Intraperitoneal Injection

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The carcinogenic effect of various multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) after intraperitoneal injection in rats

The carcinogenic effect of various multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) after intraperitoneal injection in rats

Mitsui MWCNT-7 carbon nanotubes with an average width of 100 nm and a length of 1 to 20 μm (median of 2 μm) administered by intraperitoneal injection into het- erozygous p53 mice [13,46] and by intrascrotal injection into Fischer 344 rats [47] caused mesotheliomas as well. Mitsui MWCNT-7 show a needle-like straight structure, probably due to their relatively large diameter, and this kind of MWCNTs is structurally very similar to carcino- genic mineral fibers. This is in accordance with our observations on our tailor-made MWCNTs. The more needle-like MWCNTs A and B with mean widths of 85 and 62 nm, respectively, seemed to have a stronger car- cinogenic potency than MWCNTs of type C with a diameter of 40 nm and a more bent structure than MWCNTs A and B. At least the low-dose MWCNT C group showed a slightly later onset of tumor-related morbidity compared with MWCNTs A and B. The later onset of tumor-related morbidity and moderate meso- thelioma incidences in the MWCNT D groups may be due to the same reason. In the scanning electron micros- copy photographs this type of nanotube shows a more curved shape compared with MWCNTs A, B, and also C. The bent nanotube material D had the highest por- tion of WHO fibers with a length greater than 5 μm, but the lowest portion of WHO fibers with a length greater than 20 μm. It is known that the carcinogenic potency of biopersistent mineral fibers increases with growing fiber length. Frustrated phagocytosis and long clearance half-times in the pleural space may play a role in this context [3].There must be other factors than length and diameter influencing the effect of MWCNTs. The kinetic behavior of bent MWCNTs is most probably different from that of straight MWCNTs, which might influence clearance half-times.
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Porcine Wharton’s jelly cells distribute throughout the body after intraperitoneal injection

Porcine Wharton’s jelly cells distribute throughout the body after intraperitoneal injection

allogeneic cells using PCR to detect the SRY gene. Pigs are a good species for cell tracking in this way because prenatal chimerism does not occur in pigs [16]. There- fore, the SRY-positive cells indicate the locations of transplanted cells or their progeny. Our results show that allogeneic pig WJCs injected IP consistently reach tissues throughout the body. This result indicates that IP injection should be considered in WJC transplantations. As recently pointed out by Parys et al. [17] the IP route limits the potential side effects that have been reported after intravenous injections of MSCs. These effects in- clude retention of cells in the lungs [6, 7] and an instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction [18]. It has also been reported that exposure to the lung environment al- ters the expression of genes regulating immunological pathways [19].
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Screening for antiviral activity of Actinomycetes isolated from soil sediments

Screening for antiviral activity of Actinomycetes isolated from soil sediments

Both in vitro and in vivo screening for antiviral substances has long been conducted in our laboratory with Streptomyces culture filtrates. Myxoviromycin, kikumycin and formycin were discovered and studied in this continuing effort to develop new antiviral agents. However, with all of these compounds, the concentration in blood after intraperitoneal injection into experimental animals was not high enough to inhibit virus growth in vitro, even though a chemotherapeutic effect against certain virus infections in vivo can be demonstrated. When the bioretention of the Streptomyces culture filtrate reported here was tested by measuring the antiviral effect after intraperitoneal injection in to mice, serum specimens obtained after 10 or 30 minutes were strongly inhibitory to the growth of polio virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. 34
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Volume 2 | Issue 1 - 2012

Volume 2 | Issue 1 - 2012

tree occurring throughout the Indian subcontinent and used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. The present study was expected to evaluate anti diabetic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of A. catechu leaf in Wister rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg body weight). After STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with all three extracts orally at the dose 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg b. w., p.o.) was used as reference drug. The fasting blood glucose levels were measured on every 5th day during the 15 day treatment. All the extracts at 200 mg/kg orally significantly (p < 0.001) exhibited anti diabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats by reducing and normalizing the elevated fasting blood glucose levels as compared to those of STZ control group. The methanol extract was most active. The present study concludes that A. catechu leaf confirmed promising anti diabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic Wister rats.
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Artemisia annua L : evidence of sesquiterpene lactones’ fraction antinociceptive activity

