Water is a very important substance, as it makes up the larger part of an organism's body. Inside the body of a human being, there is a skeleton, which makes your body solid and makes sure you can stand up without falling apart. Water is also a kind of skeleton. It consists of tiny particles, the atoms, just like every other substance on earth. The flooding of rivers at the time of excessive rains increases ground water percolation. It may create dilution of pollutants in ground water chambers. Even the polluters like industry also suffer due to increased pollution of the rivers. Ground water pollution has several dimensions. Effective monitoring and control of ground water pollution requires the expertise from various disciplines. In India it is reported that about 70% of the available water is polluted. After the analysis of water samples of Hand pump and Tube wells from different locations results were compared. Suitable suggestions were made to improve the quality of water.
In this arrangement, the outlet from the hand pump is given into the preliminary filter cartridge. The losses occurring in the filter cause a considerable reduction in pressure of the flow. The fluid then flows into the sediment filter, where particles of size higher than 0.3 micron get caught up in it.The fluid from the sediment filter goes into the reverse osmosis membrane where the dissolved salts get removed from the water. The pressure of the flow is reduced considerably after this stage. The low pressure flow then goes into the carbon filter. The output from the filter is obtained at -5.78*10 4 Pascal. The figure 1 shows the analysis of this arrangement done in ANSYS FLUENT software.
Water pollution are mainly due to contamination by foreign matter such as microorganism, chemicals, industrial or other wastes or sewage which deteriorate the quality of the water and render it unfit for its intended uses. Ingestion of polluted water can result various health hazards. Disposal of sewage water into fresh water aquifers is the main cause of groundwater pollution. Hence determination of groundwater quality is important to observe the suitability of water for particular use. Groundwater monitoring of hands pump is one of the important tool for evaluating groundwater quality. Considering these aspects of hand-pump water pollution the present study of groundwater monitoring was undertaken to investigate physicochemical characteristics of some groundwater samples from different area located in Patna proper town.
More fungi were isolated from the samples during the wet season than the dry season (Tables 1 and 2). This may be because of the flood which may have deposited its contents including nutrients and fungi near the boreholes resulting in their seepage into such boreholes. This result agreed with the report of Onuorah et al.  on the mycology of hand-dug shallow water wells in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria.
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The physical problems associated with prolonged use of the lever pump, do not end with the odd twinge discomfort, but they can easily extend to repetitive strain injury (RSI) causing chronic or permanent damage (Beckett, 1995). In terms of everyday use, an ergonomic mechanism is one which not only allows the user to complete task, but will also actively facilitate the task. A radial mechanism with gearing system was designed to incorporate some bearings to reduce frictional effects as the crank of the system rotates the gears. The gearing of the mechanism was designed to amplify the reciprocating motion of the pump, which in turn improved the rate of discharge that minimizes the stress of the user.
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Effective monitoring and control of ground water pollution requires the expertise from various disciplines. In India it is reported that about 70% of the available water is polluted. After the analysis of water samples of Hand pump and Tube wells from different locations results were compared. Suitable suggestions were made to improve the quality of water. Inside the body of a human being, there is a skeleton, which makes your body solid and makes sure you can stand up without falling apart. Water is also a kind of skeleton. It consists of tiny particles, the atoms, just like every other substance on earth. The flooding of rivers at the time of excessive rains increases ground water percolation. It may create dilution of pollutants in ground water chambers. Even the polluters like industry also suffer due to increased pollution of the rivers. Ground water pollution has several dimensions.
interested future consumers during the presentations. Hand water pump with a pendulum is a realization of a new, original, and even unbelievable, by very simple solution for pumping water. Work is alleviated because easier, long-lasting and effortless use of the hand water pump has been enabled. Input energy for starting the process of pumping, in form of occasional pushing of the pendulum, is much less than with typical hand pumps. Hand water pump with a pendulum for pumping water out from wells or reservoirs consists of a cylinder with a piston, lever system, a seesaw, a pendulum, a reservoir and output water pipe. To get the water running out of the pump, the pendulum needs to be out of balance. After that, based on gravitational potential, the piston starts oscillating and the continuous stream of water is coming out of the output pipe. The pendulum should be occasionally pushed, to maintain the amplitude i.e. the stream of water. The pump works well with all sizes of the pendulum, but mainly with the amplitude of 90°. The advantage of this invention compared to present hand pump solutions are: less force to start the pump, less water consumption, both arms can be used to fetch the water. The invention is applicable on other devices that use lever mechanisms, such as a hand press etc.
