Using two nationally representative, longitudinal data sets (ELS:2002 and NELS:88) I examined changes in the education pipeline for high school seniors in the 2004 and 1992 cohorts. I also explored the relationship between bachelor's degree completion and high school academic achievement using logistic regression for students from the 2004 senior cohort who enrolled on-time in four-year institutions. The logistic regression results were used to conduct a path analysis modeling to what extent the experience of transferring from a four-year college mediates the relationship between bachelor's degree completion and academic achievement. Findings from this study indicate that a greater percentage of the 2004 cohort enrolled in college compared to the previous cohort, but the increase was largely driven by students who delayed enrollment by six months or more. The six-year bachelor's degree completion rate of the 2004 cohort was also lower than that of the 1992 cohort. Additionally, students who transferred from four-year institutions tended to switch to public two-year institutions. Results from the regression analyses suggest that high school GPA was a stronger predictor of bachelor's completion than SAT score; however, SAT score better predicted transferring. Transferring was a significant, but weak mediator of the relationship between academic achievement and bachelor's degree completion.
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Model 2 features the addition of involvement variables, first-year GPA, and a dichotomous variable indicating on-campus residency to the prediction equation. Women appear to have a better chance of completing a degree compared to men (odds ratio = 1.363, p < 0.001); however, none of the other pre-college or demographic variables is significant in Model 2. Several involvement variables as well as first-year GPA have significance. Participation in school clubs positively affects the odds of degree completion (odds ratio = 1.334, p < 0.01). Similarly, the level of students’ academic involvement in their first year has a positive and significant relationship with college degree completion (odds ratio = 1.265, p < 0.001). Students who perform better academically have significantly better odds of college degree completion, as one-unit changes in first-year GPAs more than doubles students’ chances of graduating from college (odds ratio = 2.593, p < 0.001). On-campus residency, participation in intramural sports, and involvement in fine arts activities do not appear significant in Model 2.
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Several conclusions drawn from the students’ common and divergent experiences and the themes that emerged in the data are discussed in this section and situated within the relevant literature. These conclusions directly address the research questions for the study, which involve the experiences of low-income transfer students and the transfer practices of community colleges and their university partners. Emerging from the analysis of the student experiences were three main themes: 1) importance of transfer readiness; 2) essentiality of support systems; and 3) the role of employment. The first theme describes the importance of a student’s readiness to transfer and the common components that produced readiness for students in this study. The second theme is that resilient students had various emotional support systems in place from different areas of their lives, including parents, family members, peers, faculty members, and institutional agents. The third theme relates to the differing experiences students had across cases with employment, and therefore, finances. Despite varied employment and financial experiences, all of the students achieved academic success by transferring to a university and staying on the path to bachelor’s degree completion.
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Since postsecondary research on socioeconomic status often focuses on behaviors and decision-making, a related limitation pertains to the incorporation of time (i.e., when student behave in certain ways or make certain decisions). Acknowledging the timing of student persistence decision-making, through such analyses as event history modeling, allows for nuance in understanding how and when students stop out, dropout or withdraw based on measures of class (see DesJardins et al., 2003; DesJardins et al., 2006; Ishitani, 2006). For example, in a study using data from the NELS:88 and NELS:1988-2000 Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, Ishitani (2006) found that first-generation students (in this case students whose parents attained a high school diploma or less) were at higher risk for college stop out, dropout or withdrawal, and more susceptible to longer time to degree completion than their peers whose parents had higher levels of attainment. Research also shows that students with parents who had some college, but no degree were advantaged in terms of likelihood and timeliness of completion over students whose parents never attended college (Choy, 2001; Ishitani, 2006). By incorporating time, Ishitani (2006) concluded that time-specific departure risks and interventions could be taken into consideration to improve retention.
