The performance of commercial fossil fuels in terms of life cycle energy efficiency is significantly better than biomass fuels but they are essentially non renewable resources and hence cannot be a sustainable option. Moreover, considering their small share in meeting the present cooking energy requirements, particularly in rural areas, it is extremely unlikely that the accessibility and affordability of these commercial fuels to rural households are going to significantly improve in the near future. The steep increase in cost of crude oil and natural gas prices in the international markets will further raise the economic barriers impacting fuel transition towards commercial fuels, especially in rural and low income urban households. In view of the prevailing situation in India and other developing countries, it is important to shift the focus from fossil to biomass energy. Based on the results of this study, it can be said that biogas is a suitable cooking fuel option in terms of energy efficiency in Indian context because: (a) better life cycle energy efficiency of 43.3%; (b) can be produced from completely renewable organic wastes; (c) high local availability of waste resources in the form of cattle dung, agricultural waste etc; and (d) India already has a vast experience of over three decades in biogas technology.
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Using the methodologies described in 2 to the geographical area of Niger State (Savanah and flood-planes, Table 2), and to small community application representative of remote agricultural populations (Table 3), two energy resources stand out as suitable low carbon energy solutions: anaerobic digestion and solar. Added too these the outcomes of the QFD and Objective tree, the proposed solution to the low carbon energy challenge within Niger State’s provision of alternative cooking fuel converged to proposing biogas generated by an integrated solar Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) unit, using mesophilic technology for the community scale. The AD system was characterised by a fixed volume corresponding to communities of up to 15 households, an agitator powered by the electricity from the solar PVT, a heating system provided by the solar PVT, an inlet and outlet, mesh in order to keep floating biomass submerged, thermometer, entrance hatch and a H 2 S scrubber. Community scale AD plant (ADP) cost is fundamentally dependent upon
The rural population of Assam is significantly more than the population that live in rural India. Similarly, the percentage of population below poverty line in Assam is ten points more than all India percentage. Since, the rural populations are more close to natural sources, so cooking fuel like firewood, crop residue etc., are available for free. This shows more dependency on biomass as a cooking fuel. However, burning of these could cause health hazards due to the indoor pollution. To reduce in consumption of biomass, the government should make the distribution system of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), efficient. This study was undertaken with the objective of analyzing the socio-economic conditions of rural poor of Assam with respect to their primary cooking fuel consumption patterns. The questionnaire based survey on demographic, economic, and perceptible parameters of the respondents was used to identify the important variables with the help of Logit model. The income of the respondent has great influence in the decision making of rural poor to switchover to modern cooking fuel. The study further reveals that the smaller household size respondents are prepared to switchover to modern fuel provided the accessibility of the fuel is made easier.
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production of animal feeds and in a much smaller proportion in the manufacture of soaps and biodegradable lubricants. Some health risks can be traced from the use of recycled cooking oils in animal feeding, such as undesirable levels of contaminants, particularly PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls), dioxins and dioxin related substances (Riera et al, 2000). By consumptions of animal origin foodstuffs like milk, meats, poultry and other products, these undesirable contaminants enter the human body and cause serious long term health hazards. As these contaminants are liposoluble, they accumulate in organic lipids and finally in the body, and thereby their concentration increases gradually over the years. In other words, the body is exposed not only to a single acute action, but also to a chronic action of bioaccumulation of these hazardous compounds over the years (Rieraet.al, 2000). Hence utilizing the recycled WCO in any way is not advisable from health standpoint. Besides the ill health effects of these WCO (abused oils), their disposable could also have a large environmental implication, because of high COD (chemical oxygen demand) (Rieraet.al, 2000). Aside from the above-mentioned application of recycling used cooking oil, used cooking oil utilized as an alternate feedstock in biodiesel production. Several researches along this direction have been conducted around the globe (Arjun et al, 2008; Canakci, 2007; Khalisanni et al, 2008; Zhang et al, 2003; Sudhir et al, 2007).
