Fibre Reinforced Composites

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Study on the dynamic characteristic of coconut fibre reinforced composites

Study on the dynamic characteristic of coconut fibre reinforced composites

In searching for such new material, a study has been made where coconut fibre (also known as coir fibre) is compounded with composite material. Coir is the natural fibre of the coconut husk where it is a thick and coarse but durable fibre. It is relatively water-proof and has resistant to damage by salt water and microbial degradation (Ray 2005). Figure 1 shows the outer husk of coconut fruit which can be used as a source of fibre and coir pitch. Meanwhile, the investigation of the mechanical properties and dynamic characteristics of the coir fibre reinforced composites is vital. This is due to the fact that having a suitable stiffness and damping coefficients of composites can be applied to the certain applications which satisfy the needs of their characteristics such as strong, rigid, light weight, environmental friendly materials (Shaikh et al. 2003). The example of application of coir fibre reinforced composites is in industrial automotive where it used to make seat cushions for Mercedes automobiles. Even though it has advantageous properties, the coir fibre composites still have some undesirable properties such as dimensional instability, flammability which not suitable for high temperature application and degradability with humidity, ultraviolet lights, acids and bases (Brahim & Cheikh 2006). Therefore, a lot of efforts have been carried out to improve the performance of coir fibre reinforced composites.
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Fibre reinforced composites via coaxial electrospinning

Fibre reinforced composites via coaxial electrospinning

Coaxial electrospinning adds a degree of complexity into the simple process of electrospinning. While electrospinning can be conducted using a set-up of standard laboratory equipment with a high voltage power supply, coaxial electrospinning, on the other hand, requires a specialised nozzle to produce the fibres. These nozzles are not widely available, and often have to be custom made. In the context of creating fibre reinforced composites, coaxial electrospinning removes a step in the forming of the composites by providing the matrix material with the fibres, producing a fibre mat akin to pre-preg fibres used in industry. This experiment seeks to compare the tensile properties of the coaxial composite to that of composite formed without coaxial electrospinning. This composite was created by electrospinning the single polymer PLA reinforcing fibres, and combining with a sheet of PCL during the hot pressing. It was important to ensure that each of the materials were carefully measure before combining to ensure an accurate fibre volume ratio.
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Study of water absorption behaviour of natural fibre reinforced composites

Study of water absorption behaviour of natural fibre reinforced composites

Environmental perception today encourages empiricism worldwide on the learning of plant or natural fibre reinforced polymer composite and cost efficient alternative to synthetic fibre reinforced composites. The accessibility to natural fibers and simplicity in manufacturing have persuaded researchers to aim for locally existing low cost fibers and to investigate their possibility of reinforcement intensions and up to what extent they can satisfy the essential detailing of superior reinforced polymer composite intended for different application program. Natural fibre represents a superior biodegradable and renewable alternative to the most popular synthetic reinforcement, i.e. glass fibre possessing high mechanical properties and low cost. Regardless the curiosity and environmental request of natural fibers, there usage is restricted to non-bearing uses, because of its lower strength than that of synthetic fibre reinforced polymer composite. The stiffness and strength limitations of bio composites can be chased by operational arrangement by placing the fibers at particular locations to have higher strength performance. Research regarding preparation and properties of polymer matrix composite (PMC) replacing the synthetic fibre with natural fibre like Jute, Sisal, Jute, Bamboo, Pineapple, Bagasse and Kenaf were carried out. Renewable, environmental friendly, low cost, lightweight and high specific mechanical performances are the advantages of these plant fibres over the glass fibre or carbon fibre. Composites are exciting materials which are finding increasing application in transportation, aerospace, defence, communication, sporting, electronics and number of other commercial and consumer products. Composite materials have become one of the fastest growing research and development areas of Material Science because of their high potential. In current years there is swift growth in the arena of fibers, matrix, materials, processing, boundary structure, bonding and their characteristics on the final properties of composites. The technological developments in composite materials help in meeting the global industrial demand for materials with improved performance capabilities.
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Assessing Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites for Engineering Applications

Assessing Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites for Engineering Applications

