To address these poor cold flowproperties of biodiesel, researchers have also come up with some findings. Krishna and Butcher  said that to improve cold flow characteristics; biodiesel should be blended with petro diesel as it is being practiced, additives should be used- though this may not affect cloud point, but could reduce pour point, and also, saturates should be reduced in source material by separation and ‘tailoring’ biologically.
The courses of the angles of repose as a function of the particle size also correspond to those of the flowproperties and the bulk density. In the case of the smallest particle size fraction 100 < x < 160 µm, the values of the angles of repose are similarly high for both grinding methods. With increasing particle size, the angle of repose for the samples after grinding with a hammer mill is reduced more than for the samples after grinding with a roller mill. This too can be explained in line with the fractal dimension by the greater surface roughness of the particles after grinding with the roller mill (Table 1) (Figure 5):
acceptable pharmacotechnical properties with excellent flowproperties, in vitro release studies suggest that incorporation of Momordica charantia in curcumin formulations has no significant influence in the release profile. To conclude, the momordica charantia can be incorporated in curcumin formulations for its synergistic activity, in vivo studies can be carried out to claim the therapeutic effectiveness of the formulations.
In order to determine whether the biodiesel has the physico chemical properties within the permissible limit, it is necessary to find out the cold flowproperties of samples using the required lab experiments. Cloud point is the temperature at which the gel-like crystals start forming in the sample and pour point is that minimum temperature for which the sample becomes half solid and has a minimal tendency to flow.
The granule compressibility properties (Carr’s indices) are shown in Table 7. The values show that all the batches of the granules have poor flowproperties. Batch A had the lowest Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio of 25 % and 1.29 respectively, and batch F had the highest Carr’s Index and Hausner’s ratio 34% and 1.52 respectively. Introduction of a lubricant (magnesium stearate) brought down the Carr’s indices (27 and 26 %) for batches C and D respectively, though it did not give the batches good flowability. The poor flow observed with the granules might be due to the high
General powder characteristics includes evaluation of those parameters which are going to affect the external properties (like flowproperties, appearance, packaging criteria etc.) of the preparation, Characteristics evaluated under this section are particle size, angle of repose, bulk density and tapped density. All the three shampoo powders were taken at three different level i.e. from top, middle and lower level for the evaluation.
Tablets of batch R8 depicted the best physical properties (Table 4) accompanied with the fastest disintegration time and, therefore, batch R8 ODTs were evaluated for other parameters like flowproperties, general appearance, thickness, in vivo disintegration time, in vitro dissolution time, drug content, content uniformity and mouth feel (Table 5 & 6). The angle of repose, compressibility index and Hausner’s ratio of the powder blend of batch R8 were observed to be 28° 17’, 9.6 and 1.10 respectively, indicative of acceptable flowproperties for tablet manufacture.
The intention of the present study is to formulate mucoadhesive microspheres containing cimetidine by employing xanthan gum & gum kondagogu as mucoadhesive agent and by adapting ionotropic gelation technique. Response Surface Composite design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer concentration (X1) and sodium alginate concentration (X2) on dependent variables mucoadhesion time. The best batch exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 97.12% and a swelling index of 96.98%; percentage mucoadhesion after 10 h was 98%. The drug release was also sustained for 12 h. The prepared mucoadhesive microspheres were characterized for various properties like preformulation, flowproperties, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, entrapment efficiency and surface properties. The external and internal surface morphological characteristics of mucoadhesive microspheres were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The formulation which showed better flowproperties, in vitro drug release and entrapment efficiency was selected as optimized formulation i.e., formulation MGK5. The in vitro release profiles from optimized formulations were applied on various release kinetic models of drug and suggested that the drug release from microspheres followed non-fickian diffusion. The optimized formulations MGK5 was subjected to stability studies for six months at 40 0 ±2 0 C & 75±5%RH as per ICH guidelines and result showed that there were no changes in physical parameters, formulation parameters and in vitro release studies.
