out the present experiment with 7 replicates. Study showed that honey bee was the most abundant hymenopterans in the mustard field as a pollinator. The yield and yield contributingtraits were sig- nificantly influenced by different ways of insect visitors foraging for pollination. The maximum (3.50 g) 1000-seed weight was recorded from treatment T 2 followed by T 3 and the lowest 1000-
A trail aimed on “evaluation of maize genotypes for yield and yield contributingtraits” was conducted in Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) Taranab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during summer 2015- 16. The field was ploughed with cultivator followed by rotavator for a uniform seedbed preparation. Maize genotypes Azam, Iqbal,
Despite to the worst effect of stress environments some genotypes/hybrids can tolerate in severe conditions interpreting with significant yields and consisting of good inherited characters. Such tolerant genotypes could be advisable to drought prone regions where rainfall is less. In conclusion, the genotypes/hybrids which accounted for high yield under drought escape at tillering and booting stress using heritability estimates can be considered to esteem for future breeding programs. It has been observed from the present study that different segregating cross progenieshad different patterns of inheritance for grain yield and its contributingtraits. Four progenies TJ-83 × Khirman, TD-1 x Imdad, Sarsabz × Khirman and Sarsabz × TD-1 had proven to be the best combiners for genetic parameters. Some of the progenies revealed low heritability probably due to non-additive gene effects. Hence, transfer of desirable genes from parents to their offspring indicated more effective selection from segregating progenies.
From the stability analysis, it could be seen that the best three stable hybrids for grain yield per plant were 1543A x RSV 1297, 1343A x RSV 1200, 1343A x SPV 1359. In general, the hybrids found stable for grain yield also showed stability for two or more component characters, which indicated that the stability of various component traits might be responsible for the observed stability of various hybrids for grain yield per plant. In the present investigation, the best three hybrids viz., 1543A x RSV 1297, 1343A x RSV 1200, 1343A x SPV 1359 were found to have average stability over environments for grain yield per plant with one or more stable yield contributingtraits, signifying their potential for commercial exploitation for genetic improvement in rabi sorghum.
The evaluation of germplasm accession was done during rabi, 2008-2009 at Department of Millets, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, which is situated at about 11 o N latitude and 77 o E longitude at an altitude of 427 metres above MSL. The average annual rainfall is around 700mm at Coimbatore. The 741 accessions including CO 5, CO 6 and CO 7 cultivated varieties were raised in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Each accession was accommodated in one row with row spacing of 30 cm and plant to plant spacing of 10 cm. Uniform and recommended cultural practices were followed to raise agronomically good managed crop. Data were recorded on various morphological traits such as days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height (cm), total number of tillers, Number of productive tillers, panicle length (cm), days to maturity and grain yield per plant as per descriptors of Setaria italica and S. pumila (IBPGR, 1985). For each accession five competitive plants in a row were tagged for taking observation in each replication. The present study was planned to characterise the germplasm materials for different yield and yield contributingtraits, to study the variability parameters and to understand the association of various characters, their cause with yield and its components in foxtail millet. The estimation of mean, variance and standard error were worked out by adopting the standard methods (Panse and Sukhatme, 1964). The significance test was
changes. Since, productivity is the function of genotypic adaptation and stability is the measure of genotype × environment interaction, an understanding of environmental and genotypic causes leading to these interactions are highly important at all the stages of plant breeding including plant architecture, parental selection, selection based on traits and selection based on yield (Jackson et al 1996 and Van and Hunt .1998). The stability of a genotype over diverse environments is usually tested by the degree of its interaction with different environments under which it is grown (Asif et al. 2003). Therefore, an attempt was made to study the stability parameters of yield and its contributingtraits of different bread sesame genotypes evaluated over three seasons.
Abstract: A series of field experiments were conducted to determine the influence of different seed rates (100, 125 and 150 kg ha -1 ) on yield contributingtraits of promising wheat varieties viz. Sarsabz, Kiran-95 and TD-1. The maximum germination, spike length and grains spike -1 was observed under seed rate of 125 kg ha -1 . The maximum plant population was recorded under seed rate of 150 kg ha -1 in Kiran-95 and highest grain weight spike -1 was noted under seed rate of 100 kg ha -1 in TD-1 variety. While maximum plant height was observed in Sarsabz under seed rate of 125 kg ha -1 . The maximum 1000 grain weight was observed under seed rate of 100 kg ha -1 in TD-1; however, highest grain yield was recorded in Kiran-95. The studies about the biological yield revealed that Sarsabz indicated maximum biological yield under seed rate of 125 kg ha -1 and harvest index in TD-1 under seed rate of 150 kg ha -1 . Based on the findings, it is concluded that the Kiran-95 at the seed rate of 125 kg ha -1 performed best, followed by TD-1 and Sarsabz which also produced more yield at seed rate of 125 kg ha -1 .
