Scientific researches have proved that package decisions allow to attract consumer attention, transfer the desirable information about the product, position the product in consumer conscious, differentiate and identify it among analogical products. In that way elements of package influence consumer decision making process and can determine the choice of consumer and the package itself can become the sustained competitive advantage. Thus despite of plenty of scientific researches, focused on separate functions of package and importance of its decisions, the package is not analysed as a whole, playing the communication function. Thus the problem of the article is formulated as follows: factors of consumer package, which influence effective communication with consumer and influence consumer decision making.
Consumption has emerged today in order to satisfy more psychological needs. Consumers are making purchases to benefit from the symbols and images, instead of meeting the needs of products and services carry. The fact that product image and symbols together with their level of satisfaction is a frequent action in the society in recent days. Famous sociologist and author Robert Bocock describes the modernized state of consumption; Consumption affects the ways in which individuals are now who they are, who they want to be, how they are interested and their sensitivity. Therefore, consumption should be considered not only as a single phenomenon but also as psychological, cultural and social phenomena (Bocock, 1997, pp.8-12).
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This paper covers studies about marketing and advertising issues related to these various subjects of consumer decision making. I have tried to bring in the effect and impact of the various integrated marketing communication tools available and its effect on the consumer decision making. Primary data was collected from a sample of 100 consumers with a structured questionnaire as an instrument approach, and analysis was done with SPSS 22Analysis, using techniques like ANOVA and Regression. Findings with a significant impact on the decision-making process are shown. It is concluded with a call for fu rth er research in to the comp onents of Integrated Marketing Communication approach which utilizes different methods and techniques of research.
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In-depth interviews were held with thirty families. The study involved five two-parent families and twenty-five lone parent families (twenty-four headed by females). The respondents were all from low-income families with an average household income of approximately £150 per week. The scarce resources heightened the importance placed on the consumer decision making process. Both individual (16) and family (14) interviews were held, depending on the family structure. In the first instance the primary respondent in each household, defined as the person responsible for consumer decision making including sourcing and paying for goods and services, was interviewed. In two-parent families and families with older children (aged 11–18), it was possible to arrange an interview with multiple family members simultaneously, providing valuable information about the way in which the family interacts. It was hoped that including multiple family members in the interviews would lead to the discovery of more insightful findings. The interviewing of multiple family members can permit a deeper understanding of the family dynamics in terms of each person’s role and influence in consumption decisions. Interviews were con- ducted in respondents’ homes.
All the identified factors contribute to the Home Automation adoption decision making process. But, the key feature of the Home Automation system to be able to provide centralised control of the house switches and appliances appears to be the one of the most significant factors in consumer decision making process. In addition to this, Affordability of a Home Automation system is equally important and consumer being price sensitive tend to opt for a cost effective solution. Cost of the solution has been considered as a major barrier for home automation adoption(Brush et al., 2017) and Home automation service providers should always keep this in mind.
Buyer decision process is the decision making of consumer in consider to a potential market transaction before, during and after the purchase of a product and service (Chris, 2010). Decision making is a process of selection from various alternatives of shopping. There are five stages in the consumer decision making process of which actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. All consumer decisions do not always include in the five stages. The reasoning is behind the consumer make decision making to purchase product on the internet because they find their choice their product are dramatic increase. From the online purchasing consumers have access more information when making purchasing decision. Busy customers can save time and find shopping more convenience as online goods serve their needs individually (Margherio, 2015).
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In this context, Dawes (2001) refers to a general human dilemma according to which all of us see the world through our own assumptions. Here, the problem is not in the assumptions as such, but in the humans’ inclination to reinforce pre-existing beliefs and to reflect mostly on them. Because we tend to give credence to what we have seen with our own eyes, we assume our own experiences are typical. In this regard, relying on prior experience instead of more systematic knowledge leads often to suboptimal outcomes (March, 2010). Considering the process of making decisions by the managers, it is usual that managers reduce their reasoning efforts following the “logic of appropriateness” and bring forward their arguments on the basis of generalized rules and own experiences (March, 1994, p.58). Another aspect with respect to the way managers make decisions is referred to the term of ‘bounded rationality’. In situations of ‘bounded rationality’, unaided human judgment cannot fully use the array of information relevant for reliable arbitration (Simon, 1967). Under these conditions, since mangers can only pay attention to a limited amount of information, they make use of random facts and considerations or of such they prefer to use (Rousseau, 2012). Because of ‘bounded rationality’ managers do not optimize or maximize their way of reasoning, they only search for a temporal satisfying decision (Simon, 1986). In respect hereof, Van Aken et al.(2009) summarize on this topic as they argue that “in practice problem-solving in organizations is often undertaken in a craftsman-like fashion, based on business experience and informed common sense” (Van Aken et al., 2009, p.4).