Research and development of natural fibres as rein- forcement for automotive sectors is a growing interest to scientists and engineers. Nowadays, natural fibres form is an interesting option for the most widely applied fibre in the composite technology. Many studies on natural stud- ies such as keraf, bagasse, jute, ramie, hemp and oil palm [1-9]. Fibre reinforced composites with thermoplastic matrices have successfully proven their high qualities in various fields of engineering application. However, Natural fibres generally have poor mechanical properties compared with synthetic fibres but these composites were used as a source of energy to make shelters, clothes, construction of weapons [10]. High cost of synthetic fi- bres and health hazards of abestors fibres have really necessitated the exploration of natural fibres [11]. Con- sequently, natural fibres have always formed wide appli- cations from the time they gained commercial recogni- tion. They possess desirable properties such as biode- grability, renewability, combustibility, lower durability, excellent mechanical properties, low density and low price. Stamboulis and Baley [12] reported that this excel-
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Experimental characterization of fibre-reinforced composites improved with nanofibres or nanotubes

Experimental characterization of fibre-reinforced composites improved with nanofibres or nanotubes

To attain this goal, many efforts are put into improving the fibre-matrix interface by treatment of micro-fibres (MFs), their sizing, or "whiskerization". Meso-scale methods like z-pinning or structural stitching are also studied. During the last years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibres (CNFs) are recognized as another, probably the most perspective way. Two main methods exist to introduce CNTs/CNFs into a preform. Usually they are simply mixed with the resin or (rarely) integrated into films which are further dissolved. This technique is used in the most of known studies [1-16]. Sometimes electrical field [5,20] or natural resin flow [11] is used to align CNTs/CNFs in the matrix. The second and less used way is to grow CNTs/CNFs on MFs, e.g. by the catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon gas over metal particles [27-32], or (rarely) to attach them onto MFs by electrophoresis [33]. Several studies deal with CNTs/CNFs employed as sizing for MFs [15,34].
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Mechanical and thermal properties of jute fibre reinforced composites

Mechanical and thermal properties of jute fibre reinforced composites

ter molecules then combine with the hydroxyl groups that are present in cellulose (in the amorphous region) and stay in the fibre structure. This makes the fibre hydrophilic and polar in character. Figure 1 shows the schematic structure and the orientation of fibre constituents that absorb mois- ture. Hydrophilic fibres worsen the ability to develop adhe- sive characteristics with most hydrophobic binder materials during composite processing. As a result strong bonding be- tween fibre and the binder materials are compromised which reduced the composites mechanical properties. This prob- lem can be addressed by treating these fibres with suitable chemicals. Treatments can decrease the amorphous hydrox- yl groups, remove the lignin and hemicellulose coverings from the fibre surface and expose the cellulose structure to react with binder materials. Different types of fibre surface treatments were used by several researchers by using diverse type of chemicals and methods. Among which alkali treat- ment is economically viable and more effective fibre sur- face treatment to improve composite properties. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents of fibre are sensitive to the action of NaOH [4]. Treatment reduces hydroxyl groups that present in the amorphous region of fibre (Fibre-OH + NaOH → Fibre-ONa + H 2 O). Due to this hydrophilic nature
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The Impact Behaviour Of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

The Impact Behaviour Of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

Composite is a material where it is made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties. The outcome composite has significantly different characteristics of the individual components. The composite is usually widely used in the modern industrial applications as result of its advantages such as low production cost, relatively lightweight, high strength and stiffness. (Faris et al., 2013). Fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) are composite that made from a mix of fibres and polymer. FRPs are widely used in almost every type of advanced engineering structure from aircraft, helicopter to boat and automobiles, civil infrastructures such as bridges and buildings. Fibre- reinforced polymer composites are also widely applied in modern industry. This attract many researches to carry out study on FRP to develop environmental fibre materials. (Rajesh et al., 2016).
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Mechanical Properties Of Coconut Fibre Reinforced Composites

Mechanical Properties Of Coconut Fibre Reinforced Composites

Today, plastic and ceramics have the dominant for a new material for composite materials. Composite materials have grown rapidly by volume and number of applications to break through and capture new markets. These composite materials include a variety of natural ingredients such as dried fruit, rice husk, wheat husk, straw and hemp fibres can be used to provide gentle-reinforced polymer composites for commercial use for agricultural wastes. Bio-based products have a great opportunity to thrive in the world market. This is because, natural fibres have a basic interest amongst them the advantages of weight and fibre matrix adhesion,. There are various types of natural fibres in the world, consisting of sisal, hibiscus cannabinus, eucalyptus grandis pulp, malva, ramie bast, pineapple leaves, kenaf leaves, coconut, sansevieria leaves, hemp leaves, vakka, banana, jute, hemp, ramie , cotton and sugarcane fibres (Ali et al., 2012). In this project, composite materials made from polyester matrix strengthened with coconut fibre will be carried out.
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Recent developments in fire retardation and fire protection of fibre-reinforced composites

