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Evolution of Aircraft Flight Control System and Fly-By-Light Flight Control System

Evolution of Aircraft Flight Control System and Fly-By-Light Flight Control System

on conventional methods of mechanical and hydro-mechanical system. The present generation aircraft are using fly-by-wire (FBW) and in future likely to migrate to fly-by-light (FBL) method for aircraft control system. Mechanical & Hydro- mechanical flight control systems have been replaced by Fly- By-Wire due to increasing speed of modern aircraft. Due to inherent characteristics of FBL like light weight, compact size, large bandwidth, immunity to EMI & HIRF FBL, it is expected to be ideal futuristic flight control system. Fly-by- Light control systems offer inherent resistance to the new generation more hostile military environments. The inherent features are the motivator to achieve the technological advances to make Fly-by-Light systems a successful replacement aircraft control system technology for future. The application of optical fiber in aviation promises to be very exciting study, covering highly complex aircraft stability and controls.
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Information support of reconfigurable flight control system of the aircraft

Information support of reconfigurable flight control system of the aircraft

A. An analysis of the literature on information support in special situations reconfigurable flight control system Analysis of publications has shown that the science direction of diagnostics the state of the aircraft’s exterior aerodynamic contour in order to prevent the development of special situations in flight is not well-developed. There is no complete agreement which of the suggested methods of recording the moment of time, place and the degree of damage of the aircraft’s exterior contour in flight is the most effective to date. A group of researchers from the National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine led by the supervisor of this science direction, is working in four areas of diagnosis of the aircraft exterior contour: electro-mechanic, thermodynamic, infra-red and marker-ion methods. In [1] the theoretical basics of diagnostics the state of the aircraft’s exterior aerodynamic contour in flight is laid. In [2,3] all materials on the diagnosis of the aerodynamic contour, the new methods of diagnosis, the mathematical models of intact aircraft and damaged one and model the impact of injuries on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft were systematized. The expediency and necessity the synthesis of control system adaptive to the aircraft’s exterior contour damage and to the power plant is done. In [5] proposed a method for diagnostics the state of the aerodynamic contour of the aircraft based on the temperature field area of its airframe, and developed a system for implementing this method. Many articles [10, 11, 12] devoted to the fiber-optic diagnostics. In [6] proposed a method of diagnostics of aircraft’s exterior contour in flight using film of capacitors.
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Robust Fault Diagnosis for Fixed Wing Aircraft Fault Tolerant Flight Control System

Robust Fault Diagnosis for Fixed Wing Aircraft Fault Tolerant Flight Control System

The aircraft stability is analysed for icing and normal condition [9]. The simulated aircraft attributes were compared for normal flight and icing flight condition and observed that icing changes the geometry and thus equilibrium point of the aircraft. The controllability analysis of tandem quad-copter was carried out [10]. FDI scheme is developed by comparison of required attitude to the measured attitude [11]. Sensor fusion technique is applied to estimate fault in altitude estimation [12]. The real-time parameters of aerodynamic model were estimated using artificial intelligence [13]. The method of system identification was explained briefly for a small unmanned aircraft [14]. The real-time parameter estimation of aircraft was carried out using recursive least square and batch estimation method [15] and minimized error in each model. System identification using subscale methods were explained for small flexible aircraft [16]. FDI methods classified as data-driven or model reference approach for diagnosing fault[21]. So far, FTFC has been implemented in control reallocation with FDI or control by nullifying errors using proper corrective measures. The input signal or output performance was estimated for designing FDI.
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Mathematical modelling, flight control system design and air flow control investigation for low speed UAVs

Mathematical modelling, flight control system design and air flow control investigation for low speed UAVs

