________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract - This paper provides in-detail description of the design and structural analysis of chassis and suspension system of a standard All-Terrain Vehicle. The design and development comprises of material selection, chassis and frame design, cross section determination, and determining strength requirements of roll cage, stress analysis, design of the entire double wishbone suspension system and simulations ton test the ATV against failure. The static and dynamic structural analysis is also done on the chassis for validating the design. Initially, a prototype design of the chassis was made as a 3-D CAD model using Solidworks CAD software. The designed ATV is an off-road vehicle powered by 305 cc, four strokes, 10 BHP engine Brigg Stratton engine and driven by manual transmission. Material selection was based on the basis of factors like weight, cost, availability and performance during the entire design process, consumer interest through innovative, inexpensive, and effective methods was always the primary goal. The manufacturing objective is to design a vehicle which is safety ergonomic, aerodynamic, highly engineered and customer satisfaction which can make it highly efficient. The proposed design of ATV can navigate all most all terrain which is the primary objective behind the design and fabrication of any all-terrain vehicles.
chassis is the under part of a motor vehicle, consisting of the frame (on which the body is mounted). If the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the driver's seat, are included, then the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the term rolling chassis means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine, transmission, drive shaft, differential, and suspension. A body (sometimes referred to as "coachwork"), which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck (without the body) to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a pleasure car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads and constant work use. This describes the lower hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armored personnel carriers, combat engineering vehicles, etc. Traditionally, the most common material for manufacturing vehicle chassis has been steel, in various forms. Over time, other materials have come into use, the majority of which have been covered here.
Generally, this type of frame supports the engine, rear axle, transmission and all suspension components. It consists of Channel shape steel beams welded together. Such frame is compatible for trucks and any larger vehicle. It is easy to identify ladder frame because the chassis look like a ladder once the body is removed. At the perimeter of the frame, there are lots of welded and riveted unit on the frame member (Halderman J. D, 2000).
Chassis is a French term and was initially used to denote the frame parts or Basic Structure of the vehicle. It is the back bone of the vehicle. A vehicle without body is called Chassis. The components of the vehicle like Power plant, Transmission System, Axles, Wheels and Tyres, Suspension, Controlling Systems like Braking, Steering etc., and also electrical system parts are mounted on the Chassis frame. It is the main mounting for all the components including the body. So it is also called as Carrying Unit.
The modern automobiles construction has been formed by the chassis frame. A skeleton will be formed by the huge number of designs in pressed- steel frame on which all the components are mounted. Chassis and body of vehicle flexibly bolted during the manufacturing process that performs variety of functions. It ingest the reactions from the engine movements and axle movements, receives the wheels reaction forces in braking and acceleration, also ingests the forces of aerodynamic wind and road shocks through the suspension, and absorbs the major impact energy in case any accident occurs. Modern small car designing has been shifted gradually by fusing the body and chassis frame into a mono
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the principle of the synthesis method used in this paper with the associated fundamental definitions, terminolo- gies and formulas. Section 3 identifies and characterises three module sets, i.e. the wheel module set, the suspension mod- ule set and the chassis module set, that are to be used for the module-base synthesis of rover structures presented in Sect. 4; leading to a large family of four-, six- and eight- wheeled rovers. A mathematical model and a virtual envi- ronment platform are then presented, together with develop- ment of prototypes of sample rovers and the initial physical test results, in Sect. 5. Subsequently, Sect. 6 delivers a brief conclusions for the results obtained in this paper.
ABSTRACT: The chassis is one of the vehicle's main assemblies and all subassemblies are connected to the chassis.Upper body and pay loads are transferred to the wheels through the chassis. This chassis development is used for M1 category SUV vehicles. At the vehicle level, the engine, radiator, fuel tank, power transmission and suspension are connected to the chassis. Therefore, this various assembly must be represented in sub-assembly level developments. This assembly is represented by a lumped mass element with COG and connected to the corresponding mounting position by an RBE3 element. This assembly has been tested with the FEA solver for various load cases, including 1 or 3 gravity fields, natural frequencies, bending, torsion, uphill combinations, acceleration and cornering, pothole and cornering case inertial relaxation. This chassis should meet the requirements with minimal deflection and no failure in all load cases. In this study, the performance of the chassis is improved by adjusting the section modulus of the ladder frame without greatly changing the mass value. The main challenge is also that the chassis front member deforms and absorbs the collision energy during vehicle collisions, to reduce the G-force and intrusion in the passenger compartment, so that the strength of the chassis should increase without affecting the flexibility.
Automobile chassis usually refers to the lower body of the vehicle including the tires, engine, frame, driveline and suspension. Out of these, the frame provides necessary support to the vehicle components placed on it. Also, the frame should be strong enough to withstand shock, twist, vibrations and other stresses. The different types of chassis frame used in different vehicles includes; Lotus Elise, Backbone chassis frame, ladder chassis, tubular space frame, monocoque.
Abstract:- Go kart is the well-known concept in student racing car without suspension. Also it is manufactured professionally to sell it to big malls, resorts, etc. The concept of electric kart is new. The electric kart works on the battery power and motor. In the following paper, research is restricted to only chassis of the kart. The chassis is designed in the CREO parametric 2.0 and impact analysis is done by using ANSYS Workbench 14.0.
The analysis using steel as material has been done in ANSYS Multi physics . The analysis was done on two wheeler chassis in the static condition. Constraints are applied on the front end and also on the rear where suspension are mounted. This two ends are assumed to be fixed. The deflection of the chassis is calculated by the software along with the stresses induced in the system by applying loads. Using the deflection and the stresses induced, the low stress area are determined which is then replaced by bamboo.