Abstract ─ Supersonic flows associated with missiles, aircraft, missile engine intake and rocket nozzles are often steady. The shape of the nozzle geometry is increasingly attractive in heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications. The objective of the present work is to simulate and understand Supersonic flows with twin free jet Flow at various Mach numbers. The purpose is to precisely understand the fluid dynamics and variation of flowproperties such as velocity, pressure and turbulence in supersonic flow regime for various Mach numbers (1.74, 2, and 3), pressure ratio and dimensionless spacing (B) between two jets. Twin jets flow, generated by two identical parallel axi- symmetric nozzles, has been numerically investigated by FLUENT software. The Mach number at the nozzle exit is observed to be less in comparison with designed value. This is due to the viscosity and turbulence in fluid near the wall of the duct. The Mach number decreases due to shock wave and reversible flow. The results show that the twin jets attract each other. The jet flow field and the merging process of two jets vary with dimension less spacing between two jets.
coefficients around a circular cylinder. It was indicated that in Reynolds number (Re) of 160, drag and lift coefficients were 1.32 and 0.5, respectively. Saha et al.  examined three-dimensional characteristics of transient flow around a square cylinder and the formation and breakdown of vortices in the Re number of 150 to 500. Results revealed that transition flow occurs between the Re number of 150 to 175. In Re number of 175, instability was observed as shifting vortices in the flow with low frequency. Shifting of the vortices was attributed to their coalescence or phase change in their structural consistency. Zhao et al.  have surveyed the numerical simulation of viscous flow around two cylinders with different diameters. This study inspected the impact of spacing between the two cylinders and angle of repose of the small cylinder on drag and lift coefficients, pressure distribution, and flowproperties. The amount and frequency of pulsating forces were compared in the two cylinders with an equivalent-diameter cylinder. Zhang and Gay  applied immersed finite-element method (IFEM) in analyzing the drag coefficient of a circular cylinder for Re number of 20 to 200. They found that the drag coefficient in Re number of 200 was equal to 1.55.
Powders behave differently under varying conditions; the behaviour of a powder is influenced by particle size distribution, and powder handling and processing conditions. There is to date no one “standard” method to characterize powder flowability; it is common to use a variety of methods and devices to measure flowproperties and provide insight into the behaviour and flow characteristics of powders under different conditions.
Since the flowproperties of the drug candidate are important for the selection of suitable method for granulation of the powder mixture, the flow of the drug is analyzed before the selection of granulation techniques. Hausner’s ratio (>1.35), compressability index(>25) and angle of repose (<36) indicates poor flowability of the drug candidate. As the drug candidate, shows poor flowability the wet granulation technique has been selected.
The present work describe development a sustained release pellets of glipizide using solution layering technique. The goal of designing the sustain drug delivery was to reduce the frequency of dosing. Glipizide (BCS II) is an antidiabetic drug with short biological half life (3.4 ± 0.7 h). Hence, sustained release formulation is needed for glipizide for better control of blood glucose levels to prevent hypoglycemia and enhance clinical efficiency, to reduce G.I disturbances and to enhance patient compliance. The effect of polymer (Eudragit RL100) and binder(PVPK30) on % drug release at 2 h and % drug release at 8 h was optimized using 3 2 factorial design. The effect of the variables and behavior of the system was studied using response surface plots. The pellets were evaluated for flowproperties, % drug content, % drug release, % coating efficiency, FT-IR, DSC. The drug release optimized batch was compared with marketed product that was found to be similar.
To prove that it does not matter what angle blade has to analyse the flow around on a relative coordinate system, a visual check has been made and afterwards the flowproperties were compared in magnitudes. In this flow case the aircraft flies horizontally, this means that the angle of attack for the propeller blades is the same in each location of the cycle. This means the expectation is that the flow will be equal at all locations. Four positions of the blade section at radius z = 1.95m have been presented in figure 4.3. Apart from very little differences the flow is indeed the same. An explanation of the minor differences is found in the rotation of the grids, due to the rotations some grids in the xy-plane become more refined than others, therefore presenting a better interpolated result in the desired direction. The same results are obtained for the other flowproperties and sections of the blade, but these are omitted from the report due to the lengthiness.