Ground water is one of most important source of the domestic water use in our country the water supply bodies’ i.e. municipal corporation Jal nigam, or Nagar nigam are mainly depends on the ground water resources of the area. In the light of all these facts the work was demonstrate in the Bareilly city to access the current ground water quality of the city. By taking some parameters like. pH, TDS, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium Hardness and Total Hardness, Alkalinity and the conclusion of the results state that the minimum value was observed in the hand pump water 7.16 at Nagar nigam site were as maximum 7.84 was observed in Tap water sample at Kila. In the term of TDS maximum was found in bore well water sample 120.8 mg/l at Cant site and minimum 92.5 mg/l in Tap water sample of Cant site. In term of hardness maximum hardness 218.1 mg/l was observed at Satellite region in Hand pump water sample and minimum was observed at Cant area in Tap water sample i.e. 92 mg/l Calcium hardness was found between 70.03 to 191.1 mg/l. Of Satellite and Kutubkhana in hand pump sample Mg hardness was maximum analysis in the sample of hand pump of Nagar nigam area i.e. 45.4 mg /l and 19.98 mg/l. In Tap water sample Nagar nigam area. Alkalinity was found maximum 29.02 mg/l in bore well sample of Kutubkhana and minimum was found in Tap water sample 11.08 mg/l Nagar nigam. The result comes out of study shows that all the water are Fit for consumption and Tape water supply is good it due to the treatment of water before supply.
Temp. was measured by celcius ther mometer. pH, turbidity and conductivity measured by digital pH meter (type-335), digital Nephlo turbidity meter (type-132) & direct reading conductivity meter resp. TDS was estimated by digital TDS meter (metz-701M) Chloride was estimated by volumetric titration with AgNO 3. Total hardness was determined by volumetric titration (EDTA method). Alkalinity was determined by volumetric titration. Sulphate was estimated by UV- VS spectra photometer (type-118). Metals were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer meter (AAS) with a Perkin - Elmer model- 2380 instrument using Perkin- Elmer hollow cathode lamp as light source. Fluor ide concentration was determined spectrophotometrically using Alizarin red – S and SPANDS reagents. The Alizarin red- S method was found useful in higher fluoride range while SPANDS reagent was employed in low fluoride range. 13 The results for hand pump water
ABSTRACT: This methodology deals with the increase in performance of the pole stopper, and to improve labour safety while anchoring. In this system, the pole stopper end is coupled with a hydraulic jack instead of the pole stopper lock to reduce the effort in engaging pole stopper for breaking operation of the anchor. Hence the pole stopper operates in a semi-automatic and in an efficient manner. By converting the pole stopper into semi-automatic, the system can be operated in three ways namely, by directional valve, hand pump and also by manual method. By applying hydraulic jack mechanism in a manual pole stopper, the manual effort can be reduced in a tremendous manner, there is no anchor failure while anchoring the anchor due to the gradual submerging. Due to this system, if any failure occur in breaking motors, the breaking applied by the pole stopper makes it easy to do. It also increases overall efficiency of the breaking system. Anchoring failures can also be prevented and human lives can be saved. This project will be worthy in life saving of labour and also in anchor safety
This Paper includes the importance of hand water pump using pendulum rather than using simple hand pump. One important feature of this pump with a pendulum is that the work is alleviated which makes work rather easier compared to a traditional hand water pump. It is used due to efficient mode in irrigation of smaller lots, water-wells and also used to extinguishing fires even by old people and children. With the help of pendulum based water pumping system that can increase the efficiency of the plant and reduce effort, cost of production, production time, manpower requirements.
