The use of computers as an instructional tool in education has caused to explore new teaching and learning methods for approximately sixty years. Computer- aided Learning (CAL) introduced by a team of researchers at IBM in 1950’s . Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer-based Instruction (CBI) and Computer- based Learning Environment (CBLE) were followed in sequence. E-learning is an actual method based on computer technologies reaching the learners all over the world. All these converge on the use of computers to teach and learn with nuances related to the developments in digital technology such as hardware, software, web technologies, CD and DVD’s etc. These methods are based on the interaction between the learners and computers .
The instability and changes in all Libyan organizations make Libya a fruitful environment for obtaining rich research data. Ironically, this difficult context might facilitate major educational reform in Libya by improving the education system from scratch as opposed to making efforts to accommodate an outdated traditional system. This study evaluated faculty members’ competence in using computer technologies because current levels of computer competence strongly influence efforts to integrate technology into Libyan university classrooms. Nevertheless, the study did not assess educators’ attitudes toward this effort. Therefore, future studies that focus on assessing educator attitudes about using technology might serve to identify additional barriers that might impede the process of integrating technology into Libyan instructional practices. An investigation of attitudinal factors is needed as it applies to the second phase of Rogers’s (2003) model--the persuasion phase--where individuals shape their attitudes after they know how to use classroom technologies because they have attended the workshops provided in the first phase--the knowledge phase. Policy makers and
The represented population in this study consisted of all social studies teachers in Oman (983 male and female teachers in the academic year 2012/2013), in the Basic Education schools (5-10 grades). A stratified sampling technique was employed to collect data from the two regions in Oman: Directorate of Education in Muscat and Al-Dhahirah in the Sultanate of Oman. These regions represent different parts of Oman: civilized and country society, seaboard and inland, mountainous and plains. The study sample was confined to these regions due to the characteristics which they have in common. The total number of social studies teachers is 450 with 247 female and 203 male. The instruments were distributed to all the social studies teachers in these schools. Table 3.1 displayed the research sample.This study utilized three instruments for collecting the data which are Teachers' Attitudes towards InstructionalComputerTechnology Questionnaire (TACTQ), Teachers' Self-Efficacy towards InstructionalComputerTechnology Questionnaire (TSECTQ) and Teachers' Level of Use towards ComputerTechnology Questionnaire (TLUCTQ). TACTQ was adopted from Kesten (2006). The original instrument was designed to examine social studies teachers’ attitudes towards computertechnology. TSECTQ was developed to examine teachers’ self-efficacy with respect to using computers in teaching by Alhajri (2007). TLUCTQ was developed by Isleem (2003) to examine teachers’ level of use with respect to using computers in teaching. All the three instruments were translated from English into Arabic. Pilot-testing was conducted by distributing 30 questionnaires of each (TACTQ, TSECTQ, and TLUCTQ) to 30 Omani social studies teachers to determine the reliability of the instrument and to ensure an accurate survey measurement. A reliability test for the questionnaires was performed after the pilot study data was collected. The questionnaire had a Cronbach’s alpha values as follows: attitudes, σ = 0.80, self-efficacy, σ = 0.96, and Level of use, σ = 0.92 which are considered ideal (Nunnally, 1978; Pallant, 2005).The data is analysis by using mediated hierarchical multiple regression analysis technique. A hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the ability of attitudes to predict the level of use towards using the instructionalcomputertechnology, after controlling for the influence of teachers’ gender and teaching experience. A mediation model for this study tested the relationships between Attitudes predictor “X” variables from the bivariate correlation matrix that demonstrated significant relationships to mediator “Z” and dependent “Y” variables.
http://e-journal.um.edu.my/publish/MOJEM/ 3 Teachers’ perceived support to computer from administrative, technical and collegial support have been confirmed crucially by some studies. For administrative support, a study conducted by Butler and Sellbom (2002) suggested that administration should take measures to overcome barriers such as hardware and software for technology integration in education. The importance of technical support was stressed by the studies done by Gattetson and Reinsvold (2007) and research carried out by Bauer and Kenton (2005). In addition, peer support is beneficial to teachers’ using technology effectively and efficiently, which was proven in studies performed by Yildirim and Yildirim (2009), Bullock (2004), Ronnkvist, Dexter, and Anderson (2000). Teachers’ perceived ability level in computer use is a selected factor directly influencing the level of technology application in teaching, which suggests that training for teachers to promote the level of ICT ability is necessary and should be provided for them. Research showed that those teachers who had been trained before using technology had higher ability to adopt ICT in teaching (Lau & Sim, 2008). According to Zhou and Xu (2007), the ability level of female was less than that of male because female teachers lacked confidence and training opportunities.