Artemisia annua L : evidence of sesquiterpene lactones’ fraction antinociceptive activity

Results: The enriched sesquiterpene lactone fraction (Lac-FR) was administrated by intraperitoneal injection producing a relevant reduction in the reaction time of the animals in both phases of the formalin test, significantly reduced the sensitivity to mechanical allodynia stimulus, reduced the paw edema caused by carrageenan injection and promoted high antinociceptive activity in tail flick model suggesting relationship with the opioid system. Further studies are being undertaken to elucidate the active components involved with the antinociceptive activity as well as evaluation of synergy effect that is seen by combination of substances that is greater than would be expected from consideration of individual contributions.
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The protective role of Epigallocatechin gallate on oxidative stress in Alzheimer rats chemically induced by Aluminum oxide nanoparticles

The protective role of Epigallocatechin gallate on oxidative stress in Alzheimer rats chemically induced by Aluminum oxide nanoparticles

Butyrylcholinesterase's biological role is unknown [47, 48], but it has been suggested to be a toxin scavenger and to hydrolyze acetylcholine that escapes the action of acetylcholinesterase [49]. Butyrylcholinesterase is abundant in plasma and interstitial fluids of peripheral tissues, with moderate activity in the adult brain [47, 50]. Acetyl cholinesterase is widely distributed in neurons and axon terminals in brain and peripheral tissues, where it is responsible for terminating the action of acetylcholine [47, 51]. Results of the current study also showed that intraperitoneal injection of Al 2 O 3 -NPs
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The Acute Liver Injury in Mice Caused by Nano Anatase TiO2

The Acute Liver Injury in Mice Caused by Nano Anatase TiO2

Discussion The results of this study indicate that intraperitoneal injection of higher doses of nano-anatase TiO2 can increase coefficients of the liver, and its significant accumulation[r]

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The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles injection in neonatal period on ovaries in mature rats

The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles injection in neonatal period on ovaries in mature rats

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have very special physical and chemical properties for use in medical and biological fields [16-18] and it is necessary that their side effects have been investigated on the organisms especially in immature animals. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in immature female rats showed significant differences in a dose-dependent manner (at concentrations of 100 and 150 mg/kg) in the level of sex hormones and tissue structure of the ovary during puberty which included a significant increase in estrogen and progesterone levels, a decrease in the number of growing follicles, Corpus luteum and Graafian follicle. In general, because nanoparticles do not have a specific target tissue after entering the body [19, 20], precisely we can not justify the cause of these disorders. However, several studies similar to the present study have shown significant changes in levels of LH, FSH and sex hormones after treatment with TiO 2 nanoparticles [19-22], which have been reported to reduce
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Gummalla Pitchaiah*, Sravani K, Jasmini Prabhakar M, Hari Sravanth Reddy P,Anil Kumar T

Gummalla Pitchaiah*, Sravani K, Jasmini Prabhakar M, Hari Sravanth Reddy P,Anil Kumar T

After acclimatization, the animals were divided randomly into four groups (n=6), and placed in metabolic cages separately. Group I:Control animals received with standard diet and water.GroupII: Received intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin (80 mg/kg Bodyweight) daily for 8 days. Group III& IV: Test animals received gentamicin (80 mg/kg body weight) and co-treatment with ethanolic extract of Ziziphus jujuba fruits at a dose levels of 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight for 8days respectively by oral route. Injections of gentamicin were made daily at 10:00 hours to minimize the circadian variation in nephrotoxicity.
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The role of rutin in focal cerebral ischemia: oxidative stress factors and rotarod test