The information of interrelationship among different economic and morphological characters facilitate professional breeder to set the criteria of selection for the breeding of improved cultivars . Correlation studies deliver a better understanding of the association of various characters with grain yield [13, 14] reported that several of the traits in chickpea were strongly associated among themselves as well as with seed yield. Correlation analysis of yield contributing trait and their relationship with the yield is fundamental to launch selection criteria. The production can possibly be increased up to much extent by exploiting better colonization of the roots and rhizospheres through the application of effective nitrogen fixing bacteria to the seed or to the soil. Inoculation treatment of competitive rhizobial strain to good responsive cultivars can minimize uses of nitrogenous fertilizer, which is very costly in our country. Using high yielding varieties/advanced lines of chickpea in combination with effective rhizobial strains along with management practices can enhance the yield. Hence the objectives of this study were to study the effect of rhizobium inoculation on different morphological and yield contributingtraits in chickpea genotypes, to evaluate and compare the association of various characters and their contribution to determine seed yield under inoculated and uninoculated production systems and to identify the genotype by rhizobium interaction in terms of yield contributingtraits and nodules plant -1 .
breeding value (genotype) of the plants or magnitude of inheritance of quantitative traits and hence directs the breeders to decide which traits justify improvement through selection. Broad sense heritability estimates were high (˃75%) for all the traits except plant height, spike weight and days to maturity. In the present study high heritability was observed for seed yield/plant, biological yield/plant, husk recovery, swelling factor, test weight, leaf width, harvest index, seed weight/spike, number of spikes/plant, days to 50% flowering, spike length and effective tillers/plant suggesting that they have high genetic potential with minimum role of environment in determining them. Since heritability is also influenced by the environmental factors, only information based upon heritability may not help in pinpointing the traits enforcing effective selection. Jhonson et al. (1955) suggested that heritability and genetic advance should be considered together for more reliable conclusion. A trait with high heritability and high genetic advance may possible due to additive gene action (Panse, 1957). High heritability and genetic advance as a per cent of mean was recorded for leaf width, seed yield/plant, biological yield/plant and number of spikes/plant suggesting predominance of additive gene action/effects hence, improvement on the basis of phenotypic value may be effective through direct selection as also suggested in earlier reports (Godawat and Sharma, 1994; Singh and Lal, 2009). Low heritability associated with low genetic advance was observed for the traits plant height, spike weight and days to maturity showed preponderance of non-additive genes for their inheritance.
Undomesticated crops species acquire huge possible and most precious gene which can be successfully utilized in crop improvement to develop high yielding rice varieties. The two hundred fifty eight rice germplasm accessions were used in present study. Simple statistics (means, ranges, standard deviation and coefficient of variation) was measured to have a reflection of the level of genetic variability. Frequency distributions of qualitative traits were short out the genotypes into tative traits, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity readily exist C.V. value not much than 10%. On the other hand, most of the characters cover high C.V. values over 10% and prominent to 28.56% for leaf length. Leaf length (r=0.238 at p<0.05) and effective tiller (r=0.375 p<0.05, 0.01) shows significant positive correlation with grain yield. As tillering in rice is a important determinant for panicle production and as a result, it affects total yield. In view of all 376585, and. IC 145381, accessions
In this crop all the traits of economical importance are qualitatively inherited and are dependent on nature and magnitude of heritable variations. Yield ultimately is the final product is the result of complex of several yield attributing traits and being govern by polygenes are highly influence by environmental fluctuations. Therefore, a breeder should have information on the mode of inheritance and genetic architecture of yield and it’s attributing traits. Information of gene actions thus enables the breeder to decide the suitable breeding method and selection strategy form crop improvement programme. Partitioning the heritable variations in to components is useful to provide information on inheritance of these quantitative traits. Most widely used approach for understanding the nature of gene action is growing the different generations to carry out the generation mean analysis. Although, it is widely used in several crops, very little information on these aspects is available in the literature on okra crop. The present study was undertaken to study nature
The hybrid showing digenic interaction had positive and significant dominance (h) effects for number of monopodia per plant in cross 1, for number of sympodia per plant in cross 3, for number of bolls per plant in cross 3 and cross 4, for boll weight in cross 4 and for seed cotton yield per plant in cross 1, cross 3 and cross 4. The magnitude of dominance (h) component was higher than that of additive (d) effect, suggesting greater importance of dominance effect in the expression of these characters. For the exploitation of dominance effect heterosis procedure might be adopted. The results are in agreement with Haleem et al. (2010). As in the present study, the importance of additive and dominance effects was also observed by Srivastava and Kalsy (1990) for number of bolls per plant and boll size. Greater importance of dominance effect as observed in various crosses for above traits are in accordance with the result of Mehetre et al. (2003) for plant height, number of monopodia per plant, number of sympodia per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield.
