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A Proposed Architecture for Automated Assessment of Use Case Diagrams

A Proposed Architecture for Automated Assessment of Use Case Diagrams

These days Object Oriented Frameworks are an accepted technology within the software industry. More and more people are writing use cases, for behavioral requirements, for software systems or to describe business processes [38]. There is a growing trend in diagram interpretation [33, 34, 35] and automated grading of diagrams like Use Case diagrams, Class Diagrams, Sequence Diagrams, Activity Diagrams, Collaboration Diagrams and E-R Diagrams. Keeping this in mind it is proposed to investigate the automated assessment of diagrammatic answers- particularly Use Case diagrams. In the remainder of this paper, section 2 discusses the work done in this area, section 3 gives the outline of the system and presents the architecture, section 4 explains the benefits of the proposed architecture and in the final section of the paper we find its conclusion.
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Software Size and Effort Estimation from Use Case Diagrams Using Regression and Soft Computing Models

Software Size and Effort Estimation from Use Case Diagrams Using Regression and Soft Computing Models

case diagrams. The main advantage of our model is that it can be used in the early stages of the software life cycle, and that can help project managers efficiently conduct cost estimation early, thus avoiding project overestimation and late delivery among other benefits. Software size, productivity, complexity and requirements stability are the inputs of the model. The model is composed of six independent sub-models which include non- linear regression, linear regression with a logarithmic transformation, Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) and a Treeboost model. Several experiments were conducted to train and test the model based on the size of the training and testing data points. The neural network models were evaluated against regression models as well as two other models that conduct software estimation from use case diagrams. Results show that our model outperforms other relevant models based on five evaluation criteria. While the performance of each of the six sub-models varies based on the size of the project dataset used for evaluation, it was concluded that the non-linear regression model outperforms the linear regression model. As well, the GRNN model exceeds other neural network models. Furthermore, experiments demonstrated that the Treeboost model can be efficiently used to predict software effort.
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Use Case Diagrams

Use Case Diagrams

• Reuse at the class level can be hindered by each developer “taking a Use Case and running with it”. Since UCs do not talk about classes, developers often wind up in a vacuum during object analysis, and can often wind up doing things their own way, making reuse difficult

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Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering Concepts to Support Mission Engineering

Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering Concepts to Support Mission Engineering

Given their sequential nature and clearly segmented activities, the Activity Diagrams are intuitive starting points to support mission definition. Sequence Diagrams, Use Case Diagrams, and State Machine Diagrams can be used to provide supplementary information regarding mission performance. Sequence Diagrams are particularly useful to provide a different view of interactions between elements of the internal structure of an activity, which helps provide clarity regarding the ordering of activities. Specifically, it should alert any user to conflicts that may result from expecting an activity to commence prior to the creation of external information necessary to support that activity, a level of detail that is more difficult to see when using only Activity Diagrams as they provide no detail regarding the control of activity inputs or outputs while modeling at the level of abstraction shown. Use Case Diagrams can be used to further aid development of functional architecture views by providing an increased level of detail regarding the actors that are involved in each activity. Use Case Diagrams are particularly useful for multi-purpose systems, which may require a different set of personnel to execute each activity. Used in conjunction with Sequence Diagrams, this allows a mission engineer to identify potential conflicts in terms of both system control and system implementation. Finally, State Machine Diagrams provide additional clarity regarding the range of behaviors possible for a given entity, as well as the differing modes of activities in different states. This allows for a more formal examination of the control system of the system of interest than is possible in the Activity Diagram. Given that the process of interest (Minehunting and Mine Detection) is a sequential, discrete process with a limited number of human interactions and state changes, both the Use Case and State Machine Diagrams are not particularly interesting and are not shown.
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A. Model Transformation

A. Model Transformation

In this research, the input of Use Case and Class diagrams are created using Visual Paradigm v. 8, that supports UML2 The diagrams created with Visual Paradigm can be exported in XMI-format files (.uml). Moreover, Visual Paradigm provides the feature that supports the insertion of descriptions into Use Case diagrams. The Use Case diagram with inserted descriptions will then be exported in XMI format (usecaseWithDesc.uml), and transformed to the target model (usecaseDesc.uml) with ATL transformation as shown in Fig. 6. A set of mapping rules is defined, together with the source metamodel of Use Case (Fig. 7) and the target metamodel of Use Case Description (Fig. 8) are created to support the ATL transformation process. Since the metamodel of Use Case Description is not defined as a standard of the OMG, the method how to build the UCD metamodel presented in [9] is adopted in this work.
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1.
													Generating test case by using use case object oriented approach