The area of active flow control specialises in developing devices for flight vehicles that affect their flow-field to generate aerodynamic forces. These aerodynamic forces can be used as control forces or used to improve flight efficiency. Current flight vehicles use relatively small number of high authority control surfaces known as rudder, ailerons, elevators and flaps to produce control forces. The advancements in material science has brought forward a new generation of smaller and less specialised distributed devices. These devices can be grouped together in an array and operate in conjunction with the flight vehicles main control surfaces or replacing them altogether. The name given to these devices are Smart Effector Arrays. The smart effector arrays can also be used to increase flight efficiency by producing aerodynamic forces which increase the lift drag ratio, giving the flight vehicle more speed for the same angle of attack. To achieve the required level of flow control a combination of the right smart effector array and placement technique is needed.
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Evolutionary design of a full–envelope flight control system for an unstable fighter aircraft

Evolutionary design of a full–envelope flight control system for an unstable fighter aircraft

In more general terms, the application of the H ∞ control technique to a rather standard single–input/single–output (SISO) problem is seen as a preliminary but fundamental step in assessing the capabilities of MOEA in this framework. The application of the technique to more complex MIMO problems, such as a lateral–directional stability and control augmentation system, represents the next step of the research. After the description of aircraft model and control system architecture and a brief review of H ∞ control theory in the next Section, the major features of the optimisation method used for solving the control problem are briefly recalled in Section 3. The synthesis of a set of controllers in the neighbourhood of several trim conditions to be used for gain scheduling, the evaluation of their off–nominal performance and the analysis of controllers synthesized for different competing merit functions at different trim points is then carried out and discussed in Section 4. Numerical simulation is used for testing the closed–loop response of the scheduled controller by means of a complete longitudinal nonlinear aircraft model. A Section of Conclusions ends the paper.
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Reconfigurable flight control system

Reconfigurable flight control system

The time interval over which the reconfiguration system has wrong information about the faults / failures need not be known. If the reconfiguration system eventually generates an accurate estimate of the failure parameters, the proposed approach will result in provided increased controllability and stability of airplane under adverse flight conditions. The paper obtained the transfer functions of the longitudinal motion of the aircraft taking into account the special situation of additives that will synthesize and analyze highly automated system reconfiguration control aircraft. Analysis of the results of mathematical modeling allows us to prevent the possibility of an emergency in flight due to reconfiguration of aircraft control.
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Study of UAV Flight Control Software Test Method

Study of UAV Flight Control Software Test Method

(1) Wide coverage. Test may be divided into configuration item test and system test. Different test strategies and methods are adopted to test documents, source codes and software programs so as to eliminate software defects. Software requirements, correct design documents, standard codes and correct design or logic are guaranteed by document review, dynamic analysis and code review. Requirements for software functions, performance, interfaces and safety are checked in configuration item test. Software’s reliability in flight control system and the ability to collaborate with other UAV-carried integrated software are checked in system test.
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Hardware Design of a Flight Control Computer System based on Multi-core Digital Signal Processor and Field Programmable Gate Array

Hardware Design of a Flight Control Computer System based on Multi-core Digital Signal Processor and Field Programmable Gate Array

Abstract: Flight Control System is an integrated avionics system equipped with the minimum required components for an autonomous flight. This paper focuses on the Hardware Design of the Flight Control System and presents specific details of the components and its interface. The system architecture is based on Field Programmable Gate Array and Digital Signal Processor. Employing these two processors in the flight control system would improve the Flight Control System performance in terms of fast sequential processing of high-level control algorithms. In addition to Field Programmable Gate Array and Digital Signal Processor, the flight control computer system will also make use of Global Positioning System and Micro Electro Mechanical System sensors. The project will be implemented using Altera’s System On Programmable Chip builder, currently known as Qsys – Platform Designer implemented in Quartus-II. The system employs Nios-II processor which is 32-bit soft-core embedded-processor architecture designed especially for the Altera’s family of Field Programmable Gate Array. From conceptualization to final design, this paper presents the functionality of the different modulus and complex interfaces employed in this Flight Control System.
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The path performance analysis of missile

The path performance analysis of missile

midcourse and terminal phases the system may be designed to track acceleration commands to effect an intercept of the target. This article explores several aspects of the missile flight control system, including its role in the overall missile system, its subsystems, types of flight control systems, design objectives, and design challenges. Also discussed are some of APL’s contributions to the field, which have come primarily through our role as Technical Direction Agent on a variety of Navy missile programs.[3]
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Inherent Asymmetry and Reflex Modulation of the Locust Flight Motor Pattern