The results (Table 1and 2) revealed that all the growth and yield traits were increased significantly by the application of polymers. Among the different doses of polymers, TerraCottem 4.5g, Polyvinyl alcohol 15.0g and Polyacrylamide 10.0 g per plant showed increased plant height, number of branches per plant, root length, root dry weight, fruit weight, fruits per plant, yield per plant, dry matter production and earliness in 50 per cent flowering. Similar results were obtained for plant height, root length and root dry weight in Lingustum sp., (Taylor and Halfacre, 1986) for dry matter production and yield per plant in tomato and lettuce (Wallace, 1986 and; Wallace and Wallace,1986).
generation. This is possibly due to selfing of pigeonpea under honey bee proof net to avoid cross pollination and genotypes attained homozygous condition (Kurer et al. 2010). Low PCV and GCV estimates indicate lack of opportunity for selection for these traits which is in agreement with studies of earlier workers (Ganapathy, 2009; Vanisree et al., 2013).
characters, indicating substantial genetic variations for gca, sca effect for all the characters studied. The variance due to lines was significant for days required to first harvesting, plant height, internodal length, number of branches per plant, number of internodes per plant. Whereas, the variances due to testers were significant for days required to first harvesting, plant height, internodal length, number of branches per plant, number of internodes per plant, fruit length and fruit diameter. The variances due to crosses were highly significant for all the characters. The variances due to parents x crosses were also highly significant for almost all the traits studied except for number of branches per plant, number of internodes per plant, diameter of fruit, weight of fruit and yield per plant. Significant variance indicated the presence of substantial amount of genetic variability among the parents and crosses for respective characters. Among parents 11-6, 14-11-5 and 38HUare the best general combiners for yield per plant along with other yield contributingtraits (Table 2). It has been reported that MTPH is considered as best combiner for yield per plant along with the other three component characters i.e. early flowering, days for first harvest, internodal length and number of branches per plant. Thus this line is found to best general combiner with significant gca effects in desirable direction for fruit yield and yield contributing characters.The parents PF, 38HU is for dwarf stature plants and 14-11-5, 11-14 is for more number of branches per plant, in addition to the fruit yield per plant.
The yield-contributingtraits, like seed cotton yield, showed significantly positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations with plant height, number of nodes to 1st monopodium, number of sympodial branches per plant, leaf length, leaf width, number of bolls per plant, and boll weight (Table 3). The genotypic and phenotypic correlations of plant height were positively associated with number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, and seed cotton yield. This confirmed that genotypes with greater plant height also had other desired yield-contributingtraits. The number of monopodia per plant showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlations with number of sympodial branches per plant, leaf length, leaf width, boll weight, and seed cotton yield. On the other hand, number of sympodial branches per plant was positively correlated (genotypically and phenotypically) with plant height, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, and seed cotton yield. Typically, seed cotton yield is directly proportional to the number of sympodial branches in cotton plants (Farooq et al., 2014b). Thus, our results confirmed the direct contribution of the number of sympodial branches to high seed cotton yield. The number of bolls per plant had a significant positive genotypic correlation with plant height, 100-seed weight, boll weight, seed cotton yield, and ginning out turn, followed by positive phenotypic correlation, but a negative association was found with CLCuD. A similar association was observed by Ashokkumar and Ravikesavan (2010). Boll weight and seed cotton yield had significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations with seed cotton yield, ginning out turn, 100-seed weight, number of bolls per plant, petiole length, leaf width, leaf length, number of sympodial branches per plant, number of nodes to 1st monopodium, and plant height.