Water represents the basic elements supporting life and the natural environment, a primary component for industry, a consumer item for humans and animals, and a vector for domestic and industrial pollution. Much of ill health that affects humanity, especially in the developing countries can be traced to lack of safe and wholesome water supply. There can be not state of positive health and well being without water. The study was aimed at examining the various samples of drinking water and the quality of the groundwater as it relates to public health. Ten groundwater samples were taken from hand pump were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), chloride, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and total hardness. The results were compared with WHO and IS: 10500 standards. The usefulness of these parameters in predicting ground water quality characteristics were discussed. Thus an attempt has been made to find the quality of ground water in around Chitrakoot region Tahsil Majhagwan suitable for drinking purposes or not.
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9. The concentration of calcium (Ca 2+ ) has varied from 12.51 to 335.52 mg/L, and 22.3 to 332.4mg/L. Higher value of calcium may be due to the presence of rock soil in the study area. The concentration of magnesium (Mg 2+ ) is higher in samples 2, 7, 10, 11-15, 22-24 of bore wells, in samples hand pump water 3, 7, 12 - 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22 - 24. This higher value of magnesium may be from leaching of rocks. The concentration of sodium (Na + ) ranges from 93.0 to 280.0 mg/L in bore wells, 38 to 286.0 mg/L in hand pumps and water respectively in the study area. The concentration of potassium (K + ) ranges from 0 to 20.0 mg/L in bore wells, from 0.00 to 32.00 mg/L in hand pumps respectively in the study area. Its concentration however is usually quite lower than that of sodium, calcium and magnesium.
Abstract — The principle motive of this assignment is to research and development of insecticides sprayer pump. This task often centered on pesticide sprayer’s pump with precise layout characteristics consisting of ergonomics, smooth to fabricate, with aesthetic fee with lowest fee. First of all this work is carried out by using the usage of pesticide sprayers, hand pump that is completely operated by hand. But this sprayer has positive barriers like it cannot maintain required pressure, it leads to issues of returned ache. However, this equipment additionally leads to overlook an application of chemical substances and ineffective manipulate of target pest which ends up in lack of pesticides due to dribbling or drip all through utility. A pesticide sprayer must be accessible and with a multiplied tank ability and also price is reduced, labor and spraying time. With a purpose to reduce these troubles, wide variety of sprayer introduce within the marketplace, but those devices do now not meet the above troubles. The conventional sprayer having problems such because it needs plenty of effort to push the lever up and down so one can create the pressure to spray. One extra issue of petrol sprayer is to want to buy the gas, which increases the going for walks value of the sprayer. So to conquer all the drawbacks we must design pesticide sprayer pump that's completely operated through a chain force which is pushed by way of bullock cart .There may be an enormous amount of growth in performance, lessen in manpower, labor cost and decrease walking fee. So multi-functional we growth the performance, lessen the time taken and finished all the desired parameters we required from pesticide sprayers hand pump.
IJSRR, 8(2) April. – June., 2019 Page 2473 workers as well as difficulty in reaching the parts of the bike during servicing. So for this problem we can up with the idea that we should construct a lifting machine that will be able to lift the bike in different positions so that the worker can perform the servicing procedure easily. Hydraulic sky lifter uses the concept of Pascal’s law for the purpose of lifting the bikes. In this structure, hand pump is used to generate pressure in the hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic cylinder consists of oil which when pressurized results in lifting of the bike. Along with the cylinder there is a guide bar, which serves the purpose of controlling the height up to which the bike can be lifted. The guide bar lets the bike to be lifted up to 3-4 ft. height. When the bike gets lifted, the motion of the guide bar can be locked and can fully offload the bike from the cylinder. The structure consists of three base channels. These channels support the structure as the load gets differentiated between the three channels. Then there are rollers available which help to manoeuvre the bike and can move the bike from one place to another with the minimal effort.