The instructionaltechnology plan survey is designed to allow districts the opportunity to compile all data related to their technology planning and needs in one location. The data collected in the survey may be used as the basis for funding opportunities and will satisfy the New York State Education Department’s requirement that school districts submit technology plans per Part 100.12 of the Commissioner’s Regulations. The regulation states: “To be eligible for aid for instructionalcomputer hardware and
Technology and Livelihood Education is a program which equips learners with knowledge and information, skills and process, right work values and life skills in the field of Home Economics, Computer Aided Design, Carpentry, Clothing Construction, Electricity and Electronics, Agriculture, Foods and Beverage, Handicrafts, Cosmetology, Home Nursing, Industrial Arts, Agri-Fishery Arts, and Information Communication Technology (ICT), (K to 12 Toolkit). The alignment of TLE curriculum in the escalating demand of skilled employees will enable the graduate to obtain certification and employment. Thus the need for the realistic and experiential learning aided by the right and adequate tools, equipment and machines for instruction is necessary.
With the relatively recent advent of accessible classroom technology, students and teachers can consistently find uses for modern technology in the learning process. Technology is not only revealing new applications in the classroom, but it is also redefining the concept of a classroom due to the increase of online and distance education. The prevalence of technology does have motivational effects. In fact, one study indicates that e-learning, or learning via online computers, fosters stronger intrinsic motivation than traditional classroom learning (Rovai, Ponton, Wighting, & Baker, 2007). Technology in the classroom can be viewed from a variety of angles, depending on how one defines the classroom, and the technology in use. E-learning and self-paced computer-based learning are just two of the many avenues available to teachers and learners in the area of technology.
Scaffolding is defined by Van Arsdale (2010) as tasks given to students to carry out under the guidance of a teacher or more skilled peers, in order to achieve knowledge through collaborative talk and shared understanding. Scaffolding can therefore be seen as supportive behaviours by experts to support the development and progress of students. The term scaffolding, which was introduced by Wood et al. (1976), refers to providing temporary help for students to learn successfully in a teaching-learning process. “Scaffolding can be applied to peer interactions when learning a computer program like Scratch” (Van Arsdale, 2010). Resnick, one of the developers of Scratch, believes that traditional education does not teach students to be creative thinkers and problem solvers. Resnick deems creative thinking to be the key to success and satisfaction, both professionally and personally. Scratch allows users to collaboratively create rich media projects which include animations and video games, using their computer and mathematical skills (Van Arsdale, 2010).
One of the problems with TBI as it is often implemented is that students are assessed on the quality of the team “product.” This gives you no idea as to who has acquired which competencies. It also does not give you any indication of each student’s ability to transfer those competencies to other situations where they may be needed. Team assessment is important, but you also need individual assessment, and the instructional space offers an excellent opportunity to meet this need. Like the task space, the instructional space is performance oriented. The practice opportunities (offered primarily in a computer simulation for immediate, customized feedback and authenticity) continue to be offered to a student until the student reaches the criterion for number of correct performances in a row that is required by the standard. Formative evaluation is provided immediately to the student on each incorrect performance, often in the form of hints that promote deeper cognitive processing and understanding. When automatization of a skill (Anderson, 1996) is important, there is also a criterion for speed of performance that must be met.
Knowledge is simply what people know and to promote knowledge, an intermediary such as Internet, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), mobile phones and laptops needs to be created. With increase in Web technologies and multimedia applications, E-learning has come forward to become the new model for knowledge acquisition. The web technology offers content delivery, collaboration, easy accessibility, socialization and customized learning. E-learning is student centric as it extends teaching and learning beyond the drawbacks of the classroom. It does not only offer content presentation, but also the system that facilitate pedagogical methods .
An interactive white board is a presentation device that is connected to a computer. It allows user to display and manipulate computer images through a digital projector. Note that SMART board is a proprietary brand name for this type of technology. In a study of interactive white board (IWB) use in the Turkish education system, Somyurek et al. (2009) found that despite a substantial investment in IWBs (ratio not mentioned), 65% of teachers reported that they had not used an interactive white board at all, even through there was at least one in their school. Three main reasons were stated for lack of use: (1) Don’t know how to use it (51%); (2) Don’t know how to integrate it into class activities; (3) No school plan for the use of IWB (31%). Students surveyed reported disruption to lesson flow while teachers were trying to turn on the IWB or trying to ‘make it work’.