The role of rutin in focal cerebral ischemia: oxidative stress factors and rotarod test

Rotarod test in three groups, control, MCAO: Middle cerebral artery occlusion and MCAO+rutin: Middle cerebral artery occlusion and intraperitoneal injection of Rutin. [r]

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Original Article Role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in L-arg-induced acute pancreatitis: effects and possible mechanisms

Original Article Role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in L-arg-induced acute pancreatitis: effects and possible mechanisms

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can be suc- cessfully induced by intraperitoneal injection of large dose of L-arginine (L-arg) [19] in rats, with elevated serum amylase and lipase, pancreatic edema, acinar cells necrosis, inflammatory cells infiltration, similar to clinical AP presenta- tions. The morphological changes of pancreatic acinar cells (PASs) induced by L-arg in vivo may be related to metabolic alterations associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, disturbance of protein synthesis due to decreased polyamine synthesis, inhibited synthesis of nucleic acids and characteristic active protein synthetic pro- cess in PASs [20]. On the other hand, L-arg, as an in vivo nitric oxide (NO) precursor substance, can produce excessive NO, which could result in refractory vascular dilation and pancreatic hypo-perfusion, local blood stasis, the local inflammatory infiltration [21, 22]. In addition, oxygen-derived free radicals, inflammatory cytokines and downstream signaling pathways (such as the NF-κB) are also involved in the acti- vation of L-arg induced pancreatic injury [14, 23, 24].
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Role of organic osmolytes in myelinolysis  A topographic study in rats after rapid correction of hyponatremia

Role of organic osmolytes in myelinolysis A topographic study in rats after rapid correction of hyponatremia

After rapid correction with intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline, the recovery of the loss of organic osmolytes was 48% in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and medulla oblongat[r]

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The Study of Effect of Amphetamine on Passive Avoidance Learning in Wistar Male Rats

The Study of Effect of Amphetamine on Passive Avoidance Learning in Wistar Male Rats

Treatment of animals: Injections for each group continued for 4 weeks, once daily, via intraperitoneal injection, before the passive avoidance learning test. The time of drug injection was at 9-12 am to reduce the effect of circadian rhythm. During the examination water and food was provide. The dosage was different for each rat depending on the weight. The treatment of animals in different groups was done by intraperitoneal injection using insulin syringe (ip). In the control group (intact), the substance was not injected, and only normal saline (0.5 cc) of sterile inject able was used in the control group (solvent receptor). and in 3 experimental groups, injections of 1.5, 3 and 5 mg/kg of methamphetamine were performed.
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Peripheral immune tolerance alleviates the intracranial lipopolysaccharide injection-induced neuroinflammation and protects the dopaminergic neurons from neuroinflammation-related neurotoxicity

Peripheral immune tolerance alleviates the intracranial lipopolysaccharide injection-induced neuroinflammation and protects the dopaminergic neurons from neuroinflammation-related neurotoxicity

Additional file 1: Figure S1. Repeated intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 mg/kg LPS for 4 days induced peripheral immune tolerance of PBM. Peripheral blood monocytes of rats from the five groups pre-treated with PBS (0.3 ml/kg), LPS (0.1, 0.3, or 0.9 mg/kg) or without pre-treatment (control group) were isolated and cultured, and then, monocytes were restimulated by a single high-dose LPS (100 ng) for 4 h in vitro. The production of TNF- α and the expression of TLR4 in PBM were downregulated after LPS restimulation by repeated 0.3 mg/kg LPS intraperitoneal injections in 0.3 mg/kg LPS (i.p.) group, while the similar downregulation of inflammation was not observed in the other two groups with repeated 0.1 or 0.9 mg/kg LPS intraperitoneal injection. (a – b) The levels of TNF- α (a) and IL-1 β (b) in the supernatant were detected by ELISA. (c – d) TLR4 production in PBM was quantified by measuring band intensities using ImageJ software. The values were normalized to GAPDH. ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 vs. control group. # P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01, ### P < 0.001 vs. PBS (i.p.) group. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM ( n = 6). (TIFF 275 kb)
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Effect of Citrus aurantium L  Essential Oil and Its Interaction with Fluoxetine on Anxiety in Male Mice