Recent developments in fire retardation and fire protection of fibre-reinforced composites

16 subsequent work, the use of insulative fabrics purely as surface barriers (no infused resin) gave better results [25] . Alternatively, the use of conventional fire retardants additives in the resin plus these surface mats is an effective way of fire protecting composites [25] . Thermal barrier effect of these intumescent mats was evaluated by measuring the temperatures on the reverse side of the samples using a thermocouple [24, 25] . Despite improving the fire retardancy of the composites, the presence of fire-retardant additives alone does not improve retention of flexural modulus following exposure to a heat source. However, the introduction of a 'passive' fire proofing insulative fabric enhances fire performance while preserving the mechanical properties of composites exposed to high heat fluxes or fires. In our work, the control sample had no fexural strength after exposure to 50 kW/m 2 in the cone calorimeter; with FR additives the flexural modulus was <10% of the initial value, whereas with FR additives and surface mat it was >80% and sometimes as much as 92% of the initial value [25] .
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The development of natural fibre reinforced composites roof sheet

The development of natural fibre reinforced composites roof sheet

Page | 45 Bagasse, the fibre from sugar cane processing was first utilized in America in the 1920s to manufacture composite panels [8]. Currently, building panels and roofing sheets made from bagasse fibre reinforced phenolic composites are being used in houses in Philippines, Jamaica and Ghana [7]. Traditional roof tiles are predominantly made from materials such as clay, cement and steel, which have disadvantages of weight that result in high design (dead weight) and installation loads (live weight). Another disadvantage of such materials is the negative environmental impact associated with high embodied energy, material waste and pollution from the manufacturing processes (air, land and water) [57]. Roof sheet materials must be designed to sustain dead load, live load, wind load and in other cases, snow load. The material must be lightweight, fire resistant, water resistant and weather resistant (such as resistance to ultraviolet light) [131]. Roof sheet materials that have substituted traditional ones include the utilization of recycled paper reinforced cellulose fibre. Dweib et al [12] used bio-based materials to manufacture a NFC sandwich roof structure and structural beams. Recycled paper was incorporated into composite sheets and structural unit beams and the resulting strength and stiffness was found to be comparable with the currently used materials for roof construction [Figure 2.18 (d)] [12]. In another study [10], sisal fibres were manually cast on corrugated roof sheets thereafter, strength of the sheets was evaluated. The authors concluded that the strength of sisal fibre corrugated roof sheets (towards splitting due to direct and impact loads) was improved compared to unreinforced corrugated sheets. John et al [130] concluded that sisal and coir fibre composites have the potential to replace asbestos in roofing components.
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Comparative Study on Properties of Coir and Sisal Fibre Reinforced Composites

Comparative Study on Properties of Coir and Sisal Fibre Reinforced Composites

Girisha.C et al., (2012) [16] Natural fibres (Sisal and Coconut coir) reinforced Epoxy composites were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties. Natural fibres like coconut coir (short fibres) and sisal fibres (long fibres) were used in hybrid combination and the fibre weight fraction of 20%, 30% and 40% were used for the fabrication of the composite. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in a water bath at 250 o C and 1000 o C for different time durations. The tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens subjected to both aging conditions were evaluated and compared with dry composite specimens. The percentage of moisture uptake increased as the fibre volume fraction increased because of the high cellulose content of the fibre. The tensile and flexural properties of natural fibre reinforced Epoxy composite specimens were found to decrease with increase in percentage moisture uptake.
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The Accelerated Aging Effect of Salt Water on Lignocellulosic Fibre Reinforced Composites

The Accelerated Aging Effect of Salt Water on Lignocellulosic Fibre Reinforced Composites

