Authentication that is GraphicalPassword Authentication using Images Sequence. In existing environment, a very important problem in information security is user authentication. There are many authentication techniques like textual, graphical, biometric, smart card etc. The existing graphical authentication techniques based on images selection are not good enough because in these techniques images are predefined by the system. In this paper, a new technique is proposed. In this method, user will upload images from his/her personal gallery/directory for password selection and images uploaded by one user will not be visible to other user. Graphicalpassword is used as an alternative to textual/traditional alphanumeric password. Traditional alphanumeric password is difficult to memorize and usually forget by users as times passes when user remain unattached from the system, but in case of graphicalpassword there are less chances to forget password because people remember images more easily than text based password. There are also less chances for hackers to steal the graphical based password because hackers will be unable to access the images uploaded by the user as password. We tested this method in a Web- based application.
Hotspots and dictionary attacks. In some of the cases where attackers are not in a position to capture information from the user, they are limited to what they can conclude through image analysis. Hotspots are speciﬁc areas in the image that have a higher probability of being selected as part of their passwords by users. If attackers can accurately predict the hotspots in an image, then it becomes easier to built a dictionary of passwords containing combinations of these hotspots. Hotspots are known to be problematic for Image segmentation ; further analysis is needed to determine whether precautions such as carefully selecting grids can minimize this threat. A key advantage of Image Segmentation over any other graphicalpassword authentication is that it is feasible to brute force and dictionary attacks. It also provides a way of making more human friendly but strong passwords. For example, if a user selects an image of buildings he is familiar with. That way, not only does a user is easily able to arrange the grids in the proper sequence but also manage to protect its data from infiltrators. As a result, the security of the system is very high. The major disadvantage however is that it takes a lot of time to register and log in to the system. 3. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
Abstract-- Nowadays, user authentication is one of the important topics in information security. Text-based strong password scheme can provide security to a certain degree. However, the fact that strong passwords being difficult to memorize often leads their owners to write them down on papers or even save them in a computer file. Recently, many networks, computer system and Internet-based environments try using graphical authentication techniques as their user’s authentication. Here we are presenting proposed scheme as Graphicalpassword authentication Scheme based on Color Image Gallery which is very useful for any computer related application such as web authentication, desktop &laptop logins, critical servers. Keywords--- GraphicalPassword, Image Recognition
Conceptually, CCP is a mix of the three; in terms of implementation, it is most similar to PassPoints. It also avoids the complex user training requirements found in a number of graphicalpassword proposals, such as that of Weinshall . Passfaces is a graphicalpassword scheme based primarily on recognizing human faces. During password creation, users select a number of images from a larger set. To log in, users must identify one of their pre-selected images from amongst several decoys. Users must correctly respond to a number of these challenges for each login. Davis et al  implemented their own version called Faces and conducted a long- term user study. Results showed that users could accurately remembers their images but that user-chosen passwords were predictable to the point of being insecure.
Abstract— Computer security depends largely on passwords to authenticate the human users from attackers. The most common computer authentication method is to use alphanumerical usernames and passwords. However, there are significant drawbacks in this method. For example, Passwords selected by users are easily guessed by the attacker. On the other hand, passwords which are difficult to guess are difficult to remember. To overcome this problem of low security, Authentication methods are developed by researchers that use images as password. In this research paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the existing graphicalpassword techniques and provide a possible theory of our own.
Click Buttons according to Figures in Grids (CBFG) , is another hybrid scheme which is a combination of Locimetric, Cognometric and alphanumeric schemes. At the time of registration, the user is presented with four background images and ten icons. The users have to select one cell on each image as password cells and choose one icon as password icon. The user can click on any key til the icon is the password icon. Then the user has to click on the numeric key, then for each password cell. When the authentication of password cells is done, the users have to continue clicking the remaining keys to ensure that all the buttons are clicked. There are multiple background images in the CBFG, hence it provides a large password space compared to other hybrid schemes. However, hotspot problem can occur in password cell selection of CBFG. Since the sequence entered each time is in pure random manner, it is still a difficult task for the hacker to guess the user password even if he or she records the entire login process with a hidden camera.