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1. Final grade in English 1 (Communication and Writing Skills) is the strongest predictor of students’ degree completion for the students of College of Management and Technology. This is followed by Mathematics 1 (Algebra) and the first Major subject (Accounting 1, Programming 1 and Management 1). It can be concluded that non completion of degree on time attributes to failing one of the 3 subjects in the first semester. The existing policy of the University on prerequisite validates that when a student failed one of these 3 subjects during the first semester, the student cannot enroll prequisite subjects.
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Second, that college sector and quality affect degree completion for rela- tively low-skilled students is inconsistent with claims that disadvantaged stu- dents bene ﬁ t from choosing colleges that enroll higher proportions of similar peers. By the nature of these minimum thresholds, the marginal student in this study bene ﬁ ts, in terms of degree completion, from enrolling in a college where he/she is substantially less academically skilled than his/her peers. This implies that measures of absolute quality matter more than “ match ” quality. Our estimates reject the hypothesis that low-skilled students should be dis- couraged from choosing 4-year colleges because they are incapable of com- pleting degrees at such institutions. A substantial fraction of the marginal stu- dents we study do succeed in completing their bachelor ’ s degrees, a result consistent with naive OLS estimates. This ﬁ nding also bears directly on the debate over af ﬁ rmative action, as it contradicts the view that students bene ﬁ t from attending colleges with less academically skilled peers. 12
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Students entering STEM fields had characteristics different from those who did not enter STEM fields. Consistent with findings from other studies (Mau, , ; Mau, Domnick, & Ellsworth, ), we found female and minority students, except for Asian American students, were less likely than male or White students to declare a STEM major. Similarly, among those who completed a STEM major, a smaller percentage of female and minority students completed their degree in 5 years than their counterparts. Although studies have shown improvement of enrollment and degree completion of female and minority students over recent decades, this study showed that they continue to be underrepresented in the STEM career pipeline.
Most modern theories of responding to student writing typically advocate a meaning-centered, whole text holistic approach (as opposed to an analytic mode of response, which allows for the separate evaluation of different criteria). In a holistic assessment, certain criteria may be considered together on one descriptive scale, which renders a final assessment that allows for broader judgments on the quality of particular writing products. As a result, a holistic assessment is usually not quite as rigid as an analytic assessment. This study examined a non-traditional writing program that was highly traditional in its emphasis on stressing the rules of writing mechanics (an analytic method). It specifically focused on instructor familiarity with the program’s required citation format. My research questions: how well would instructors score if given the task of finding deliberately inserted errors? What is instructor perception of format in writing evaluation? And, what, if any, influence does instructor training and experience have on the ability to apply citation format? In addition to being asked to detect 33 deliberately inserted errors in documentation format in a typical student paper, ten instructors at the program, an adult accelerated degree completion program, were also asked to complete a demographic survey. As predicted, except for two notable exceptions, average instructor scores were low (68%). In the follow-up survey, most indicated that they were satisfied with the program’s required APA citation format, and finally, neither length of experience nor discipline-specific training proved to be
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Reputation is, by far, the main determinant of university performance. Regardless of the changes in staff to student ratios, part-time staff, entry standards, institutional size, foundation period and region, universities consistently ranking highest in the 1990s/early 2000s are on average performing better than their less prestigious counterparts across all dimensions, both in the short run (2011: Good Honours = 9.382, p < .01; Degree Completion = 6.533, p < .01; Graduate Prospects = 6.725, p < .01; Research Quality = .293, p < .001), and in the long run (2017: Good Honours = 7.845, p < .01; Degree Completion = 4.839, p < .01; Graduate Prospects = 4.921, p < .05; Research Activity = .234, p < .01) (H2A and H2B confirmed). Notice also that the positive association weakens over time (from 2011 to 2017) across all dimensions of university performance. Finally, we can see that universities that have been raising their entry standards do not distinguish themselves through improved sub- sequent performance. On the contrary, a negative association with subsequent research quality can be observed (2017: B = − .009, p < .05). 4 It is possible that the negative relationship reflects the precarious state of universities ultimately attempting to improve performance by tightening entry standards and for whom this strategy was unsuccessful in reducing the downward performance spiral.