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The traditional method of turning data into knowledge relies on manual analysis and interpretation. PPKD is the process of mining and formalization domain process planning knowledge in manufacturing enterprise. Nowadays, the main method of PPKD is done by human knowledge engineers assisted by domain expert from literature, document, handbook, process planning file etc. in papery information source. For example, in mechanical manufacturing enterprise, it is common for experts to periodically analyze current trends and documents in enterprise, and on a quarterly or yearly basis. Ref.  The experts can provide an outline document of the analysis to the engineering department; the effect of this document for decision-making and planning on new product is rather limited. In addition, this form of manual probing of information set is slow, expensive, and highly subjective, and depends on domain experts greatly. In fact, as information volumes grow dramatically, this type of manual information analysis is becoming completely impractical in engineering work, and these problems result in the poor implementation of PPKD.
Volcanoes National Park (VNP) is a home to the rare mountain gorillas up to the summit of Karisimbi. It is from this area that Rwanda’s tourism revenue is mostly based due to gorilla tourism. Due to the nature of the gorilla tourism and given its contribution to national income in the country, the government of Rwanda through its department RDB-tourism department, has come up with policies that can sustain the park as well as benefit local residents economically, socially and environmentally (RDB, 2015) even though local people were not fully involved in making these policies hence most residents surveyed feel as if they are not of the park. Some of the policies include punishment to hunters, bush burners, and poachers; increasing the investment and financing, capacity building and human resources motivation; marketing and awareness reinforcement; establishment of a separation wall between the park and local community; supporting local small and medium local enterprises; 5% Tourism Revenue Sharing; tourism infrastructure development and strengthening social identity.
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Within this article we propose a method for tracing es- sential parts of individual diagnostic decisions with a DPM. To test the feasibility of this method, we applied the method for real, heterogeneous medical cases in an emergency department. Question 1: Is it possible to as- sess and map even heterogeneous, complex and dynamic decisions with a DPM? Question 2: How accurately can DPM be assessed? To test the internal validity of this method, subjective diagnostic outcomes (final diagnoses) have been checked for plausibility and accuracy by an expert (re-diagnosis). Question 3: Is it possible to map real medical cases in a way that allows comparison with existing theoretical considerations? To test the external validity of this method, the results of the DPM were compared to common decision-making models, like hy- pothesis testing and evidence accumulation. Specifically, does the DPM map processes as described in the litera- ture about sub-phases (e.g., option generation and op- tion verification) and confidence ratings (e.g., such as increasing confidence for final diagnoses)? Question 4: Last but not least, do individual and contextual factors such as experience, time pressure or perceived stress have an effect on the number of options, amount of in- formation, and the level of the rated confidences? For example, expert physicians are often observed collecting
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Trends have been observed in differences between what women and healthcare providers consider most important when making a decision about prenatal testing. Choolani & Biswas (2012) point out that when it comes to risk and benefit of prenatal testing, what healthcare professionals feel is important, what patients feel is important, and what healthcare professionals believe patients feel to be important are often three completely separate things. Health professionals tend to place a higher value on tests that are conducted earlier in pregnancy than women, who prefer to wait for a result until later in pregnancy if the test is safer and more accurate. This discrepancy potentially could result in screening policies that overemphasize timing in the selection of a test to the relative neglect of tests associated with lower miscarriage rates and higher detection rates but conducted later in pregnancy (Bishop et al., 2004).
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A fuzzy decision making is a almost important scientific social and economic endeavour, there exist several major approaches within the theories of fuzzy decision making. The ranking order to deal with the vagueness in imprecise determination of preferences.
A rational approach to decision making has been applied directly to the career decision making arena. Expected utility theory (a rational decision theory which is thought to be particularly effective when making probabilistic decisions) has been identified as a useful framework for career choice (Pitz and Harren, 1980). The expected utility theory of careers advocates that an individual should identify the factors which are important in a future job (for example, salary, distance from home, interesting colleagues) and should score each possible career alternative based on the extent to which each job would fulfil each criteria. Scores could then be weighted based on how important a particular factor is, and on the basis of the chances of one’s success in each field. Gati (1986) proposed the sequential elimination model, an extension of expected utility theory, in which options are gradually narrowed down, factor by factor: an individual might first rule out all the career options which pay below a certain salary, might then dismiss all those which are more than five miles from home and would final choose the one which would have most interesting colleagues.