Inherent Asymmetry and Reflex Modulation of the Locust Flight Motor Pattern

Even though the locust flight control system contains a central motor score it exhibits the sort of adaptability called Plasticitdt in the case of insect walking.. In locust flight the c[r]

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For the UAV to carry out these missions, its flight control system has to be inherently reliable. Little is known on the application of Markov Analysis techniques for the failure analysis of UAV’s flight control systems. Hence, in order to ascertain the reliability of a proposed UAV flight control system design to be adopted for the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), Nigerian Air Force (NAF) base, Kaduna ABT-18 UAV project, this paper, implements Markov analysis as a tool for the failure analysis of the ABT-18 UAV flight control system.
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Development Of Arduino Based Hexacopter

Development Of Arduino Based Hexacopter

Nowadays, there has been a lot of increasing interest in hexacopter due to its high endurance and more lifting payload. Exciting videos have been published on the Internet by many research groups and have attracted much attention from the public. This journal is proposed the overview of Arduino platform and the basic of Arduino based flight control system, so no GPS and other effective sensors are not included. The effective changes in hardware and software can give high stability and reliability in UAV system. The stability of hexacopter will depend on the PID Tuning. It is need to be tuned the flight controller with each different body frame. Testing the flight controller with manual control cannot give the correct PID gain because of its friction on each joint and other magnetic forces such as mobile phones, laptop, etc.
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Journal of Electronic Systems

Journal of Electronic Systems

ABSTRACT: Increase of science and technology lead to the development of variety of missiles. Generally, a missile consists of four system components targeting and/or missile guidance, flight system, engine and war head. In order to determine the effectiveness, yield and explosive capability of these components several tests had to be done. These tests can yield their information on how they work, as well as how missile behave under various conditions. Tests like Pressure Position Test (PPT), Null Position Test (NPT), and Vectoring Tests are carried on each flex nozzle system of a missile to verify the perfor- mance of flex seal using electro hydraulic actuators, mirror image sensor and electronic controller. These tests are done for acceptance of flex nozzle control system in the missile. During the test command, pitch, average, main voltages are recorded using DAC. The flex nozzle system is integrated to pressure chamber in horizontal condition and actuators. Then the PPT, NPT and Vectoring Tests are performed using electro hydraulic actuators. In the process mentioned above, it is evident that every missile and its subsystems should be tested in order to get approved. The testing part is done by measuring certain quantities such as stress, strain, pressure, load and temperature. These quantities are compared with the standard results. Measuring of any quantity requires the help of the instrumentation. So instrumentation plays a vital role in the testing of missile system. Without the helping of this, launching of the missile is next to impossible.
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Fertilizer Spraying Quadcopter using Arduino UNO

Fertilizer Spraying Quadcopter using Arduino UNO

The goal of our project is to implement it in the field of agriculture. In order to achieve better stability we have used kk2.1.5 flight controller board, and to lift more payload 1000kva brushless dc motor is used. As the load increases the consumption of power increases which is directly proportional to the flight time (duration of flying).So 2250mAH Lipo battery (Turnigy-3s) battery is used. The lesser the weight of the quadcopter more is the efficiency , so the frame is designed with the help of glass fibre.The fertilizer and pesticide spraying process is performed by the quadcopter with the help of a servo motor which is controlled by Arduino. The entire process is monitored with the help of a mobile application created using MIT App Inventor (open source android platform). A camera is mounted on the drone in order to get the clear view of the entire field. It makes the drone user friendly and triggers the younger generation to get involved in the field of agriculture.
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Visual control of flight speed in honeybees