The effect of the salt water on the mechanical properties of flax fiber reinforced vinylester matrix composites was investigated by accelerated aging, flexural tests and micrographs . Experimental results confirm that natural flax reinforcements really improve the properties of composites and that, in general, vinylester represents a valid solution as matrix in marine applications because of the good mechanical properties and low absorption rate it presents. Contemporaneously, the same results demonstrate that, in the case of vinylester reinforced by flax, a significant drop in flexural properties is due to the substantial water absorption that induces several phenomena, including the degradation of the fibre/matrix interface. Under the influence of moisture the hydrophilic flax fibre swells and micro cracking of the brittle polymer matrix occurs. Than the molecules of water penetrate into the interface and the process of water diffusion through the matrix causes delamination and seriously damage of the composite material. Microscopic analysis proves micro cracking and delamination damage mechanisms into the accelerated aged composite materials during flexural testing. It should be noted that vinylester resin continues to cure during accelerated aging which makes it more brittle than in dry condition. To overcome
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Fibre Orientation and Its Influence on the Flexural Strength of Glass fibre and Graphite fibre reinforced polymer composites

Fibre Orientation and Its Influence on the Flexural Strength of Glass fibre and Graphite fibre reinforced polymer composites

Composite materials are produced by combining two dissimilar materials into a new material that may be better suited for a particular application than either of the original material alone. Many of our modern technologies require materials with unusual combination of properties that cannot be met by the conventional materials [1]. This is very true for materials that are needed for the aerospace, underwater and automotive application. Many composite materials are composed of just two phases one is termed the matrix, which is continuously surrounded by the other phase, often called the dispersed phase [2]. Fibre reinforced composites are extensively used in present day technology because of its extensive benefits, Technologically the most important composites are those in which the dispersed phase is in the form of a fibre. Design goal of fibre reinforced polymer often include high strength and /or stiffness on a weight basis. Fibre reinforced composites with exceptionally high specific strengths and moduli have been produced that utilize low density fibre and matrix materials. Composite laminates offer alternative material design solutions in terms of specific strength and stiffness allowing important weight savings. Polymer composites also offer significant freedom to the designer by allowing, optimizing the strength and stiffness of a component or structure for a particular application. Furthermore, thermoplastic resins present increased interest due to their economic and mechanical advantages, such as easy fabrication, unlimited shelf life, intrinsic recyclability, high toughness and increased moisture resistance. Recently an increasing use of composites reinforced with different types of fibres has occurred, owing the following advantages: they are strong enough, light in weight, abundant, non-abrasive and cheap [3]. It is well known that the mechanical properties
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Fatigue Behavior of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Fatigue Behavior of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Although it is quite promising, current generation of natural fibre reinforced composites may not warrant their use in load demand application. Natural fibres and its composites may suffer from fatigue loads as many others composites too. In addition, the uses wide range of application obliged researchers to realize the important of fatigue phenomena even for structures where fatigue was not considered an issue. Because of few in literature, this paper is intended to be preliminary and exploitation with the fatigue life of epoxy and its kenaf reinforced composites made from two different fibre volume ratios. There are numerous of fatigue models that have been developed by researchers in order to predict the fatigue life of metallic and composites. Nevertheless, none of these fatigue models deals with the fatigue life of natural fibre reinforced composites. Fatigue models developed by Mandel [9], Manson-Coffin [10] and Hai Tang [11] are used because of their simplicity and can be related to the polymer composites. The constant stress base models shown below are compared with the experimental results to determine how well these models in predicting the fatigue life of kenaf polymeric composites. Mandel proposed equation as follows:
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Mechanical Performance of Coconut Coir Fibre Reinforced Urea Formaldehyde
              Composites

Mechanical Performance of Coconut Coir Fibre Reinforced Urea Formaldehyde Composites

In effort to search for such novel material, a study has been made where coconut fibre (also known as coir fibre) is compounded with composite material. Coir is the natural fibre of the coconut husk where it is a thick and coarse but durable fibre. It is relatively water-proof and has resistant to damage by salt water and microbial degradation (Ray, D., 2005). The outer husk of coconut fruit can be used as a source of fibre and coir pitch. The result of mechanical and physical properties of the coir fibre reinforced composites is vital. This is due to the fact that having a suitable stiffness of composites can be applied to the certain applications which satisfy the needs of their characteristics such as strong, rigid, light weight, environmental friendly materials (Shaikh et al., 2003). The automotive industry is one of the most avid users of natural composite materials in their products in interior applications such as door panels and trunk liners (Suddell et al., 2002).
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Unidirectional fibre reinforced geopolymer matrix composites