1. Generating test case by using use case object oriented approach

Use case scenarios are usually not executed in arbitrary orders. Some use case scenarios need to be executed before others. They may have <<extend>> and <<include>> dependencies as well as sequential dependencies which stem from the logic of the business process that the system supports. Hence, data comes in or goes out of the system through use cases. An actor gives input and receives output information through use cases. Thus, we can have dependencies and constraints between use cases for each actor. So use case diagrams can be ornamented with extra ad-hoc information to show relationships and dependencies among use cases of a system [11]. The Use Case formats described so far, are all versions of Use Case descriptions. Now we describe UML Use Case diagrams in detail. A more thorough description of UML Use Case diagrams can be found in (Fowler, 2003).
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Specification-Based Test Case Generation Using Dependency Diagrams

Specification-Based Test Case Generation Using Dependency Diagrams

Shanti and Kumar propose test case generation by means of UML sequence diagrams using genetic algorithms, offering the best test case path [9]. Liu and Huang propose a process and a set of rules for conflict analysis in class diagrams, which can reinforce requirements analysis tasks [15]. In [16], a framework for the automated generation of use case diagrams is proposed. By developing use case diagrams and activity diagrams, functional test cases are generated. Olajubu et.al [17] present work on automating the generation of test cases from software requirement models. They represent requirements using a modeling notation and automatically generate test cases using model to text transformation techniques.
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Identifying vulnerabilities and critical requirements using criminal court proceedings

Identifying vulnerabilities and critical requirements using criminal court proceedings

To illustrate the benefit of refinement using “AND” and “OR” links, we separate the events “sell, transfer and use” into three anti-goals. The English conjunction “and” is logically ambiguous and can be interpreted as a logical disjunction [4, 5]. Thus, the analyst can create mitigating requirements for each event as if they occur independently. For example, one can prevent “use” by encrypting the information, assuming the threat agent does not have the means to decrypt the information. However, sales and transfers are not prevented or mitigated by encryption; thus another goal is required to prevent or mitigate these threats. This benefit, available in KAOS, of independently considering alternatives is required to diagram legal vulnerabilities and is not present in misuse cases diagrams. Alternatively, misuse case diagrams provide the “excludes” link, which we did not employ in this study, but which may be relevant in the analysis of other indictments.
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Identification and Check of Inconsistencies between UML Diagrams

Identification and Check of Inconsistencies between UML Diagrams

Unified Modeling Language (UML) defines 13 types of diagrams which support developers to model information systems from different angles and levels. This kind of multi-view modeling way, on the one hand is useful to reduce complexity of models, on the other hand leads to inconsistencies between diagrams easily. Even though there are some researches on inconsistencies between UML diagrams, some of them are not perfect. Firstly, some researches don’t discuses this issue completely. For example, Licong Tian argues that “Activity Diagrams is a kind of State Machine Diagrams. Consistency rules between Activity Diagrams and other Diagrams are the same as State Machine Diagrams. So I will don’t dis- cuses it in detail.” [1]. In fact, there are some consistency rules between Activity Diagrams and other Diagrams. In addition, inconsistencies between Use Case Diagrams and other Diagrams are discussed rarely. Secondly, some conclusions are inaccurate. Xiaojian Liu argues that “if an operation of a class can call an operation of another class, there must be an association relationship between the two classes.” [2]. This thought actually misunder- stands the association relationship. This paper discuses how to identify and check inconsistencies between UML diagrams. But only 6 types of diagrams used frequently in the domain of information systems analysis and design are discussed as follows: Use Case Diagrams, Class Dia- grams, Activity Diagrams, State Machine Diagrams, Se-
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Modeling of Login Procedure for Wireless Application with Interaction Overview Diagrams

Modeling of Login Procedure for Wireless Application with Interaction Overview Diagrams

