Level of educational attainment is defined according to the International Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED 1997). Three levels are distinguished: Less than upper secondary (ISCED 1 or 2), upper secondary (ISCED 3-4), and third level (ISCED 5-6). In this publication the Netherlands do not provide data on the level of educational attainment. For this country the last known distribution is applied (2004q4) in order to produce figures with aggregate distribution by level of educational attainment.
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Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Studio (SAS Studio version 3.71) was used to prepare and analyze the data. Descriptive statistics was taken from the demographic, examination, and questionnaire data using SAS Studio and significance was determined by Chi-square statistical analysis. Univariate analysis using logistic regression was performed on women ages 20-79 years old with and without diabetes to determine an association between age, race, BMI, educational attainment, education level, health insurance status, and physical activity.
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Finding 1: Research is unequivocal that classroom level approaches shown to be particularly effective at raising the attainment of children living in low income households combine: quality literacy teaching, positive learning environments, peer tutoring, formative assessment and feedback; structured group work/cooperative learning; and meta-cognitive strategies and high levels of teacher commitment and resilience. It is important, therefore, that teachers, especially those who work with groups of disadvantaged pupils, possess these qualities and are able to demonstrate their abilities to employ these skills (see for example Day & Gu, 2014; Sharples et al., 2011).
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An important exception in the literature is Shaw (1996) who jointly models investment in risky human capital and financial wealth allowing for interpersonal differences in risk preference. Shaw (1996) presents a theoretical framework which predicts an inverse relationship between an individual’s degree of risk aversion and investment in risky human capital. The model is based on a portfolio allocation framework extended to incorporate an individual’s decision to invest in risky human capital. Since human capital accumulation is modeled as a standard investment process, the less risk averse individuals are predicted to invest in relatively high levels of education. The empirical analysis suggests that risk preference affects the returns to human capital, although the relationship between risk preference and educational attainment is not directly explored. Brown and Taylor (2005) find supporting evidence using British panel data. In a similar vein, Brunello (2002) presents a theoretical framework which predicts that risk aversion affects educational choice via the marginal utility of schooling. The theoretical framework predicts that selected years of schooling decrease when absolute risk aversion increases. The empirical findings, which are based on Italian household survey data, support the theoretical priors. This result has received further recent empirical support from Guiso and Paiello (2007). Belzil and Leonardi (2007) also use Italian survey data to explore whether the transition from different levels of education changes with risk aversion and parental education background. Their findings suggest that different attitudes towards risk do not determine the level of schooling.
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Though husband’s educational attainment is not as strong as women’s educational attainment but has signifi- cant association on respondent’s age at first cohabitation. It is observed that the respondent’s whose husbands are illiterate more cohabited before age 18 than the respondents whose husbands have primary, secondary or higher level of educational attainment. Because educated husbands are likely to cohabit educated females and most of the educated female are aware about their cohabitation age. Access of media has also a significant im- pact on age at first cohabitation. The proportion of later married is higher among the individual’s who have access media than the individual’s who have no access of media. From the data it is also found that the respon- dents who come from rich family cohabit later age as compare to other family status. The rich family’s respon- dent get all the benefit from society like as education, access to mass media and other facilities which directly related to age at first cohabitation. Table 3 reported the results of logistic regression model to the data to ex- amine the impact of those explanatory variables that are showing significant in chi-square test.
The paper examines the relationship between different levels of educational attainment and economic performance at the micro level of an individual and at the macro level, across the States of India, for the period 2001 to 2011. Using secondary sources of data, the paper observes significant increase in educational attainment in India in the period 2001-2011 across the three levels of education – primary, secondary, and higher and skill-providing education. It is interesting to observe a quantum increase in persons acquiring higher and skill based education. But the gap has widened between the relatively well-to-do and the poorer sections of the population in the acquisition of higher and skill based education. This has implications for the type of employment generated and the wages earned. At the macro level, regression analysis highlighted the importance of higher education and skills in improving the economic performance of the States of India. However, the availability of educated and trained manpower needs to be complemented with other developmental infrastructure inputs in the form of availability of electricity and health to improve the economic performance of the States of India.