Visual control of flight speed in honeybees

The results of Experiment 5 reveal that flight speed is relatively insensitive to changes in the contrast of the patterns lining the tunnel walls over a broad range of contrasts (100% through to 10%; see Fig.·6B). When the contrast is reduced to a nominal value of 0% (by lining the walls with uniformly grey sheets of paper), the mean flight speed is somewhat greater than at other contrasts, although the difference is not statistically significant. This suggests that the visual system is capable of extracting motion cues even in this impoverished condition. It should be noted, however, that the contrast of the grey walls is not truly zero: rather, it is very low. Residual contrast features arising from imperfections in the printing process, from light and shade effects, and from the junctions between adjacent sheets must contribute to the detection of image movement. Indeed, it is known that the insect visual system is sensitive to motion at contrasts as low as 7% (Dvorak et al., 1980). It is possible that contrast adaptation – a phenomenon whereby the contrast sensitivity of the visual system is enhanced in the presence of low ambient contrast and is suppressed in the presence of high ambient contrast (Harris et al., 2000) – plays a role in amplifying the sensitivity to low contrasts. This possibility is supported by the finding that regulation of flight speed is better at zero contrast (Fig.·6B) than when the walls are lined with high-contrast axial stripes (Fig.·6C). In the former case, the absence of high environmental contrast would have made the visual system highly sensitive to the low-contrast flaws in the stimulus, whereas in the latter case the high contrast of the axial stripes would have made the system insensitive to the flaws. Since the axial stripes, by themselves, carry no horizontal image motion cues, it is reasonable to expect that, in the presence of contrast adaptation, the motion signals will be weaker with the axial stripes, causing the flight speed to be generally higher and more variable. This is indeed what occurs (Fig.·6C).
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Directive Access Control System

Directive Access Control System

The proposed system have total four divisions with Administration as a master and the others i.e. Research & development, production, maintenance, testing & Quality Control as a slaves are considered. Every division has a magnetic door with RFID reader which is accessed with concerned RFID Tag. The Master (administrator) has RFID tag with full access i.e. access of all the divisions, while all slaves with RFID tags have limited access i.e. their own division only. The typical application structure with specific section is illustrated in Figure (4).

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An Automated Test System for Flight Simulator Fidelity Evaluation

An Automated Test System for Flight Simulator Fidelity Evaluation

Abstract — The paper implements an automated test system for evaluating flight simulator fidelity. Flight simulator fidelity is determined by direct comparison to flight test, the detailed design process and arithmetic are given. These problems about how to measure simulator fidelity and about how much fidelity is required to guarantee a certain level of transfer of training is solved. The automated test system consist of testing item file, the file parser ,trim function and the flying part of the test ,evaluation way and transport delay measurement. The design process extends the first phase research results and sums up the two phase results. The test results imply the system structure is reasonable, its performance is effective. The ability to set up and stabilize aircraft model for each test item and act on virtual pilot is the most important contributor to the test efficiencies of the flight simulator automated test system.
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Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds  II  Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations

Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds II Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations

The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres.
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Algorithm of elements option of control system of flexible  manufacture system

Algorithm of elements option of control system of flexible manufacture system

area of creation of instruments of the computed designing control system of FMS on the stages of designing (Norenkov, 2004; Dembovski, 2004) not sufficiently embrace the problems of mathematical solution of option, determination of optimal coordinate positions and reliability of functioning sensitivity elements, sensory, executive mechanisms of the system; development of data ware on the base of searching models and knowledge of logical character; creation of functional diagram of automation on the base of the modernized system of hardware; problems of creation of instruments of simulation of control system of FMS.
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Online Full Text

Online Full Text

In practice, an UAV autopilot uses a combination of PID feedback and feedforward controllers, such as in case of Kestrel Autopilot [13], to generate the control efforts of conventional control surfaces and engine throttle. There are about fifteen flight modes of an UAV such as manual, homing, altitude, and targeting modes. The control strategy is based upon the use of cascading controllers for which multiple PID controllers are incorporated into one input/output loop. Cascading controllers that link the output from one PID unit as the input to another PID unit are useful for more complex missions and maneuvers. As for an autonomous flight the autopilot of an UAV should be correctly configured and tuned for each flight mode, this control strategy yields a great number of parameters and requires more efficient tuning procedure.
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