ABSTRACT: Nowadays, user authentication is an important topic in the field of information security. To enforce security of information, passwords were introduced. Text based password is a popular authentication method used from ancient times. However text based passwords are prone to various attacks such as dictionary attacks, guessing attacks, brute force attacks, social engineering attacks etc. Numerous graphicalpassword schemes have been proposed so far as it improves password usability and security. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the existing graphicalpassword techniques. We can categorize these techniques into four: recognition-based, pure recall-based, cued-recall based and hybrid approaches. Here we analyze the strengths and drawbacks of each method. This survey will be particularly useful for researchers who are interested in developing new graphicalpassword algorithms as well as industry practitioners who are interested in deploying graphicalpassword techniques.
1) Textual passwords: Recall-based techniques require the user to repeat or reproduce a secret that the user created before. Recognition based techniques require the user to identify and recognize the secret, or part of it, that the user selected before. One of the most common recall-based authentication schemes used in the computer world is textual passwords. One major drawback of the textual password is its two conflicting requirements: the selection of passwords that are easy to remember and, at the same time, are hard to guess Klein collected the passwords of nearly 15 000 accounts that had alphanumerical passwords, and he reached the following observation: 25% of the passwords were guessed by using a small yet well-formed dictionary of 3 X 106 words. Furthermore, 21% of the passwords were guessed in the first week and 368 passwords were guessed within the first 15 min. Klein stated that by looking at these results in a system with about 50 accounts, the first account can be guessed in 2 min and 5–15 accounts can be guessed in the first day. Klein showed that even though the full textual password space for eight-character passwords consisting of letters and numbers is almost 2 X 1014 possible passwords, it is easy to crack 25% of the passwords by using only a small subset of the full password space. It is important to note that Klein’s experiment was in 1990 when the processing capabilities, memory, networking, and other resources were very limited compared to today’s technology
email service.Our usability study of two CaRP schemes we have implemented is encouraging. For example, more participants considered AnimalGrid and ClickText easier to use than PassPoints and a combination of text password and Captcha. Both AnimalGrid and ClickText had better password memorability than the conventional text passwords. On the other hand, the usability of CaRP can be further improved by using images of different levels of difficulty based on the login history of the user and the machine used to log in. The optimal tradeoff between security and usability remains an open question forCaRP, and further studies are needed to refine CaRP for actual deployments.
ABSTRACT: Nowadays computer system access uses alphanumerical password. Such password hard to remember due to its length (long) or sometime it is randomly generated. Short and simple passwords may lead to vulnerability as well as write password in text file and put it in insecure place (drawer) which is also highly vulnerable. To overcome it, we introduce passwords which make use of graphical,such as images. Humain brain are more supportive to pictures rather then text. So such password easy to remember to use.
Existing system allow authentication security to graphicalpassword that has control as username in text format. The knowledge based authentication that measure extraordinarily text based passwords. Users has to produce unforgettable passwords that are truthful for attackers to guess, because the system assigned passwords are difficult for users to recollect, a graphicalpassword authentication system that to encourage users with password that are unforgettable. New concepts like recognition pass point; recall based and cued click points. Cued click points is the latest technique that provides hot spot pictures. This paper overcomes authentication concepts incorporate with graphical username and password techniques.
Spyware is a type of malware which installed on computers with the aim of collecting sensitive information of users, using a key logger or key listener. This information gathered without user’s knowledge and report back to an outside source. During graphicalpassword authentication the attacker attempt to gain sensitive information like user names or selected passwords images by intercepting information exchanged. Such information has to be correlated with application information, such as window position and size, as well as timing information.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the reasons behind low commercial acceptance and provide suitable recommendations to overcome them. In the second half of this paper, based on these recommendations, we design a simple graphicalpassword scheme, called SECURE GRAPHICALPASSWORD AUTHENTICATION is a cued recognition based graphical authentication scheme, which allows users to choose number, text as well as images as passwords without any specific alternations to underlying authentication design and process. It also blends together the strengths of Numbers, Alphabets and Pictures (NAP) to effectively defeat prevalent forms of social hacking. In this paper we describe the complete design of SECURE GRAPHICALPASSWORD AUTHENTICATION and argue for its potential benefits in terms of security and usability. We then provide results of user study and security analysis.