In many regions (such as South Asia and parts of Sub-Saharan Africa), indoor air pollution exposure has become the most risky factor for health conditions even greater than risks by unsafe water and sanitation. Mortality from indoor air pollution exposure in Sub-Saharan Africa already exceeds tuberculosis, is roughly on par with malaria, and could approach the level of HIV/AIDS by 2030 (Smith et al., 2013, cited in AFREA, forthcoming). Severe impacts on health are not the only effects of the use of biomass fuels. Biomass fuels also require people to cut down a lot of trees for fuel wood, which leads to deforestation, forest degradation and, ultimately, global warming. Inefficient biomass burning also adds to outdoor ambient air pollution and affects climate change by releasing methane, carbon monoxide, and black carbon into the atmosphere (Lewis & Pattanayak, 2012). This situation is not evenly distributed across the world. Rather, energy poverty, described by Bonan et al. (2017) as the “lack, scarcity or difficulty in accessing modern energy services by households,” in particular affects rural areas in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America. Lack of energy access presents a formidable, but not insurmountable, challenge to African development. Energy poverty afflicts nearly 620 million people in Africa, limiting economic opportunities and creating health risks through the use of low- cost, alternative energy sources, such as wood fuel (IEA 2014). Under the 2016 World Energy Outlook’s New Policy
Abstract Use of biomass cooking fuel is a known risk factor of child Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI). However, studies so far did not focus on rural areas where biomass fuel use is common. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of biomass fuel on child ARI in rural areas of Cameroon and Gabon. The analysis was based on DHS national surveys. Logistic regression helped to estimate the risk of suffering from ARI among rural children living in households using only biomass fuel compared to children living in households using a mix of gas and biomass fuel, after controlling for several confounders. In both countries, the relationship was significant, although ARI prevalence in Gabon was twice higher. In Cameroon, the effect was stronger and regional differentials were striking, rural children from the North West region being 23 times more affected than those from rural areas of Littoral.
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not cause a significant change. Alves et al.  investi- gated the effect of biodiesel from palm and soy bean oil on the degradation behaviour and sealing capacity of nitrile rubber (NBR) and fluorocarbon (FKM). They re- ported a decrease in mass of the NBR for all biodiesel. Trakampruk and Porntangjitlikit  studied effect of biodiesels on six kinds of elastomers properties related to fuel systems. The researchers remarked that the biodiesel has negligible impact on the properties of co–polymer FKM, and terpolymer FKM. Haseebet al.  compared degradation properties of five types of elastomers (EPDM, NBR, CR, SR and PTFE) in palm bio- diesel / diesel fuel. Their results demonstrated that the compatible elastomers in palm biodiesel to be PTFE > SR > NBR > EPDM > CR. Haseebet al.  investigated the degradation of various elastomers in palm biodiesel. Their analysis showed that mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation and hard- ness were reduced for both nitrile rubber and polychloro- prene while little changes were observed for fluoro- Viton. Nuneset al.  determined the effect of biodiesel on nitrile rubber with three kinds of acrylonitrile contents at 28 %, 33 % and 45 %. Their analysis demonstrated that the higher content of acrylonitrile makes the nitrile rubber more resistance to biodiesel degradation. However, none of these studies analyzed degradation of Viton fuel in the spectrum range of blends of waste cooking oil methyl ester and fossil diesel. It is worth knowing that infor- mation associated with degradation of the Viton fuel hose system will provide base data information for biodiesel stakeholders in automotive industry. The present work aimed to investigate the degradation characteristic of Viton fuel hose in waste cooking oil biodiesel/diesel fuel blends. This analysis further verified the influence of exposition to the fuel and the changes in the mechanical and degradation properties were also studied.
This study has demonstrated that simple energy saving stoves designs reduces the time used for cooking, saves energy and wood fuel used per session and re- duces carbon emissions. These findings are essential to women in reducing the labour for fetching fire wood, to wildlife for regeneration of the shrubs and trees that forms their habitats, and in cutting down household’s carbon emissions. The study findings refute the theory that, “ open fire when carefully operated can be fuel efficient and clean burning to rivals many first generation improved cook stoves ”. However, the design of the energy saving stove requires a modification to minimise the amount of smoke generated during cooking. It was observed that smoke emission by energy saving stoves was irritating to the eyes and nose just like the three stone set up. The energy saving stove need to be re-designed to include a chimney that discharges the smoke from inside the huts to minimise the chance of the beneficiaries contracting respiratory related diseases. In addi- tion, the energy saving stove should to be fixed on the floor with a mixture of soil and mortar. This will help to hold the stoves intact and prevent damages to the stoves. The amount of heat lost through convention method can equally be minimised by designing the stove in such a way that the cooking pots are placed inside, half way down the inner casing of the stoves.