The key to good chassis design is that further the mass is away from the neutral axis the more rigid it is The reason for ladder frame type of chassis is that here it is easier to change the design without having to change the chassis thereby saving overall design time. It also provides a good beam resistance because of its continuous rail from front to rear. The disadvantage with using this type of chassis is that it has poor torsion stiffness, higher fuel consumption and also heavier than a unibody. The design of a vehicle structure is of fundamental importance to the overall vehicle performance. The vehicle structure plays an important role in the reliability of the vehicle. Generally, truck is a heavy motor vehicle which is designed for carrying the attached weights, such as the engine, transmission and suspension as well as the passengers and payload. The major focus in the truck manufacturing industries is to design vehicles with more payload capacity. Using high strength steels than the conventional ones are possible with corresponding increase in payload capacity.
Quality control, or management, started with the design of the frame – it had to be built by the designer, so simplicity was the key. There was no part of the frame that was super critical in dimensions or location – and this made for manageable fabrication tolerances (for a prototype). The worksheets gave only those dimensions that were critical to the fabrication process, and in a manner that made construction easy. Hoops were kept vertical, and all ‘in-fill’ members were kept straight. The other factor, which helped with the quality management, was the selection of only 2 sizes of tubular steel – the larger (black) size being used for the hoops (for mandated safety reasons) and the smaller unpainted one being used for the rest of the tubular frame. The front and rear suspension mounting longitudinal members were of
be lightweight and simple. The rear suspension of the vehicle could have been a traditional double A-arm set-up which, although proven to work well, had several drawbacks. Double A-arm suspensions require six points of pivot to be fixed to the chassis, per side. One point of pivot for each leg of each A-arm, a pivot for the toe link, and pivot for the shock; a total of twelve for both sides. To add to the complexity, two constant velocity joints mounted to each half-shaft must allow for vertical displacement between the fixed centre section and the wheel. All of these
A front axle suspension system for a vehicle chassis includes first and second links pivotally connected to the chassis and extending downwardly therefrom, the second link being positioned rearwardly of the first link. A coupler link is pivotally connected to the lower ends of the first and second links and extends forwardly from them. The front axle is connected to the coupler link and is adapted to carry a front wheel for rotation about a generally horizontal centerline. A spring and dampener mechanism interconnects the coupler link and chassis to yieldably resist movement of the axle relative to the chassis. The pivotal connections of the first, second and coupler links are so arranged that the instantaneous center of the suspension system will always be below and rearwardly of the front wheel centerline.
It should be noted that this ‘ladder’ type of frame construction is designed to offer good downward support for the body and payload and at the same time provide torsional flexibility, mainly in the region between the gearbox cross member and the cross member ahead of the rear suspension. This chassis flexing is necessary because a rigid frame is more likely to fail than a flexible one that can ‘weave’ when the vehicle is exposed to arduous conditions. A torsionally flexible frame also has the advantage of decreasing the suspension loading when the vehicle is on uneven surfaces.
is thickened and the number of beams on the rear part is much larger. It must be considered that loads along the lengthwise and the vertical directions in the suspension areas were already included also while evaluating the global structural stiffness and the frontal crashworthiness. Thus, it was expected that the most critical loading conditions during the assessment of the local stiffness of the suspension joints would have been those along the spanwise direction. In fact, in Fig. 3(d) a large spanwise structure connecting the front suspension joints appears on the upper part of the domain, and the transversal beams linking the suspension joints area to the central tunnel on the lower part of the domain are doubled in size. The tunnel itself disappears and is substituted by a web of beams going from the front end of the former tunnel up to half the way along the sills. Such a sensible change in the layout and such an increase in weight for what it should have been a “local” stiffness issue must be considered carefully. In fact, it can be argued that such a behaviour is mainly due to the loading condition chosen for the evaluation of the local stiffness which involves the clamping of the sills, so that the lines of force must go through the sills, thus making the central tunnel superfluous. However, this is not a loading condition to which a vehicle is actually subject while on the road. Other loading conditions have been tried in substitution of the inertance analysis, but all of them are prone to similar issues. On the other hand, it is out of doubt that the previous structure (Fig. 3(c)) lacks reinforcements along the spanwise direction, which are properly included in the solution proposed in Fig. 3(d).
Front suspension model consists of top crossbeam, bottom crossbeam , knuckle assembly, Steering linkages and damper. King pin, arm and knuckle are fixed joint, and they can be seen as knuckle assembly. Vehicle chassis can be simplified as a sphere which has mass and rotational inertia. Top crossbeam uses revolute joint and spherical joint to connect to car body and knuckle assembly, and bottom crossbeam is also. Top crossbeam uses spring to connect to chassis, and knuckle assembly uses spherical joint to connect to steering linkages. Just as shown in picture 2.
CAR CHASSIS CONSTRUCTION Chassis have to be stiff enough so that they withstand the forces applied to them. This is point really important in the suspension settings. If the chassis bends a little the car in not going to behave as expected (as linear) because the ride is being modified, in short, the suspension settings are modified. However, you can not make the chassis completely stiff. That would cause it to be brittle. There will start to appear weak points and it would end breaking throw the weakest. So you need to reach a point where it is neither too stiff nor too weak. These materials
In this study the geometrical parameters related to the attachment points of the links on the chassis have been modified, without modifying the direction of the links themselves in the early configuration; so, the characteristic curves necessary to study the suspension behaviour, have been obtained. Each modified configuration of the suspension represents a mechanism cinematically and geometrically different from the previous one, but it is characterized by the same values of camber and steer angle in the nominal original configuration with respect to the early position.
These cover plates play an important role in chassis airflow and temperature management. They also provide protection for module processor boards and other sensitive internal switch components by closing off a chassis that is not fully populated. Because they regulate airflow and help protect internal chassis components, blank cover plates should remain installed at empty module slots and power supply bays at all times.