Unidirectional fibre reinforced geopolymer matrix composites

The state of the art of geopolymer composites was reviewed in detail in the previous section. Most of these studies focused on the use of various types and forms of carbon fibres. Although some other fibre types have also been investigated, the results are sometimes based on as little as one measurement. Also, the use of different materials, fabrication processes and test methods makes it extremely difficult to compare individual results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate a range of different variables on samples all subject to the same processing parameters in order to allow direct comparison between the different effects. Unidirectional fibre reinforced composites were fabricated using basalt, carbon and alumina fibres. Basalt, carbon and alumina fibres represent three very different kinds of fibres not just in terms of chemical, thermal and mechanical properties but also from an economical point of view. Since one of the main advantages of geopolymer composites would be their cost-efficiency in the absence of resource or energy intensive processing and fabrication steps or other cost adding contributions, the fibres become the main cost factor of the composite. Therefore, the relation between performance and cost of the fibre/composite has to be considered. The mechanical properties of unidirectional fibre reinforced geopolymer composites are investigated in chapter 5. Besides the effect of the fibre type, several other parameters including fibre sizing, specimen dimensions, drying time and matrix composition on the flexural properties and the failure behaviour of the composites were studied. For reasons of cost and fibre availability, some effects were only studied exemplarily on basalt fibre composites.
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A Study on the Effect of Fibre Dimensions on the Thermal Conductivity of Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

A Study on the Effect of Fibre Dimensions on the Thermal Conductivity of Pineapple Leaf Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Thermal conductivity (TC) is considered an important factor in heat transfer of materials; several theoretical experimental studies have been carried out to determine concise or reasonably estimated values for this parameter. Earlier researchers such as Maxwell in 1954 studied the effective thermal conductivity of heterogeneous materials using the Laplace equation [3]. Earlier at the wake of the millennium, researchers such as Agrawal et al., studied the effect of thermal conductivity and diffusivity on oil palm fibre reinforced composites [4], also, Saxena et al., studied same parameters of thermal conductivity and diffusivity on banana fibre reinforced polyester composites, their study showed that thermal conductivity increased when compared with 100% matrix [5].
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Fatigue strength of woven kenaf fibre reinforced polyester composites

Fatigue strength of woven kenaf fibre reinforced polyester composites

The use of natural fibers as reinforcements in polymer composites to replace synthetic fibers like glass is presently receiving increasing attention because of the advantages, including cost effectiveness, low density, high specific strength, as well as their availability as renewable resources. Since the 1990s, natural fiber composites are emerging as realistic alternatives to glass-reinforced composites in many applications. Natural fiber composites such as hemp fiber-epoxy, flax fiber- polypropylene (PP), and china reed fiber-PP are particularly attractive in automotive applications because of lower cost and lower density. Glass fibers used for composites have density of 2.6 g/cm 3 and cost between $1.30 and $2.00/kg. In comparison, flax fibers have a density of 1.5 g/cm 3 and cost between $0.22 and $1.10/kg (Foulk et al., 2000).
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Effects of chemical treatments on hemp fibre reinforced polyester composites

Effects of chemical treatments on hemp fibre reinforced polyester composites

During tensile tests, particular attention must be given to the manner in which the fibres are mounted in the apparatus to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations at various locations on the grip. Also, load cells need to be sensitive enough to detect small forces and to make precise measurements of fibre elongation. Slippage in the gripping assembly can result in error of elongation values and lead to underestimated fibre modulus. Fan (2010) used paper frames, in which hemp fibres were glued and mounted to the testing machine. The paper was cut to open in the middle to free the fibre to perform the test. This method was efficient in handling and transferring the fibres to the testing machine without fibre damage. Similar fibre preparation was also performed by Feih, Thraner & Lilholt (2005) on glass fibres. A number of studies have also reported on strain measurements by means of non-contacting video extensometer (Adusumalli, et al. 2006).
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Utilisation of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in the confinement of concrete

Utilisation of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in the confinement of concrete

Citation: Ciupala, M.A., Pilakoutas, K., Mortazavi, A.A. (2007) ‘Utilisation of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in the confinement of concrete’ Proceedings of Advances in Computing and Technology, (AC&T) The School of Computing and Technology 2nd Annual Conference, University of East London, pp.145-150 Link to published version:

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