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mobility are discussed in series of papers (Andrews and Leigh, 2009; Blanden, 2008; Breen, 1997; Blanden and Machin, 2004; Corak, 2006; d'Addio, 2007; Roemer, 2004). In addition, new methodological features have been suggested for future studies of intergenerational mobility. For the USA, Reeves (2015) emphasizes the lack of data on social mobility. The author requires prior knowledge about the patterns of mobility for better measurement. Torche (2015) reviews the sociological and economic literature on intergenerational mobility. Findings on social class, occupational status, earnings, and income mobility are discussed and discrepancies among them are evaluated. What happens in the occupational careers of men if the intergenerational continuity in status is disrupted by the failure to reproduce the parental level of educational attainment in Germany, is discussed by Diewald, Schulz and Baier (2015). Solon (2015) addresses the framework of “Multigenerational mobility” to refer to the associations in socioeconomic status across three or more generations.
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Theories have been elaborated on motivational measures, and their usefulness to increase motivation and resultantly improve workers performance. Human resource management literature has emphasized on human resource performance management approaches to improve performance. The assumption is that in the presence of appropriate motivational measures and good performance management approaches workers performance will increase considerably and consequently the entire organization performance. Thus this study is being conducted. Generlly, this study aimed to determine the level of work motivation and its relationship to job performance of non-academic staff of Capiz State University. Specifically, this study was pursued to answer the following questions1. what is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of sex, age, marital status, highest educational attainment, status of employment, length of service, and basic salary? 2. What is the level of work motivation of the respondents as an entire group and when classified according to socio-demographic characteristics? 3. What is the job performance of the respondents as an entire group and when classified according to socio-demographic characteristics? 4. Do respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics influence their level of work motivation and job performance? and 5.Is there a
Summary statistics for individual-level and district-level variables are respectively presented in Panel A and B of Table A2. An issue with the VHLSS is that they only provide the number of school grades completed. In other words, the number of years of education is top-coded at 12. Therefore, in our main specification, we use this raw top-coded measure of education as our primary outcome. We also attempt to deal with this issue by imputing the total number of educational years based on the reported grade completed and educational level in a different specification. Particularly, individuals with college, university, master, and PhD degrees are assigned with 14, 16, 18, and 20 educational years respectively. The conceptual framework of how aerial bombardment could impact schooling accumulation is presented in Appendix B. As shown in Panel A of Table A2, the war cohorts completed 7.5 years of education on average while the non-war cohorts finished 9.75 years of education. We also empirically investigate the effects of bombing devastation on labor market outcomes, using personal annual earnings. The mean annual earnings of the war cohorts is roughly 35 million VND (around 1,500 USD) whereas that of the non-war cohorts is 29 million VND (1,300 USD). 7 Turing to district-level variables, as visible from Panel B, the average bomb
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Table 12, shows the relationship by educational attainment and current use of FP. About 43.3% of respondents with tertiary education are practicing family planning, followed by 37.3% of those with secondary school education. FP use is increasing with improvement in educational qualification. The statistical analysis of P=0.003 shows a significant relationship between education and current practice of FP (Table 12). This clearly means that a minimum of secondary school education, as the critical level of educational attainment is required for effective utilization of FP. Education is a strong influential factor on FP use because it exposes people to information, provides knowledge and better understanding of the desire to use FP methods. The tremendous effect of educational improvement on the use of FP is also related to its role of empowering individuals to make rational decisions and understand that it is possible to control fertility using FP methods. This further supports the notion that the greatest obstacle to rapid change in unfavorable attitudes towards FP is illiteracy that has lead to misconceptions about the aim of FP programmes. Solomon et al (2017) in their study in northern Nigeria also found that women with higher levels of education exhibited greater awareness and utilization of family planning.
