Search strategy: RCTs that compare at least two of the three injections modalities and published from January 2005 to September 2015 were systematically searched. The following online search engines were utilised: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central), Web of Sciences, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Academic Search Premier. The following search terms were used: “tennis elbow”, “lateral epicondylitis”, “corticosteroid injection”, “autologous blood injection”, “platelets rich plasma” and “randomised controlled trial”. The terms “tennis elbow” or “lateral epicondylitis” or “lateral epicondylalgia” were combined with each one of the injection modalities and the term “randomised controlled trial”. Methodological assessment was conducted by applying Sign 50 tool and The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. This systematic review protocol was conducted according to the standards presented in the Cochrane Handbook and recommendations in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement.
Perhaps the largest difference between the pay structure of CEOs of U.S. firms and CEOs of non-U.S. firms is stock option compensation. The international pay gap of CEOs widened significantly after accounting for gains from exercising share options. In 1997, the top 500 U.S. CEOs made £2 billion from option exercises; by contrast, the top 500 UK CEOs made only £74 million in exercised options (Conyon & Murphy, 2000, p.640). These £2 billion in exercised options are an explanation for the drastic disparity in U.S. CEO Compensation as compared with their foreign counterparts. Stock ownership was higher in the U.S. when compare to the UK, as U.S. CEOs controls 0.29% of their companies stock and held options purchase 1.18% of their company. While UK CEOs owned 0.5% of their company’s stock and held options to purchase a low 0.24% of their company when compared to U.S. CEOs (Murphy, p.4 & 8). Stock options have become a more prevalent part of CEO compensation throughout the years. In the 1990s, German firms have more so begun granting stock options as compensation. By 1998, 10% of German firms listed on the DAX offered options as part of CEO packages (Elston & Goldberg, 2001, p.3).
Despite the rigour of our review with respect to identi- fying all the available evidence and the quality assessment of the included studies, we recognise study limitations. First, due to the small number of eligible studies and the different comparisons of surgery with each non-surgical treatment modality, our conclusions on most outcomes had a poor level of evidence. Equally, due to the lack of adequate data, different tendinopathies were clustered together in some comparisons (surgery vs sham surgery; surgery vs ESWT; surgery vs physiotherapy) to increase the strength of evidence. Although we acknowledge this as a potential drawback of our study, we expect specific treatments may potentially yield to similar (if not iden- tical) effects on tendinopathies at different sites as they share the same pathophysiology. However, we did not generalise conclusions on comparisons of modalities to include types of tendinopathy that did not contribute any results for that specific comparison. Additionally, the wide range of outcome measures used by authors resulted in lack of homogeneity which made the conduc- tion of a meta-analysis impossible. The different regimes and intensities of physiotherapy and postoperative
The results of the search process are depicted in the flowchart (Figure 1, 2). Of 10 articles identified, 4 met all review criteria. All studies were RCTs and were performed mainly in United States and India countries. Baseline characteristics were similar between intervention and placebo groups in all of the trials. The included studies were all randomized parallel trials for which the duration was 1 to 6 weeks. In the meta-analysis, 95% confidence interval value were -16.03 to 11.81 and -9.355 to 16.00 with Std. Error 0.2394.
This paper conducted the data collected from databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Pub- Med, Embase, and Web of Science. All included studies were published before Jun 2017. The da- ta were obtained from research and review arti- cles on the incidence and mortality of various cancers in Iran and other countries, summarized to form a comprehensive review article. The fol- lowing search terms in the titles and abstracts were used to search the databases: Cancer, Ma- lignancy, Tumor, Incidence, Prevalence, Mortali- ty, Skin, Gastric, Stomach, Esophageal, Breast, and Prostate, Iran.
Methods: Two systematic literature searches were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Searches were conducted in ten databases including Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). The first search (December 2013) used search terms psoria* AND (EQ5D OR EQ OR EUROQoL). Only publications of original research, which reported baseline EQ-5D scores for mild/moderate/severe psoriasis, were included. The second search (March 2014) used the terms (systematic review) AND (EQ5D OR EQ 5D OR EuroQoL). Titles were screened by two independent reviewers. Four independent reviewers reviewed titles and full-length papers. EQ-5D scores for psoriasis patients were qualitatively compared with scores from patients with other chronic diseases identified through the literature search.
Iran’s population might be less than Pakistan’s (more than 73 million stated by the World Bank in 2010) but there was a time when its literacy rate was as low as Pakistan’s. Two years prior to the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the literacy rate was 28.7% (Ali, 2010, p 6) and if we consider the literacy rate in 2010, it was 85% (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund 2010)! Hence, in a time span of about half of Pakistan’s age, how has the literacy rate of Iran risen to such a phenomenal level? Can Pakistan emulate the aspects, after Iran’s revolution, that have had contributed towards the economic growth and development of the Islamic Republic of Iran? This paper will review factors in the Iranian education system and try to identify by means of comparison whether they are lacking, present or in need of improvement in the Pakistani education system. Perhaps it is time that we share much more with Iran in the current era other than the controversial gas pipeline! Some of the research questions that this paper aims to answer during the course of this paper include; (1) what are the histories of Iran and Pakistan? (2) Have these histories had any effect on the education system of both the countries? (3) What is the status of both the countries with respect to primary education which is being stressed upon globally? (4) Is the quality of education the same in both the countries? (5) Is there any disparity in the literacy rates of women in Iran and Pakistan?
