the evolution of martensite crystals as the transformation progresses. During cooling of the SMA sample the confocal microscope acquired 1 image per second, which revealed interesting information about the growth of martensite plates; six characteristic micrographs are shown in Fig. 6. The transformation starts with the formation of thin plates of martensite with distinct orienta- tions. A thickening of these plates is observed as the transformation proceeds, and for some plates this thickening clearly occurs in a discontinuous manner. This thickening eﬀect makes the interpretation in terms of nucleation and growth complex; it is not clear whether a thickening plate may be treated to form in a single nucleation and growth step. Nevertheless, the observations show that small and large plates are formed both at the beginning and at the end of the transformation. A partitioning eﬀect and a progressive