Technology has become an important part of work and home environments throughout the country, and that’s apparent among the youth population. In a recent study of families with children between ages 6 and 13, the average family home had four televisions, 99% had a DVD player and/or VCR, 88% had a video game console and 85% had a computer. More than half of the families studied also had Internet access, providing children with exposure to a wealth of information never before imagined.
Instructionaltechnology started with a media perspective during the 1940s to support the training of military personnel. In the 1950s universities created courses in audiovisual production and instructional media were commonly used in schools and other training sites by the 1980s. Propelled by the communications revolution, the 1980s saw the emergence of laser printers, VCRs, videodiscs, hypermedia, and computers. During this time personal computers began to appear in schools, homes, and offices (Pett & Grabinger, 1995). Today, schools and even departments within schools, e.g., agricultural education departments, have fully equipped computer laboratories. Instructionaltechnology now includes videos, computers, and other media that can be employed to implement educational plans.
In spite of its acknowledged importance, computing did not gain the status of compulsory school subject in Finland. Instead, computing was integrated in all school subjects. Local schools got power to decide how to prepare a curriculum that ensures proper skills in computing for their pupils. That has led to a situation of irregular integration of Information and Communi- cation Technology (ICT) at schools and inconsistent outcomes in student learning. The Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE), which works under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and is in charge of development of education in Finland, has provided massive refresher courses for in-service teachers, and this process continues. A recent Annual Report (FNBE, 2005) delineates grants of EUR 2.5 million for estab- lishing computer networks and purchasing computers for 289 general education providers. This investment led to purchases made by 1082 comprehensive schools, 179 upper secondary schools and 15 other educational institutions. The idea is to ensure an adequate level in infrastructure and know-how among all educators and education providers.
Students should have the ability to read, understand and analyze complex material and to write in English. They should also have access to a computer and the Internet, and have a basic ability to use e-mail, office applications (i.e., editing text documents), and web browsers. However, no computer programming, nor any other complex technological skills are required.
87 Since the use of instructionaltechnology proved to have significant positive effect on the achievement of students. The teachers be provided proper training in the use of instructionaltechnology and be motivated to use it in the classrooms regularly. The heads of the institutions must regularly arrange the field trips and ensure the provision of films so that the students may be able to study the nature very closely and in original manner. Since no video films were available according to needs of teaching units, therefore, video films were prepared'. The Institutes of InstructionalTechnology be approached for the production of video films for other units of physics at secondary level.
Teachers reported the specific behaviors of principals that could bolster the success of technology integration. Five desired instructionaltechnology leadership behaviors surfaced most frequently and were similar across elementary, middle, and high school teachers. All but one, consider the context, were aligned to those specified in NETS-A standards. This particular principal behavior speaks to teachers’ desire to have principals tailor their actions based on the specific school setting (e.g., locale, access to resources, socio-economic status, personnel availability, etc.). While not directly tied to NETS-A, it is an important contextual variable that serves to provide the necessary background to ensure success of the other actions. The desired instructionaltechnology leadership behaviors in order of frequency included: provide professional development, be supportive, pursue additional funding opportunities, adjust policies and procedures surrounding digital citizenry, and consider the context.
“The TPACK framework describes how teachers’ understandings of technology, pedagogy, and content can interact with one another to produce effective discipline-based teaching with educational technologies” (AACTE, 2008). TPACK includes three areas; the first area, Pedagogical Content Knowledge; explains how to teach particular content. The second area, Technological Content Knowledge; explains how to select and use technologies to communicate particular content knowledge. The final area, Technological Pedagogical
The project design prompt stated: Imagine there is a school-wide goal to inte- grate critical thinking in teaching and learning in the classroom. Create an in- structional website covering a specified unit of instruction for students, admin- istrators, and parents at the grade level(s) of your shared interest, on the topic of your shared interest, incorporating learned theories and applications. Incorpo- rate or provide resources and support for the studied elements in your Unit Plan: Psychology and cognition, Behaviorist theories, Constructivism and Piage- tian theories , Vygotsky’s and Bruner’s theories , Learning theory and social cog- nitive theory , Cognitive and metacognitive development, Intelligence and crea- tivity. Write a 1200- to 1500-word paper that describes how each of the above elements was incorporated into your Critical Thinking Unit Plan. Include refer- ences to course readings. Create a 2- to 3-minute narrated and animated presen- tation to the school district highlighting the main points of your Critical Think- ing Unit Plan and instructional website. Include references to course readings.