This article presents the results of a systematic litera- ture review of institutional elderly care management re- search. The purpose of the review is to compare how institutional care management research matches the long-term care challenges currently emphasized in inter- national long-term care policy for elderly people. Defin- ing the concepts of management, long-term care and institutional care is complex, from the perspectives of both research and practice see [6,7]. In this review, man- agement is seen from a manager-centered perspective, in which organizational level management is in the focus. Long-term care refers to formal care of elderly people needing support in many functions for a prolonged period of time, and includes care both in home or insti- tutional settings. Institutional care refers to care which is given in institutions such as nursing homes. So, insti- tutional care is only a part, but often the most resource intensive, of long-term care and was thus chosen for the focus of the literature review. However, because inter- national policy documents concerning only institutional elderly care were not available, the policy documents were searched for in the field of the broader concept of
In the 2011 European guidelines on adult respiratory tract infections , the task force stated that although the term HCAP has been putted forward after the 2005 publication of the ATS guidelines , evidence base did not support the use of this term as being clinically rele- vant in Europe at the time. The task force pointed 15 studies as evidence for this statement: two are part of the current systematic review [10, 43], two used different definitions of HCAP [7, 46], seven were on nursing home community-acquired pneumonia [47–53], one on Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia  and the rest did not present any data on microbiology and/or comparison with CAP microbiology [55–57]. The studies mentioned in the guidelines that used a clear definition of HCAP and compare the microbiology findings with CAP all show an association of HCAP definition with infection by a PDR pathogen [7, 10, 43, 46], which does not support the initial statement of the task force.
This review aimed to compare Penicillins with Macrolides treatment for Streptococcal Pharyngitis, in terms of clinical and bacteriological efficacy, by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, MEDLINE Plus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar (from their commencements until current date), for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Penicillins versus Macrolides treatment regarding Streptococcal Pharyngitis. Two authors independently extracted the data. To assess the risk of bias, Jadad score was used. Both Fixed and random effects models were used to generate an odd ratio (OR), and evaluate heterogeneity (I 2 ). Review Manager (RevMan) Version 5.3 was used for statistics. We included 13 studies and 5957
quantify the anticholinergic burden and it is difficult to compare the study results from different methods and studies that have used the same method because differ- ent cut-off values for anticholinergic burden have been reported . The majority of scales have not consid- ered the multiple actions of medicines on the muscar- inic receptor subtypes, the possible synergistic or antagonistic effects of medicines, or possible develop- ment of tolerance for anticholinergic medicine effects over time. Moreover, anticholinergic adverse effects are dose-dependent and the relative anticholinergic ac- tivities of various medicines are unlikely to be propor- tional to a 0:1:2:3 ratio. Also, there was no consensus on the definition of an anticholinergic medicine, and both the number and ranking of the anticholinergic drugs listed vary considerably between the scales [3,37]. Some scales considered the impact of different routes of administration when ranking the anticholin- ergic activity of medicines, while others excluded top- ical, ophthalmic, otologic and inhaled preparations.
Diets high in wholegrains are associated with a 20-30% reduction in risk of developing type-2 diabetes (T2D), which is attributed to a variety of wholegrain components, notably dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Most phytochemicals function as antioxidants in vitro and have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation which are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2D. In this review we compare the content and bioavailability of phytochemicals in wheat, barley, rice, rye and oat varieties and critically evaluate the evidence for wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions increasing plasma phytochemical concentrations and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. Phytochemical content varies considerably within and among the major cereal varieties. Differences in genetics and agro-climatic conditions explain much of the variation. For a number of the major phytochemicals, such as phenolics and flavanoids, their content in grains may be high but because these compounds are tightly bound to the cell wall matrix, their bioavailability is often limited. Clinical trials show that postprandial plasma phenolic concentrations are increased after consumption of wholegrain wheat or wheat bran however the magnitude of the response is usually modest and transient. Whether this is sufficient to bolster antioxidant defences and translates into improved health outcomes is still uncertain. Increased phytochemical bioavailability may be achieved through bio-processing of grains but the improvements so far are small and have not yet led to changes in clinical or physiological markers associated with reduced risk of T2D. Furthermore, the effect of wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions on biomarkers of oxidative stress or strengthening antioxidant defence in healthy individuals is generally small or nonexistent, whereas biomarkers of systemic inflammation tend to be reduced in people consuming high intakes of wholegrains. Future dietary intervention studies seeking to establish a direct role of phytochemicals in mediating the metabolic health benefits of wholegrains, and their potential for mitigating disease progression, should consider using varieties that deliver the highest possible levels of bioavailable phytochemicals in the context of whole foods and diets. Both postprandial and prolonged
Since flaxseed fat should be readily available for chicks, processing of flaxseed could be a very important step to maximize the potential of flaxseed as an alternative n-3 source for meat enrichment. Research spanning three decades suggests that feeding flaxseed in chickens would significantly alter the fatty acid composition and improve the n-3 content of poultry meat. It is the objective of this review, to synthesize, summarize and compare the impact of different feeding strategies and processing alternatives of flaxseed on performance and fatty acid deposition in edible tissues of poultry using fold change analysis. Effects of Dietary Composition and Processing of Flaxseed on Performance of Broilers
Only one article met all four inclusion criteria. Another 11 articles which are included in this review dealt directly with stereotactic or neuronavigational canine biopsy methods, met at least one of the inclusion criteria, and did not meet any of the exclusion criteria. Even though these articles failed to meet our original inclusion criteria, our goal was to compare the available data and identify areas requiring further study.