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Many communities who are served by an improved water source (e.g. a hand pump or borehole) may still experience operational challenges, and subsequent disruptions in service. Water pumps, like most equipment, will deteriorate and exhibit worsening performance with age (Jiménez and Pérez-Foguet, 2011). But when such water infrastructure malfunctions, local users will often need to revert to the use of less protected water-sources, increasing their risk of exposure to water-related diseases. The problems associated with broken water infrastructure have been well documented (RWSN, 2010, Chowns, 2015, RWSN, 2015). For example, a previous study reported that between 20% and 65% of hand pumps installed in a range of African countries were broken, or out of use (RWSN, 2010). Whilst, another recent report has claimed that between 30 to 40% of rural water systems are failing prematurely (USAid, 2016). It has been estimated that some 62 million people, across this region, are impacted by broken water infrastructure (Swan et al., 2017). This issue threatens to undermine some of the recent progress that has been made as a result of the MDG targets (e.g. MDG 7.C). In addition to these social impacts, broken pumps also represent a financial loss in infrastructural investment. For example, it has been reported that over the last 20 years, broken hand pumps in Africa have represented between $1.2 and $1.5 billion of ineffective investment (IRC, 2009; USAid, 2016).
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As per WHO, the water containing more than 500 mg/l of Total solid is not considered desirable for drinking water. The experimental value of Total Solid concentration of Sitakund main kund, Hand pump hot spring site, Bardah village hot spring reservoir site during a period from Oct 2014 to June 2016 varies from 246 mg/l to 334 mg/l, 206 mg/l to 322 mg/l and 272 mg/l to 366 mg/l respectively, which is less than WHO standard (500mg/l). So, this water is potable. Total Solid is a combination of both Total Dissolved Solid and Total Suspended Solid. The observed Total Suspended Solid concentration during period from Oct 2014 to June 2016 in above mentioned all three sites of Sitakund varies from 34 mg/l to 130 mg/l ,28 mg/l to 96 mg/l and 32 mg/l to 124 mg/l respectively. All concentrations are within desirable limit as per WHO standard.
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In conclusion, the gain performance of the dual pump scheme has better performance compared to the single pump double pass scheme. For the input signals power, higher the input signal power lead to higher gain performance. While for pump power, higher the pump power resulting higher the gain performance. Contrarily, the gain is reduced at the certain level when the population inversion is provided for all erbium ion in the fiber and amplifier goes saturated. Thus, the objectives of the project are successfully fulfilled. However, there are several recommendations that need to be highlighted for gain improvement to ensure that there are more innovation and improvement for better used applications in the future. For example, applying a backward for single and dual pump double pass scheme. There is a lot type of configuration available in EDFA including forward and backward configuration. With that, the gain of backward pump configuration can be investigated and compared with the forward configuration. Besides that, it is recommended that beyond the simulation works, it is suggested to apply the experimental procedure to compare the result with the computational simulation.
Ground water samples of bore well (BW), Open well (OP), Hand pump (HP), Lakes, ponds Callected from different locations of burhar block of shahdol district, Madhaya Pradesh. The present study was undertaken to characterize the physicochemical parameter such as Temp, pH, Total Alkalinity (TA), Electrical conductance (EC), calcium hardness ( CH), Magnesium hardness (MH), Total hardness (TH), Total dissolved solid (TDS), DO, Fluoride.Each parameter was compared with its standard permissible limit as prescribed by WHO. The study reveals that the ground water of area needs some degree of treatment before consumption it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.
Water samples were aseptically collected from fifteen public hand-pump boreholes sited by the State Government in different locations in Onueke in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. They were collected using sterile two litre screwed-capped plastic containers. The containers were first washed with detergents and rinsed with sterile distilled water. Each of the well- labeled containers was thereafter rinsed with the water from the respective boreholes three times before collecting the samples for use. The pH and temperature of the water samples were measured at the site of collection using a pH