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The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 93 utilized an interview to determine the means by which students and their families paid for their postsecondary training, and it also included questions related to background, enrollment, and employment (Wine et al., 2005). Refer to Appendix D for a listing of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 93 data elements. Those selected to participate in the Baccalaureate & Beyond: 92/93 cohort answered additional questions regarding future plans, namely graduate education and the pursuit of a teaching career in K–12. The first follow-up of the Baccalaureate & Beyond: 92/93 cohort occurred one year after the participants’ bachelor’s degree completion. Interview questions were focused on such areas as employment search, transition, and training, family structure, community involvement, and financial status, such as earnings, student loans, and additional debt (Wine et al.). Both school and student level data were gathered through the collection of participant transcripts. Data retrieved via student transcripts included major and minor fields of study, grade point average information, courses completed, and grades achieved and are included in the data set.
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Conclusion: While our findings follow expectations about social science fields and gender, it is noteworthy that results regarding STEM degree completion by gender for science and engineering-related fields were opposite those of high paradigm STEM fields. This result highlights that the definition of STEM matters, and inconsistent operationalization in the literature presents an interpretation challenge. We argue the field should strive to find common categorizations of STEM that retain the legitimate variation in how STEM can and should be defined, while providing a basis for consistent comparison. We recommend researchers and practitioners developing research-based practices: 1) interpret research findings understanding potential inconsistency from different STEM operationalizations, 2) explicitly describe STEM operational definitions to enable comparing findings, 3) routinely analyze sensitivity to alternate STEM definitions, and 4) find common STEM categorizations that retain legitimate variation while providing a basis for consistent comparison.
Since “real-life” degree requirements are usually far more complex than our example, it is conceivable that poor course planning contributes signifi- cantly to delays in degree completion. colleges and universities invest heav- ily in efforts to help students better plan their studies in an effort to improve graduation rates and reduce time-to-degree. however, more research is needed on the exact role of inadequate planning in delaying degree comple- tion. Using models like the one proposed in this article, the actual academic records of students can be analyzed to determine the degree to which “in- correct” enrollment decisions may have contributed to delaying their gradu- ation. Ultimately, the value of the approach proposed in this article should be judged by its effect on actual timely completion statistics. this would re- quire the implementation of the model in a real university setting and track- ing its performance for a number of years.
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This paper studies the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix when the data are collected from multiple and heterogeneous source matrices. We first consider the setting where, for each source, the matrix entries are sampled from an exponential family distribution. We then relax this assumption. The proposed estimators are based on minimizing the sum of a goodness-of-fit term and the nuclear norm penalization of the whole collective matrix. Allowing for non-uniform sampling, we establish upper bounds on the prediction risk of our estimator. As a by-product of our results, we provide exact minimax optimal rate of convergence for 1-bit matrix completion which previously was known upto a logarithmic factor. We present the proximal algorithm PLAIS-Impute to solve the corresponding convex programs. The empirical study provides evidence of the efficiency of the collective matrix completion approach in the case of joint low-rank structure compared to estimate each source matrices separately.
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R. Grone, C. R. Johnson and others (1984) studied the positive completion of partial Hermitian matrices. V. I. Paulsen, S. C. Power and others (1989) studied the Schur products and matrix completions. In the same year, a minimum Rank completion for Block matrices was studied by H. J. Woerdeman. C. R. Johnson (1990) provided a survey of matrix completion problems focusing on the positive definite completion problem, rank completion and contraction completion. I. Gohberg, L. Rodman (1992) studied the Bounds for eigenvalues and singular values of matrix completions. M. Ba Kanyi and C. R. Johnson (1995) studied the Euclidean Distance Matrix completion problems. C. R. Johnson and R. L. Smith (1996) studied the completion problem for M-matrices and inverse M- matrices.