There are several models for the decision making process available in the literature. Each subsidy request, especially the first one, is a different and sometimes hard to understand process for a contribution of the government to stimulate certain investments. Since conditions of subsidies can change and there is uncertainty if a subsidy will be offered again in the future, the whole process consists out of a lot of uncertainty. The governments (rural, provincial or local) have the power to start, change or stop a subsidy dependent on the policy of the government in that specific area. 2.2 Decision making process
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Individuals with an intuitive cognitive style prefer an open-ended approach in the process of problem solving (Allinson, Chell, & Hayes, 2010a). In terms of the leveraging contingencies construct, effectual entrepreneurs tend to incorporate and exploit unexpected events or environmental changes into their ventures (Read S. , Sarasvathy, Wiltbank, Dew, & Ohlsson, 2011). In this way new-ventures become an adventure with an open end. To be successful at exploiting contingencies this, flexibility towards occurring events is crucial (Chandler, DeTienne, McKelvie, & Mumford, 2011). Combining these theories, it is expected that students with a intuitive cognitive style prefer effectuation. Which brings up the following hypotheses:
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According to Lamb (2009) consumer behavior also explains how consumers make purchase decisions and how they use and dispose of purchasing goods or services, so we can understand the importance of consumer behavior for the marketer and as an important process in the purchase decision process. A marketers need to identify which consumers they are to be able to sell their products, generate revenue and profits but also can satisfy them for future purposes such as market share through recognition, and only once identified their consumer behavior can be achieved.
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Information overload is becoming the plague of many modern businesses. In contrast to increased managerial efficiency, evidence suggests that this glut of information is delaying decisions, causing confusion, exhaustion and errors (Ireland, 1999). In ordinary parlance, the term “information overload” is often used to convey the simple notion of receiving too much information. Researchers across various disciplines have found that the performance (i.e. the quality of decisions or reasoning in general) of an individual correlates positively with the amount of information he or she receives up to a certain point. If further information is provided beyond this point, the performance of the individual will rapidly decline (Breuker et al., 2009; Giddings 2008). The information provided beyond this point will no longer be integrated into the decision making process and information overload will be the result. (Farace et al., 1977) label the point where the information load exceeds the individual’s information processing capacity a “confusional state”, a term reflecting the individual’s state in this peak processing situation where error rates go up and information processing declines. Thus, information overload occurs when the information load exceeds the information processing capacity (Eppler & Mengis, 2004).
The first section of questions depicts respondents’ visual preferences and psychological associations. It aims to demonstrate that visual aesthetics in products produce a sub-conscious collective psychological response to the prevailing socio-economic and cultural context. All questions are based on the pictures of the chosen three product models. Respondents were asked to select the most relevant associations for each of these pictures. The design of the option choices were based on the concept of psychological associations using metaphors, including fictional film characters, auto makers, music genres and sports. The second section of questions was designed to explore the consumer responses towards product stimuli. It aims to explore whether the intangible stimuli have become equivalent to recognised factors such as function, usability, and price. The same sets of product pictures used in the first section of questions were shown again to the respondents. They were asked to select their favoured choice and when each of the following stimuli (functionality, price, brand, service and ethical associations) was present, they were asked to re-select their preference.
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Besides this, there are also three people within this research who get help from elsewhere. These people usually get help from relatives or friends; this help is usually with cleaning or doing the groceries. It depends on the person if the helper gets paid or not. This sort of care from a relative is also known as caregiving. Some people also had a combination of different organizations or relatives and therefor these numbers do not add up to eleven. The model of Fishbein and Ajzen is most appropriate to describe the behavior of the target audience. Mainly due to the fact that there are several important attributes and an extensive external information search. Therefor this is not something routine, it is more complex and therefor the model of Fishbein and Ajzen is best to use. This model is based “upon a belief about a brand’s attribute” (Jobber & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012, p. 122). Each of these attributes has an importance within the consumer and is weighted according to the mind of the consumer. In this research, this is what is focused on; the customer value can be derived from this. These attributes can vary within this target group, but the most important seems to be whether or not the social part of the help is sufficient. The results presented that ten out of eleven persons who were interviewed thought that this was important. Next to this safety is also very important to the people, they need to have a safe feeling. If something goes wrong, they want to be able to contact someone so that their lives potentially could be saved. This all leads to an attitude of the consumer about a brand, which could be either negative or positive. But there is also influence from other people that are important for the consumer that can give their opinion on whether or not to purchase this brand. In this research it is clear that there is influence from other important people within the lives. As already stated
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WHAT NEUROSCIENCE CAN REVEAL ABOUT CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING Decision-making is a fundamental part of human behavior. We all make decisions everyday that influence our health, well-being, finances, and future prospects among other things. Researchers have become increasingly interested in why we make the decisions we do, especially when in many cases these decisions do not appear rational or to benefit us in the long run. While neoclassical economics has traditionally looked at how people should behave, other disciplines, such as psychology and cognitive science, have tried to answer the question of why people act the way they do. A new discipline, referred to by some as neuroeconomics, has sought to meld theory and methodology from diverse areas such as economics, psychology,
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