The motivation lies in graphicalpassword authentication based on the assumption that images are easier to remember and secure than textual password. It is generally easier for people to recognize the displayed item than to use their memory to recall the same information without any help . A classical cognitive science experiment has shown that people have a strong image memory capability . Recognition-based techniques are therefore a preferable graphicalpassword, where a number of user-selected images are identified amongst others. This method was suggested as a helpful solution to textual passwords, as it contains many valuable features such as ease of memorize, convenience and a reasonable degree of security. For a solid authentication scheme, the password space is essential. Most recognition schemes commonly have small space for passwords, while many systems offer a significantly larger space for passwords. The proposed scheme therefore utilizes both techniques to achieve the best. In this study, the researchers try to examine how emojis can mitigate and achieve this objective.
This report focuses on graphicalpassword authentication and the different forms commonly used today. It also highlights the advantages graphical passwords have over text based passwords and the forms of attack you can be prone to while using graphical passwords. Because of increasing threats to computer systems, there is great need for security requirements. Security practitioners and researchers have made studies in protecting systems, individual users and digital assets. However, the problem arises that, until recently, security was treated wholly as a technical problem, and the system user was not factored into the equation. Users interact with security technologies either passively or actively. For passive use understandability may be sufficient for users. For active use people need much more from their security solutions and usability solutions such as: ease of use, memorability, usability, efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction.
A password is a form of secret authentication data that is used to control access to a resource. It is kept secret from those who are not allowed access, and those wishing to gain access are tested on whether or not they know the password and are granted or denied authentication. In recent years, passwords are used to control access to secure mobile phones, OS, ATM machines etc. passwords are used for many purposes such as log in to computer accounts, retrieving e-mail, accessing databases, networks, web sites, files and others. Drawbacks of normal textual password include forgetting the password, stolen the password and short password selection. This means, there is a great necessity to have a strong authentication mechanism to secure all our applications. In early days, conventional passwords have been used for authentication but they are having usability and security issues. Other methods such as graphicalpassword authentication are one of the possible solutions to overcome these limitations. Graphical based password authentication has been introduced as an alternative to textual, biometric and token based authentication . This is due to the fact that humans can remember images rather than alphanumeric characters . Images are easier to be remembered than text, especially photos, which are even easier to be remembered than random pictures . In graphicalpassword scheme, the problem arises because passwords are expected to have two fundamental needs: The password should be secured one and the password should be easy to remember. Graphical passwords were originally introduced by Blonde.
Various graphicalpassword schemes have been proposed as alternatives to text-based passwords. Psychology research has proved that the human brain is better at recognizing and Recalling images compare to text. Graphical passwords are intended to capitalize on this human characteristic in hopes that by reducing the memory burden on users, coupled with a larger full password space offered by images, more secure passwords can be produced and users will not resort to unsafe practices in order to Scope .Mostly user select password that is predictable. This happens with both graphical and text based passwords. Users tend to choose memorable password, unfortunately it means that the passwords tend to follow predictable patterns that are easier for attackers to guess. While the predictability problem can be solved by prohibiting user choice and assigning passwords to Users using some standards, this usually leads to usability issues since users cannot easily remember random passwords. Number of graphicalpassword systems has been developed. Study shows that text-based passwords suffer with both security and usability problems. Integration of sound signature in graphicalpassword authentication system is designing and developing new model of graphicalpassword which works on click based graphic method, in this method random images are used where user need to select one click per image after selecting image user is requested to select sound signature corresponding to each click Point .