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Important fuel properties such as Flash point, Fire point,Kinematic Viscosity, Density, Calorific value and Time for consuming 10cc of fuel were measured.Biodiesel had higher Density,Kinematic Viscosity, Flash point, Fire point, Time for consuming 10cc of fuel and lower Calorific value. The comparison between physical and chemical properties of various blends of Biodiesel and Diesel determined are as follows:
The Indian economy is growing at a fast pace. However, the growth in Rural economy has not commensurate the growth of overall economy. In many of the Indian States, Rural People are still dependent on traditional fuels like – Fire Wood, Charcoal, Cow dung for meeting ot their basic purposes of heating & cooking. The relatively less developed rural belts in several states are still waiting for electrification. In the present Research paper the Author attempts to find out that is it the development polices of high income club states that have paid-off to better electrification levels or better electrification levels have boosted the pace of development. The Research Paper attempts to establish a correlation between the virtuous cycle of economic development & electrification % in different states and vice versa. The Paper concludes that contrary to the general perception that Rural People are not in a position to pay for the cost of service associated with migration to better fuel sources, they are infact more than willing to switch to better sources of energy supplies which improves their quality of life. Thus, there does exist a close correlation between the economic development of rural areas and the transition of Rural People to modern fuel sources.
implications for the refugees. Firewood and charcoal are the primary sources of heat for cooking. Surveys that collected information on wood intake, household energy, camp mar- ket, stove utilization, and catering, showed that 75 per cent rely on firewood and use the traditional three-stone coo- king system. Five per cent of the population uses charcoal exclusively in a type of stove known as the “girgir.” The remaining 20 per cent of families use a combination of firewood and charcoal and possess both a three-stone sys- tem and a girgir stove. Overall, women carry 26 per cent of all wood loads while children bring 24 per cent. Men carry slightly fewer loads, 22 per cent, but their overall contribu- tion is actually 8 per cent greater than women’s in terms of weight. The mainstay of the refugee diet is wheat grain, most of which is eaten whole after boiling in water (or water with milk) and which takes up to three hours to cook. It is estimated that 20 per cent of the grain is also milled. Other staples include rice, pasta, and soup. Although many food items in the refugee diet cook relatively fast, it is the slo- west-cooking dish – whole-wheat grain – which is the one most commonly prepared. In evenings there is widespread non-cooking use of fires, with 72 per cent of families using the fire for heat, 69 per cent for light and 33 per cent for social family gatherings.
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Africa will experience the fastest growth in population world-wide with a projected rise of 2.2% per year on average, its population will increase from 1.2 billion in 2016 to 2.0 billion in 2040 . The economy of Africa has grown as well, at an average rate of 5% between 2000 and 2014, . Growth at such scale will have major implications for energy consumption  and likely outpace the rate of electrification across different parts of the continent. The predictions are that, by 2030, around 600 million people in sub-Saharan Africa will still remain without access to electricity and continue to depend on conventional energy from biomass (e.g., wood, straw and manure), coal, or kerosene for cooking .
The mechanisms involved in the potential toxic effects of in-home solid fuel exposure-related cardiovascular system are unclear, but the main mechanisms may be linked to inflammation through the generation of reac- tive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. An experimental study showed that increased oxidative stress is responsible for activation of apoptosis in cardiac cells in the heart . A recent study in China showed that the use of biomass for cooking greatly elevates PM exposures, particularly for those performing the cooking . These PM contains pro-oxidative organic hydrocar- bons, such as PAHs , particularly in particle phase, that may cause oxidative DNA damage and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that can lead to cardiovascular effects [6,13]. PAH exposure from the cooking is associated with oxidative DNA damage, assessed by 8-hydroxy-2 ’ -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among Chinese restaurant workers . Chronic expo- sure to biomass smoke increased the number of leuko- cyte-platelet aggregates among Indian women , and is considered a risk factor for thrombotic disease such as myocardial infarction , stroke , and unstable angina .