50% flowering (period taken from the date of seeding to 50% panicle emergence) and days to maturity (by counting the number of days from date of sowing to grain ripening) on individual plot basis, plant height (measured in cm from ground level to the tip of the main panicle excluding awns at maturity), number of tillers plant -1 , number of effective tillers plant -1 , panicle length (measured in cm from collar to the tip of the panicle), number of spikelets panicle -1 , number of grains panicle -1 (counted at maturity), sterile spikelets/ panicle pollen fertility (%), spikelets fertility (%), grain weight panicle -1 (g), 1000 grain weight (g), grain yield plant -1 (g), kernel length (mm), kernel breadth (mm) and kernel L/B ratio. Panicle and grain characters were recorded on five panicles of selected plants. The experimental data were compiled by taking mean value over randomly selected plants from all the replications and subjected to the following statistical analysis viz; analysis of variance (Panse and Sukhatme 1961) and genetic divergence analysis (Mahalanobis’s 1936, Tocher’s method as described by Rao 1952). The data collected for all the characters were subjected to statistical analysis as mentioned earlier. The ANOVA for all the characters was found to be highly significant, thus indicating a wide variation for all the traits considered. The studies on genetic divergence based on 17 yield and yield contributingtraits among 52 genotypes of rice under three different replications was done by adopting Mahalanobis’s D2 statistic analysis. Wilk’s ‘V’ (statistic) criterion was used to test the significant differences between the groups based on the pooled effects of all the characters. The ‘V’ statistic value was highly significant indicating that genotypes differed
For yield component traits, results showed that Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 (wildtype) had higher no. of spikelets/m 2 and no. of filled and unfilled grains/m 2 compared to the mutant line. However, a reduction in unfilled grains was obtained from the mutant line (319) compared to the wildtype (1,721), indicating a higher %fertility in the mutant. Due to increase in grain size and shape (Figure 1a and 1b), 1000 seed weight was also increased in the mutant line (25.6 g) compared to the wildtype, weighing 12.7 g (Table 2). These im- rovements in yield contributingtraits would explain why PR41905-Samba Mahsuri-Sub1-IVC2010DS 31-1-10 had numericaly higher yield than the wildtype, despite of the reduction in the no. of spikelets. This implies that the increase in grain yield of the mutant line was compensated by the reduction in unfilled grains, and the increase in weight of 1000 seeds and in the size and shape of the grains.
weeding through out crop season (T4: weed free) and three hoeing with khurpa as well as kasola resulted in higher grain yields as compare to herbicides application. Among herbicides, Buctril Super (T10) and Puma Super at 2nd irrigation (T8) produced statistically similar grain yields whereas Puma Super at 1st irrigation (T3) and Sonic (T7) were statistically at par with each other. Mushabar et al. (2000) and Nadeem (2003) also reported increased biological yield and grain yield while evaluating the efficiency of chemical and manual weed control measures on wheat yield and yield contributingtraits. Cost-benefit ratio (%)
noticed between days to flowering and days to maturity; number of seeds pod -1 and number of pods cluster -1 ; number of seeds pod -1 and pod length (Table 4). Correlation between yield and yield contributingtraits were also reported in earlier studies (Kumar et al., 2010, Bisht et al., 2014, Canci and Toker, 2014, Singh et al., 2014, Garje et al., 2014, Divyaramakrishnan and Savithramma 2014, Dhoot et al., 2017). Significant negative correlation between seed yield and 100- seed weight was reported in earlier studies (Singh et al., 2014), while in the present study, we observed positive but non- significant correlation between seed yield and 100- seed weight. Cluster analysis grouped seventeen mutants and their parent into six clusters (Fig. 1). Cluster-I, cluster-II and cluster –III involved four mutants each, while rest of three clusters had two mutant each. Cluster-VI was the most distantly separated from other clusters and had two yellow seed coat colour mutants. The mean values of cluster-VI were highest for days to flowering and maturity while lowest for plant height, number of clusters plant -1 , number of pods cluter -1 , pod length, number of seeds pod -1 , 100- seed weight and seed yield plant -1 as compared to other clusters (Table 5). Yellow seed coat colour mutants in cluster-VI were most distantly related to other mutants. The leaf colour of these mutants was pale green with less chlorophyll content which affected normal growth and development. This resulted in lowest mean for seed yield and other yield contributingtraits in yellow seed coat colour mutants.