Abstract. In this paper we describe in details UML modeling of login procedure, which is a part of UserBarCodeReader application, developed for large stores and intended for use as a customer support during the shopping session. Login procedure is realized within access control system, in this case over a wireless network. Paper gives the whole modeling and implementation cycle of login procedure, from Use Case diagrams to the Java source code. Login procedure is modeled using interaction overview diagram, new in UML 2.0, which gives concise representation and divides complex sequence diagram into several smaller. The link between these diagrams is modeled with OCL postcondition and precondition expressions.
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Generate Test Cases From UML Use Case and State Chart Diagrams

Generate Test Cases From UML Use Case and State Chart Diagrams

The design model was constructed using ArgoUML tool which support XMI file format. It includes class diagrams, sequence diagrams, state charts and so on. The shared model approach is used for test case generation. The same model is used for extracting artefacts as well as for test case generation. A transformation tool or some adaptor transformers that is embedded in the proposed approach can be used to translate abstract test case into an executable or concrete test cases which uses certain templates or mappings to ensure completeness between the extracted artefacts and generated test cases.
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Periods of Feynman Diagrams

Periods of Feynman Diagrams

The picture above is not completely accurate since zeros of Ψ Γ might intersect Σ . Later it was shown in [BEK06] that the integral for a primitive log divergent case is in fact a period in the sense of algebraic geometry, i.e. a pairing between a relative homology class and algebraic differential form both defined over Q in a pair of varieties defined over Q. To construct this pair, authors use a sequence of blowups along the intersection of coordinate hyperplanes to separate the integration cycle from the the poles of the integrand. They also use techniques from homotopy theory to show that for an infinite class of graphs, the pair is of the mixed Tate type. Later it was shown in [BK10] that for the triangle graph the pair of varieties is of mixed Tate type. Note that the triangle graph is not primitive log divergent.
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Markov Influence Diagrams.

Markov Influence Diagrams.

In this paper we introduce Markov influence diagrams (MID) as an extension of IDs, in the same way as Markov decision trees extend decision trees. The main difference is that IDs only contain atemporal variables—for example, the patients’ gender—while MIDs also contain temporal variables, whose value evolves over time—for example, the age or the health state. Due to the computational cost, MIDs containing temporal decisions can only be evaluated for very short horizons, as explained below. For this reason we will assume that all decisions are atemporal, i.e., they are made at the beginning of the process; they may be conditioned on future events (for example, “do the test when the symptom is present”) , but the policy is the same for all cycles. This way it is possible to evaluate MIDs with large horizons. To our knowledge, this restriction to atemporal decisions is also present in all models for CEA, including cohort models, patient-level simulation and discrete event simulation. An important difference, however, is that cohort models usually represented the patient’s state with a single variable, taking on a limited number of values (states), and consequently often need to multiply the number of states—for example, to represent the patient history—while patient-level simulation, discrete event simulation and MIDs can use several variables to model different features of the health state. The main difference of IDs and MIDs with respect to the other types of models for CEA is the explicit use of a causal graph that represents all the variables and the relations among them. This graph facilitates the construction, debugging and maintenance of the model and the communication with experts—for example, with health technology assessment agencies.
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Diagrams of Power and Strategic Decision Making: the Case of Strategic Alliances in the Automotive Industry

Diagrams of Power and Strategic Decision Making: the Case of Strategic Alliances in the Automotive Industry

While thus far we explained how strategic alliances can be used to gain a competitive advantage, we now proceed to illustrate how such alliances could present the partners themselves with a security dilemma. Such dilemmas are an additional aspect of alliances that lend themselves to a better description of using diagrams of power. They arise because the partners’ access to a company’s strategic intangible resources could be abused. The two strongly connected processes of which the alliances comprise, value creation and value division, are frequently described separately, but diagrams of power allow us to analyse them simultaneously. This is illustrated in Figure 7. If firms A, B, and C form an alliance, they could be strong together, just like Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi in Figure 6. Their overlap, however, shows that, if their cooperation breaks, they could potentially endanger each other by using the former access to partners’ strategic resources to better compete against each other. Note moreover that the partners’ circles overlap in a diagram of power even if they operate in different markets. This holds because a company could hurt a former partner by offering the information collected during the partnership to its direct competitors, or because the knowledge acquired through the partnership could allow it to enter the home market of its former partner.
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Organization and Classification of Nanotechnology: A Pathway to the Standardization of Nanotechnology

Organization and Classification of Nanotechnology: A Pathway to the Standardization of Nanotechnology