The most commonly used technique to determine BAM, 75 SeHCAT, has some important limitations. First, this diagnostic approach shows several different thresh- olds of retention, which affect the results of the test. In a previous systematic review of 43 studies for a total of 1223 IBS patients, 75 SeHCAT retention thresholds were as follows: 122 (10%) with < 5%; 339 (27%) with < 10% and 163 (13%) with < 15% retention . In our evalu- ation of the diagnostic accuracy we selected a 75 SeHCAT retention rate cut-off < 10%, which is most widely ac- cepted for the diagnosis of BAM. Notably, a 75 SeHCAT retention < 10% correlates with a faster colonic transit time . This retention threshold is believed to per- form best in order to identify BAM in patients with chronic diarrhea. Secondly, it is known that 75 SeHCAT is not available in many countries apart from few tertiary referral centers. The limited availability of 75 SeHCAT prompted research to other tests for BAM, which may be of more practical use. Thirdly, 75 SeHCAT requires a nuclear medicine department, highly expensive equip- ment, trained personnel, it is time consuming for the pa- tient (as the test consists of two phases of scintigraphic recording at day 0 and after 7 days) and, last but not least, it has an unavoidable radiation risk. Finally, about 50% of the published studies do not compare 75 SeHCAT to the new diagnostic tests.
Another way to evaluate a tagset is to consider the be- haviour of each tag regarding a given domain, using the no- tion of reliability. The reliability of an element corresponds to the ratio between its frequency in the structure over its to- tal frequency in the corpus. If its reliability is 1 (resp. 0), the tag always belongs (resp. does not belong) to the struc- ture and its syntactical behaviour is predictable. An ideal tagset would provide tags which only belong to one unique structure. The tagset used by (Giguet and Vergne, 1997) defines tags from three structures: non-recursive NP, non- recursive VP and simple clause, and a tag only belongs to one domain (except coordinations). Parsing with this tagset is thus straightforward. Unfortunately, tagsets often pro- vide elements which can belong to several structures. We can be tempted to use this information to furnish a direct quantifiable criterion of comparison between tagsets, but some tries do not lead to conclusive results. One possible evaluation might be to estimate the number of reliable tags for a given tagset, but this feature offers no easy way to compare tagsets: a reliable tag in one tagset can correspond to several reliable tags in another tagset, and thus the last tagset is privileged (an operation of mapping would be nec- essary in order to compare tagset by this way). However, this criterion can be used in order to evaluate the intrinsic quality of a tagset (a very good tagset being only composed of reliable tags). Table 4 provides some examples of the reliability of some tags for the Penn, CLAWS2 and SU- SANNE tagsets.
The researches base was characterized in the systematic study from materials already published in the scientific literature and articles of public domain disseminated by governmental bodies of Brazil. The terms for indexing were used for the bibliographic research: dengue; Chikungunya; Arboviruses; Arboviruses; In national and international languages, available in the main scientific databases: Scielo; PubMed; Lilacs; Google Scholar and the criteria for eligibility and synthesis were based on systematic reviews of intervention research and did not include narrative reviews, overviews (review of the review), essays and meta-analyzes. Systematic search strategies were used in two electronic databases Scielo and Google Scholar. The initial research had 288,927 documents identified, being found in the database PubMed (59,211), Scielo (11,716) and Google Scholar (218,000). In the Pubmed and Scielo the description used was dengue, chicungunya, clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention. This systematic review study was based on the exclusion of 8,325 articles with experience reports and the inclusion of 54 articles through the evaluation of titles, abstracts and the following keywords: dengue, chincuncunya being: PubMed (17), Scielo (12), Google Scholar (16), Portal of the Ministry of Health (8) and a complete text unavailable, as shown in the flowchart 1.