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The warning that the projections for individual countries are not predictions, but merely demonstrate the consequences of certain assumptions, is well illustrated by the case of Zimbabwe. Based on the situation in the year 2000, purely in terms of the demographic dynamics and even very average educational expansion (i.e., following the GET scenario), Zimbabwe’s educational attainment prospects are quite promising. In 2050, the population aged 15-64 could be overwhelmingly educated to at least the secondary level, with the proportion of tertiary education running, at almost 20%, twice as high as the proportion of those failing to complete primary, at less than 10% (see Figure 9). However, given the known development crisis in Zimbabwe during the last decade, such a scenario seems extremely optimistic. Nevertheless it serves a useful purpose; when assessing the actual situation in 2015 or later, this gives an indication of how much progress potential could otherwise have reasonably been expected, but was lost to the crisis and wasted. In fact, considering only the modeled dynamics, Zimbabwe had the potential for one of the most dramatic improvements in educational attainment between 2000 and 2050.
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„Looked After Children‟ are those who are „looked after‟ in terms of the Children (Scotland) Act 1995 (the 1995 Act). They are either living at home under a supervision requirement issued by a Children‟s Hearing or placed by the local authority in kinship care, foster or residential care. The term also includes children on various warrants and orders such as child protection orders 6 . On average, the educational attainment level of looked after children is significantly lower than that of other children. One measure of this is the number of qualifications gained at various levels. In 2009/10, 56% of school leavers had gained five or more qualifications at SCQF level 5 or better (standard grade credit or better). The equivalent figures were 0.5% of school leavers who were „looked after at home‟, and only 4.7% of leavers looked after away from home. As Figure 1 shows, this is lower than the attainment for pupils with additional support needs and for those from the most deprived areas (Scottish Government, 2011b).
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Educational attainment of a woman can also be considered as an important variable affecting age at first marriage. Past studies have shown an inverse relationship between educational levels of women and age at first marriage. Simon (1974, quoted in Cochrane, 1979: 3) for example, noted that "an increase in income causes an increase in education. And parental education in L D C 's [less developed countries] reduces fertility, this much is clear from both cross-national and intracountry cross-sections". One way in which an increase in educational level may lower fertility is by women delaying their marriage because of the longer period they must spend in school. Delayed marriage shortens the period of exposure to the risk of conception and may further reduce their completed fertility. Further evidence can also be found in Tieze and Lauriet (1955: 159-166), Bogue (1969), Mukherjee (1973: 238-249), Cochrane (1979), and Caldwell (1980: 225-255).
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Most studies of the economic contribution of education do not explore the effects of different types of education on economic growth. Investment in liberal arts studies is regarded as valuable as investment in technical, vocational or professional studies. However, some economists have argued that what matters is getting talented individuals into productive occupations. Young people should be encouraged to devote their energies to problem solving, raising productivity, and economic innovation rather than the variety of rent-seeking activities (military conquest, political scheming, religious argumentation, tax farming, legal ingenuity, etc) that have attracted talented individuals throughout most of human history. Murphy, Shleifer and Vishny (1991) (MSV) suggest that the extent to which a country’s educational system achieves this could be measured by looking at the proportion of university students in legal studies (preparing for careers as rent-seekers!) relative to the proportion in engineering (preparing for productive careers!). MSV find some empirical evidence to support the view that the structure of education, measured in this fashion, contributes to our understanding of economic growth. They report that countries with high proportions of lawyers among their student populations have lower rates of economic growth, ceteris paribus.
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economy, enhancing personal fulfillment, ensuring world leadership and preserving democracy as the gains of education to the society and the individual. He asserts that when government invests in education, the development in the society is commensurate with the level of investment, when an individual invests in education, his future income is enhanced, but the society benefits by proxy. Similarly  examined the underlying rational for government expenditure on education. The study reveals that such expenditure is to equip people with knowledge, skills, and capacity to enhance or improve their quality of life, augment productivity and capacity to earn knowledge of new techniques of production in order to be able to participate actively in the development process. While primary and secondary education aims at inculcating literacy and numeracy, higher education creates the needed manpower with improved skills for technological innovation with growth in productivity. In this regard, education can therefore be described as the process of socialization by which citizens learn to adapt to and, where necessary, conquer their environment.