Accordingly, poorer atomisation, evaporation and mixing with air is expected from the UBF at the lower temperatures. Therefore the engine ECU in conjunction with the Bioltec system usually compromises between the fuel temperature and the UBF content in the blend. Using UBF and its blends with the PD showed considerable variations in the fuel jet characteristics especially at high UBF content blends and at low temperatures. The variations in fuel jet characteristics for this particular engine under the specified operational conditions are tabulated in table 3. The data in table 3 indicates the change of fuel jet characteristics in percentage for each 10% increase in UBF content in the blend delivered to the engine at 40°C and 90°C respectively for a fully extended jet to its maximum allowable length.
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para state for maximum complete combustion. Ortho state can be achieved by adapting strong magnetic field along the fuel line. Strong permanent magnets changes the fuel orientation (para to ortho) and its change their configuration as shown in Fig.6. Fuel particles become finely divided and easy to combine with oxygen . Nuclear alignment makes hydrocarbons fuel to flow easily and burn more efficiently. Positive ionization allows hydrocarbons fuel to attract and bond with negatively charged oxygen and causes more complete carbon/oxygen bond and more complete efficient combustion . This led to fuel better atomization and better fuel-air mixing. Fuel economy, better fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under the effect of magnetic field .
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The need for resource poor households to prioritise immediate basic physiological needs (food, shelter, and water) over longer-term and hard to determine health risks, meanwhile, create further barriers to identifying and addressing HAP-related health problems . As a result, localised perceptions of risk reflect prevailing social, economic, political, and cultural factors [81, 82]. So, on the one hand, correctly harvested biomass fuels and cooking smoke are seen as healthy as they provide additional benefits in the form of food preservation and brick curing despite the fact that Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are likely to be inhaled from the wood smoke . After being smoked, fish or meat is covered with a tray on a mesh and in the process PAHs penetrate inside these foods, but in the absence of electricity to power refrigerators, these ‘local technologies’ are vital for subsistence and can also create the basis for small scale social food enterprises . Such positive associations between wood smoke, food security and cultural norms are likely to be hard to challenge in the absence of sustained engagement with local community.
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Fig. 1-4 show the spray shapes and the positions of the droplets at the end of the injection process, the calcu- lated mean values of the Sauter mean diameter in the cham- ber, and the maximum spray penetration length for all three fuels. In Fig. 1-3 the size of the droplets is represented by the size of the circles. From the figures presented below it is clear that the penetration length when using the waste cooking oil is larger than in the case of the biodiesel and the diesel fuel. An obvious difference in the penetration lengths under different operating conditions can also be seen.
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concentration CDFs, all of the comparisons were significantly different for the field and NTP tests for both the traditional and Chulika cookstoves. The difference in the time rate of change of carbon concentration CDFs suggests that the fuel feeding of the cookstove is different during real life cooking versus the replicated cooking activity in the lab using the NTP. A few changes to the NTP could help account for the difference in these histograms. First, more transitions from high to low power are needed, which can be done by adding a log and letting it die down to no flaming multiple times. This event would also have to be accounted for in the fuel feeding histogram, so the time spent in high flaming and smoldering events would have to more than likely be extended.
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The current wave of energy consciousness has triggered intense efforts in the search for the alternative sources for cooking fuels, including the use of agricultural by-products like cassava peels, sawdust and shea butter cake to form briquettes which is substitutes of fuel needed for domestic cooking. The experiments were conducted using 2 3 full factorial design. Three factors, cassava peels (X 1 ), sawdust (X 2 ) and shea butter cake (X 3 ) at two level (coded as – and
From studies it is concluded that biodiesel can play a increasingly a good role in support of meeting energy demand in transport areas and also there have been a consistent trends for the performance of biodiesel engine and different range of gases emission during varied biodiesel blends and operating conditions or driving cycles . Since this paper covers a wide range in biodiesel area, it gives the basic idea about biodiesel production and its performance characteristics measurement and it also be used as research reference for biodiesel production from vegetable oils. Therefore, selection of vegetable oil and production technology is vital for growth in biodiesel industries. In the present experimental investigation, mustard oil methyl ester (MOME) was produced by the trans-esterification process, using mustard oil and methanol with KOH as catalyst . Properties of mustard oil were calculated and studied. Characterization of mustard biodiesel was done. Twin Cylinder Internal combustion engine (TATA Indica V2) was used for the performance characteristics using mustard biodiesel blends (B15, B25 and B35) as fuel. Performance for biodiesel blends were compared to the fuel[ 8, 9].