Effect of Citrus aurantium L Essential Oil and Its Interaction with Fluoxetine on Anxiety in Male Mice

According to different studies and based on our previous experimental experiences, it is decided to use low dose of fluoxetine (2 mg/kg) that shows anxiolytic effects, and thirty minutes interval for injections considered for complete absorption of injected materials. In this study, apparently, fluoxetine (2 mg/kg) acted as 5-HT3 re- ceptor agonist. According to the results, intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine into the mice results in the in- creased number of entries to the open arms (P ˂ 0.001) and the spent time in open arms. Also, this study inves- tigated the antianxity effect of Citrus aurantium L. and its interference in serotonergic pathway. As shown in the Figures 1-4, different doses of essential oil Citrus aurantium L. result in increased spent time in open arms dose-dependently. In terms of the number of entries to the open arms, only at a dose of 5 percent there was a significant difference between the experimental group and control group (P ˂ 0.05).
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Taxol arrests the development of blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium chabaudi adami in malaria infected mice

Taxol arrests the development of blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium chabaudi adami in malaria infected mice

Taxol, a natural product used to treat a variety of human cancers, is shown here to be extremely effective against chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant malaria parasites. Addition of Taxol (1.0 microM) for one cycle to cultures of human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum prevents the establishment of new infections. Blood parasitemia is eliminated in mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi adami when they are given a single intraperitoneal injection of Taxol at 150 mg/m2. The majority of the animals treated

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Original Article Role of biphasic changes in splenic dendritic cell activity in a mouse model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Original Article Role of biphasic changes in splenic dendritic cell activity in a mouse model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

their activation in the early stage zymosan- induced MODS in mice [34]. Additionally, the activity of splenic DCs was reduced with increased DC and lymphocyte apoptosis and lytic necrosis in the late stage [34]. We specu- late that during the development of sepsis, changes in immune function of splenic DC could activity and therefore immune function mediate at least in part the early immune acti- vation and late immunosuppression through affacting regulating different T cell subsets. Thus, analyzing related changes in serological immune parameters (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cytokines from different cell sources) may provide guid- ance for predicting disease progression and prognosis. This study used intraperitoneal injection of zymosan to replicate the MODS model and analyzed the changes in the splenic DC phenotype and various serum cytokines at different stages during MODS progression. We found that changes in splenic DC immune activ- ity and sequential changes in serum immuno- logical indicators were closely related to dis- ease progression.
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Preventive and Curative Effects of Metformin, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum and Zingiber officinale on Male Reproductive Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

Preventive and Curative Effects of Metformin, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum and Zingiber officinale on Male Reproductive Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, that affects almost all the cells of the body. Well documented complications of DM include, neuropathy, nephropathy, microangiopathy, and retinopathy. The negative impact of the disorder is also found in other cells, including male reproductive system. In this study, fifty adult Wistar albino male rats were used. The rats were divided into 10 groups, each group comprised of 5 rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, effects of DM were observed on the sperm producing cells then preventive as well as curative effects of Metformin, Punica granatum, Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were observed. It was found that all the substances prevent as well as repair/cure the damage caused by DM to the seminiferous tubules and other structures. The results of this study show that Metformin though prevented and caused repair to the damaged cells as well, but was not as effective as Punica granatum, Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale.
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Immune response of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) to Vibrio harveyi bacterin

Immune response of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) to Vibrio harveyi bacterin

CHAPTER 4: HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN THE SERUM AND MUCUS OF BARRAMUNDI AFTER VACCINATION WITH FORMALIN-KILLED Vibrio harveyi CELLS VIA IMMERSION AND INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTION AND.. ASSE[r]

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Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Abstract: The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative- stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues.
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