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Practical completion 3 or substantial completion is a term used in the construction industry and many standard forms of contract to denote completion of the works by the Contractor. The time between the date of commencement and the date for practical completion is the time taken to complete the works. Any attempt to describe a contractor’s obligation to complete his works within the time stipulated in the contract must assume that there is a basis to ascertain whether the particular works have reached a state of completion. The typical expression used in construction contracts for this purpose is practical completion and it distinguishes the state of the works from that at final completion. This distinction allows for minor outstanding or defective works, which do not detract from the enjoyment or utilitsation of the facility to be completed or rectified notwithstanding that the employer had taken over and started to use the facility 4 .
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completion times from the initial launch of the survey. The finding of equivalence across the modes of administration is consistent by using a range of cutoff points higher than 5 minutes and also by splitting the sample using the time taken to complete each module (which allows us to compare those completing each module quickly and those completing each module more slowly). This suggests that our findings are rela- tively robust. We have been unable, however, to assess the consistency of the results by using overall time cutoff points below 5 minutes, and this limits the wider applicability of the findings to binary choice valuation studies conducted online that do not impose minimum completion times. Future research may investigate respondent engagement in the online environment in more detail, for example, by analyzing responses using a wider range of minimum time limits, recording the time taken to complete each task, or developing innovative methods for pre- senting the tasks.
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Abstract. Approach uniformities were introduced in Lowen and Windels (1998) as the canonical generalization of both metric spaces and uniform spaces. This text presents in this new context of “quantitative” uniform spaces, a reﬂective completion theory which generalizes the well-known completions of metric and uniform spaces. This completion behaves nicely with respect to initial structures and hyperspaces. Also, continuous exten- sions of pseudo-metrics on uniform spaces and (real) compactiﬁcation of approach spaces can be interpreted in terms of this completion.
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In 2010, President Obama declared that “by 2020, America will once again have the highest proportion of college graduates in the world” (Obama, 2010). To achieve this goal, the United State degree attainment rate must increase from 40 percent to 60 percent which means an additional 10 million Americans aged 25 – 34 must earn an associates or baccalaureate degree by 2020, a number that is eight million people beyond the projected growth. In response to President Obama’s call for increased graduation rates, the College Board’s Advocacy and Policy Center recommends “that institutions of higher education set out to dramatically increase college completion rates by improving retention, easing transfer among institutions and implementing data-based strategies to identify retention and dropout challenges” (Hughes, 2012, p. 3).
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To address the shortage of laboratory scientists in Botswana, a one-year academic bridging program was initi- ated at the University of Botswana (UB), to advance diploma- level laboratory technicians to laboratory scientists with Bachelor of Science (BSc) degrees. A needs assessment was conducted, to inform curriculum development. The degree curriculum was designed to develop skills in clinical labora- tory management, laboratory data management, operational research, immunology, and molecular biology techniques, building upon the professional training obtained at diploma level (Table 1). The BSc Medical Laboratory Sciences (MLS) bridging program included 300 hours of lectures, 450 hours of laboratory sessions, and 200 hours of supervised attachment to a molecular diagnostics clinical laboratory. Three years after inception of the program, an evaluation was conducted, with the objective of describing outcomes, in terms of skills and knowledge gained, in addition to how these skills have impacted professional responsibilities.
In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the impact of the organisation of UEFA European Championships on the host cities: Gdańsk, Poznań, Warsaw and Wrocław. The adopted list of infrastructural undertakings executed as part of Euro 2012 preparations included 219 projects divided according to the urgency criterion into key, important and other projects. Analysis of project completion revealed that not all tasks had been executed as planned before the beginning of the event. Predictably, the key projects were found to have been completed in the greatest percentage of the cases (76%), while other projects were characterised by the lowest percentage of completion (51%). The degree of completion also varied between the individual cities. Gdańsk turned out to be the most efficient city with 74% of all projects completed, while Warsaw was at the bottom of the ranking with 63% of completed projects.