Abnormal vascular elasticity is often associated with vascular diseases in adults where compliance is crucial for optimal vascular functions. This opens the possibility that DA distensibility is involved in embryonic vascular function, specifically in helping propagation of flow forces through the network. As a mechanical pump, the heart must do work to move blood through the network. Deformation of the network can thus significantly impact heart effort and could lead to sub-optimal pumping if not well adjusted. To investigate in more detail whether the DA biomechanical properties can affect flow propagation, we used the physical model to test the effect of the DA Fig. 4. The viscous resistance of the ISV flow sets the time scale of the flow decay after heart stops. (A-D) Visualization of the vascular network shape Tg(flk1:eGFP) (A,C) and ISVs with active flow [appearing in pink (false color) after standard deviation projection] (B,D) in controls (A,B) and kdrl knock down (C,D) at 3 dpf. White arrowheads indicate active ISVs. (E) Plot of the simulated experiment. The heart stops at t=15 seconds for both cases. The axes are flow velocity in μm/second versus time for control (red curve), where all the a/vISV are functional and mutants (blue curve) where 85% of the a/vISV are blocked (zero diameter). (F) Example of plots observed for the flow decay after heart stop in one control (red) and one kdrl knockdown (blue) embryo.
Erythrocyte deformability refers to the cellular proper- ties of erythrocytes (red blood cells) that determine the degree of shape change under a given level of applied force. Erythrocytes change their shape extensively under the influence of applied forces in fluid flow or while pas- sing through microcirculation. The extent and geometry of this shape change is determined by the mechanical properties of erythrocytes, the magnitudes of the applied forces and the orientation of erythrocytes with respect to the applied forces. Deformability is an intrinsic property of erythrocytes that is determined by the geometric and material properties of this unique cell type .
Behaviour of gas flowing in pipes is another important area of fluid flow investigation. Compressible flow in gas pipeline that was subjected to wall friction and heat transfer was numerically modeled. The result obtained from this study was investigated on a natural gas pipeline under different thermal condition. How the heat affects the pressure drop, temperature, and the match number were also investigated. These are caused by the friction and the heat exchange changes . Numerical analysis was carried out on fluids flow through a smooth circular micro-channels with different diameter, two different fluids were considered; air with slip boundary conditions and water with no slip boundary conditions. In this case the dissipation term in the energy equation was consid- ered due to the small dimensions of the micro-channel. The momentum equation was combined with the energy equation and solved using a finite volume approach. The
Flow Unit, also known as hydraulic unit, is an emerging reservoir research method in middle and late 1980s. Researchers both as home and abroad, due to different research angles and objects, possess slightly different understanding and research methods to flow cell. Hearn argues that flow unit is a horizontally and vertically continuous reservoir stratum, owning similar lithology characteristics in various parts and parallel petrophysical properties affecting fluid flow ; Ebanks considers that flow unit is the rock mass that further broken down based on the change of geological and physical properties affecting the flow of fluid in rock ; Amaefule believes that flow unit is the intervals having similar hydraulic characteristics in given rock  and he thinks that flow unit is the representative base volume affecting fluid flow’s physical properties of reservoir to be constant and can be distinguished from other rock volume in total rock volume of the reservoir; while Jiao Yangquan and Li Sitian believe that flow unit is the building blocks divided by hydrodynamic conditions within deposition system [7,8], which shares similar concepts with structural unit (structural elements); Qiu Yinan considered that flow unit is the fluid flow channel formed naturally and featuring certain degree of oil displacing created through injection water passing geological structure due to a variety of heterogeneity in reservoir, barriers and bypass channeling conditions ; Mu Longxin argues that flow unit is, when an oil sand and its inner part are limited by boundary, the reservoir units with similar permeability and water flooding characteristics formed under the influences of discontinuous thin barrier layer, various deposition micro interfaces, minor faults and permeability differences and other factors .
apart into fragments. The analysis was carried out using a GC PERICHROM PR2100 equipped with a capillary column (50 m × 0.201 mm × 0.50 _m) with HP-PONA stationary phase and flame ionization detector. The carrier gas was helium at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min. The GC column was kept at 120°C for 5 min, heated at a rate of 4°C/min up to 225°C and kept at 225°C for 20 min. The injector and detector temperatures were set at 250°C. External standard method was used for GC calibration. Standard solutions of methyl esters were prepared and injected into the GC under identical conditions. Then, calibration curve for each methyl ester was derived and used for quantification of methyl esters concentration in the samples. The preparation of the purified biodiesel samples for injection into the GC was carried out as follow: 0.3 g of the biodiesel sample was dissolved in 5 ml of n-hexane and 1 µL of this solution was injected into the GC machine.