Bourguignon and Morrisson (1990) use the rate of secondary education enrollments as a proxy for schooling level and find a positive and significant effect of education on the income share of the bottom 40%. However, the use of the variance of the dichotomous variable as an instrument for measuring educational inequality makes the presence of strong collinearity with schooling variable. In attempt to re-establish the effects of education variables on income distribution, Park (1996) examines cross-section data in 59 countries with careful choice of the schooling variables. In a significant result, average years of schooling have an equalizing effect on the income distribution while the standard deviation of schooling has a disequalizing effect on the income distribution. Nevertheless, as Park explicitly recognizes, a multicollinearity problem arises because the variable chosen as a proxy for educational inequality contains the average level of schooling. In addition, this study does not solve the simultaneity problem between economic growth and distribution and hence OLS regression results will be biased.
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While different measures such as, Gini coefficient, coefficient of variation or other convergence indicators are heavily used to account for inequalities; the current research prefers to use Theil Index to understand the educational inequalities in Turkey. The major power of the index is the decomposition of between and within regional inequalities. For different education levels (primary, secondary and university) Theil Indices will be computed. While equation one is the traditional Theil Index computation, equation two gives opportunity to decompose the overall educational inequalities. y represents the relative share of education indicator in the overall country, while x represents the relative share of population.
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The past 6-month oral pain prevalence among South African adults was 19.4 % (Table 1). Toothache was the most commonly reported type of oral pain (78.9 %). The prevalence of oral pain shows a significant social gradi- ent by area-level with those living in the richest areas reporting the lowest oral pain prevalence. Wealthier people were significantly more likely to visit a private dental clinic in response to their last pain episode, and less likely to visit a government/public dental clinic. People who sought care from a general medical practi- tioner/nurse/hospital were significantly more likely to be in the lowest socio-economic position category. Those respondents who claimed that they ‘did nothing’ in re- sponse to their last pain episode were significantly more likely to be found in the poorest areas (Table 1).
In our multivariate analyses of the correlates of bullying victimisation, we distinguished between the personal attributes of individuals and the organisational characteristics of their workplaces. When we confined the analysis to personal attributes, we found that the probability of a woman being bullied is about 38% greater than that of a man, controlling for other relevant personal characteristics. Those aged between 26-45 are more likely to experience bullying than those in other age groups, and those with third-level education are more likely to experience bullying than those with lower levels of education. Further analysis by sub- populations suggested that the effect of third level education is confined to male employees; male employees with third level education are more likely to be bullied than male employees with lower levels of education. Women with similar levels of education are not at increased risk, and education has no impact on the likelihood of being bullied among the self-employed. Social class has no impact on the probability of being bullied, but those who considered themselves to members of minority groups are at greater risk of experiencing bullying.
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Economic growth in Germany deteriorated more than average in the course of the international slowdown 2001, while employment stagnated. Inflation was below the EU-average in 2001. Growth performance since the unification boom has been negatively affected by the necessary adjustment and consolidation. Following a budget surplus in 2000 (affected by large UMTS proceeds) a deficit of 2.5 per cent of GDP is estimated for 2001 mainly due to the weakening of economic activities, but also a somewhat higher than expected increase in expenditures and the tax reform. The future expenditure increases associated with population ageing are potentially higher than the EU-average. A promotion of later retirement and the pension reform of 2001 – being a large systemic change contributing to some reduction of the net future budgetary impact of ageing – are steps towards developing a comprehensive strategy in this area. The average productivity level is a little below the EU average, hiding a large difference between the Eastern and Western parts of the country. Productivity growth has been weak in recent years. The price level has converged from above to the EU average. Product market competition is fairly advanced, as the German economy is well integrated into the European economy and due to high levels of competition in the retail sector. Liberalisation in network industries is advanced, but the fees for the use of local elec- tricity distribution networks differ considerably. Concerns have been expressed if the reliance on Asso- ciation Agreements and negotiated access to energy networks will de facto allow new entries and effec- tive competition. R&D investment and educational standards are high, although enrolment in tertiary education is below average. Reforms in education and research are currently being implemented to safe- guard advanced positions in technology and innovation. Capital markets are likely to improve as legis- lation enhancing transparency of public security offers and take-over procedures came into force in Janu- ary 2002. Together with the company tax reform, this could provide incentives to reduce the widespread cross-ownership of German companies and enhance pressures for shareholder value.
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