sentences from a non-mother-tongue into a mother-tongue language victimization machine-translation programs This approach needs the user to be good within the English and is so not appropriate for non-English speakers. The Pic CAPTCHA uses an oversized info pictures} and animated images of everyday objects love dogs, flowers etc. The user is shown four completely different photos of identical object and is needed to a word to point the item or thought to that all pictures belong. Bin B. Zhu enforced the Captcha as Graphical arcanums-A New Security Primitive supported exhausting AI Problems. This authentication system relies on Animal Grid and click on text which might be employed in smartphone still as desktop computers. HosseinNejati enforced the DeepCAPTCHA: a picture CAPTCHA supported Depth Perception. During this system half-dozen pictures totally different of various} objects and different sizes of pictures is employed and user task is to order these pictures in terms of their relative size. Hadyn Ellis enforced the Science behind Pass faces. during this system 3x3 grid is employed. User conjointly uses the human faces or a numerical input device worth this worth is corresponds to the faces on the grid. In this a minimum of three to seven faces user ought to choose for login method. However during this system needed login time are often increased if user selects additional passfaces.P. R. Devale enforced Cued Click Points with Click Draw primarily based GraphicalPassword. During this system increasing security victimization secret drawing especially image throughout authentication process. Correct Arcanum or incorrect Arcanum is displayed once final click. Pankaja Patil enforced Graphicalpassword authentication victimization persuasive cued click purpose. During this system once filling the shape user will choose user define image or system outline image at that time user ought to click any pixels within the pictures as click purpose to form graphical arcanum. Throughout creation of arcanum one read port that's willy-nilly positioned on the image User conjointly change this read port if user doesn't need that read port. Read port are often modified victimization Shuffle. Throughout registration phase user has got to click five purpose at intervals that read port and at a login time sequence should be in correct order If the user is not registered then user has to create an account by giving username and password. And according to that password, user will get a new Captcha challenge every time. By clicking on correct points user can login. Then Authenticated server receives password of particular account and calculate its hash value using algorithm like SHA-1.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the reasons behind low commercial acceptance and provide suitable recommendations to overcome them. In the second half of this paper, based on these recommendations, we design a simple graphicalpassword scheme, called USER AUTHENTICATION BY SECURED GRAPHICALPASSWORD IMPLEMENTATION. USER AUTHENTICATION BY SECURED GRAPHICALPASSWORD IMPLEMENTATION is a cued recognition based graphical authentication scheme, which allows users to choose both text as well as images as passwords without any specific alternations to underlying authentication design and process. It also blends together the strengths of Numbers, Alphabets and Pictures (NAP) to effectively defeat prevalent forms of social hacking. In this paper we describe the complete design of USER AUTHENTICATION BY SECURED GRAPHICALPASSWORD IMPLEMENTATION and argue for its potential benefits in terms of security and usability. We then provide results of user study and security analysis. Finally, we conclude with the summary of our contribution.
password and Captcha. Both AnimalGrid and ClickText had better password memorability than the conventional text passwords. On the other hand, the usability of CaRP can be further improved by using images of different levels of difficulty based on the login history of the user and the machine used to log in. The optimal trade off between security and usability remains an open question for CaRP, and further studies are needed to refine CaRP for actual deployments. Like Captcha, CaRP utilizes unsolved AI problems. However, a password is much more valuable to attackers than a free email account that Captcha is typically used to protect. Therefore there are more incentives for attackers to hack CaRP than Captcha. That is, more efforts will be attracted to the following win-win game by CaRP than ordinary Captcha: If attackers succeed, they contribute to improving AI by providing solutions to open problems such as segmenting 2D texts. Otherwise, our system stays secure, contributing to practical security. As a framework, CaRP does not rely on any specific Captcha scheme. When one Captcha scheme is broken, a new and more secure one may appear and be converted to a CaRP scheme. Overall, our work is one step forward in the paradigm of using hard AI problems for security. Of reasonable security and usability and practical applications, CaRP has good potential for refinements, which call for useful future work.