And for this, in addition to the indication of the need for engineering scientific diagrams and abacuses, demonstrated throughout this paper, we have a demonstration of possibility in result. And so, we got a chart that shows the expansion of nanotechnology by time. A chart that summarizes how the progress of nanotechnology will take place over time. Emphasizing that along this advanced technology progress through time, will be given by the addition of functionalization and the dynamics of high control and adding intelligence to materials. All due to the high degree of intelligent interfaces and communication, between different dimensional and complex materials even more differentiated. Something like a nanosensor that captures information in a complex biological environment, transfers into electrical signals that communicate with digital system, translating all information into an assistive system, generating results. But to reach such a high level of advancement in nanotechnology, the need for standardization is evident. A standardization for nanoscience, as we see in thermodynamics or mechanical engineer will accelerate the advancement of 6Ns like never. This proves the need for engineering diagrams to progress faster and better. With diagrams, it is not necessary to characterize and always carry out analytical tests for each study, product or service performed. The time gained, the quality and the speed in the progress of technologies will present and consequently a clear standardization, e.g. taking ASME for mechanical engineering and too ASTM [14], are cases of success.
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Research on The Performance of a Novel Dual –an Optical Access Passive Optical Network System with ODB and NRZ Downstream Signals

Research on The Performance of a Novel Dual –an Optical Access Passive Optical Network System with ODB and NRZ Downstream Signals

A novel optical access system with optical duobinary (ODB) and non-return to zero (NRZ) downstream signals is proposed and analyzed: the center carrier frequencies of two downlink signals with of 193.07GHz and 193.13GHz. By comparing the optical spectrum diagrams, electrical diagrams and eye diagrams before and after downstream transmission over 20km single mode fiber (SMF), it is proved that the optical spectral efficiency of ODB downstream signals is narrow, and the bit error rate (BER) of NRZ signals is lower. The results demonstrate the two signals have their own advantages in optical access system, and users can choose according to the actual needs.
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Understanding Change Prone Classes in Object Oriented Software

Understanding Change Prone Classes in Object Oriented Software

We believe that most of the software metrics evaluate the degree of object-orientation or measure static characteristics of the design, which are not always helpful in answering the question whether a specific design is good or not. When trying to answer such a question, an expert would assess the conformance of the design to well established rules of thumb, heuristics, and principles [10]. Behavioral Dependency Analysis (BDA) determines the extent to which the functionality of one system entity is dependent on other entities. Based on the source of information used to perform a BDA, we can divide the BDA techniques into three groups: code-based, execution-trace-based, and model-based. To derive behavioral dependency measures between two distributed objects, we perform a systematic analysis of messages exchanged between them in a set of sequence diagrams (SDs) For example, when an object sends a synchronous message to another object and waits for a reply, we define the former object to be behaviorally dependent on the latter [7].
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Root System and Dynkin Diagrams for the General Class of Indefinite Quasi Affine Kac Moody Algebras QAG2(1)

Root System and Dynkin Diagrams for the General Class of Indefinite Quasi Affine Kac Moody Algebras QAG2(1)

All the other Dynkin diagrams which do not contain a bold faced edge are of extended hyperbolic, since every proper connected sub diagram is either finite or affine . Hence, the remaining 728 Dynkin diagrams are all of extended hyperbolic type, since each proper connected sub diagrams in these cases are of finite, affine or hyperbolic types.

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An enhanced test case generation technique using activity diagram for system testing

An enhanced test case generation technique using activity diagram for system testing

In summary, traditional generation of test cases is carried out towards the end of the development lifecycle, ultimately compromising quality of the software. UML models have been considered the most popular, especially activity and sequence diagrams in the effort to boost early test case creation. Considering researchers who have attempted to reverse the ideology of observing testing at the end, a few of them have considered using these models directly hence decreasing the steps involved in reaching the tests, eventually decreasing the effort and time involved there within.
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Equivalence of Carter diagrams

Equivalence of Carter diagrams

of sets of roots (from the root systems associated with the simple Lie algebras) and diagrams associated with these sets. These diagrams are not necessarily Dynkin diagrams since sets of roots we study are not necessarily sets of simple roots and are not root subsystems. We use the term Dynkin diagram to describe connected sets of linearly independent simple roots in the root system. Similarly, Carter diagrams describe connected sets of linearly independent roots, not necessarily simple, and such that any cycle is even.

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