Measurement and Validation

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Customer engagement : conceptualisation, measurement and validation

Customer engagement : conceptualisation, measurement and validation

The previous chapter has ascertained that ‘Customer Engagement’ (CE) is a second-order construct with five first-order dimensions: ‘sharing’, ‘co-developing’, ‘learning’, ‘socialising’ and ‘advocating’. The preliminary 18-item CE scale was refined through the analysis in the previous chapter. The convergent and discriminant validity as well as reliability of the five dimensions were also tested in Chapter Six. The study confirmed the CE scale represents a valid, reliable and stable measurement instrument. In line with Anderson and Gerbing (1988), the focus of this chapter is on the final stage in the scale development process. The objective of Chapter Seven is to examine the CE scale within a nomological net of focal CE conceptual model and to test the research hypotheses developed in Chapter Three and conduct further scale validation. First, the final study including the pilot study and the main study is explained. Then, the analyses using both exploratory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis are presented, which provide further assessment of dimensionality, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the CE construct. The measurement model assessment and structural model assessment are presented in the subsequent parts of this chapter once reliability and validity of the CE construct have been assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis is adopted in order to test the measurement model before proceeding to the structural equation modelling assessments.
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Validation and measurement uncertainty evaluation of the ICP-OES method for the multi-elemental determination of essential and nonessential elements from medicinal plants and their aqueous extracts

Validation and measurement uncertainty evaluation of the ICP-OES method for the multi-elemental determination of essential and nonessential elements from medicinal plants and their aqueous extracts

The ICP-OES method has become a routine analytical technique for metal determination; however, the informa- tion related to method validation are scarce, and research on this field is still needed (Mermet 2005). Several studies present the use of ICP-OES for metals determination in tea or other food samples (Mitic et al. 2012; Froes et al. 2014). For consistent interpretation of the measurement results, it is necessary to evaluate the confidence that can be placed in, therefore, the presentation of an analytical result which must be accompanied by indication of the data quality. This information is essential for the inter- pretation of the analytical result (Kessel 2002; Drolc and Pintar 2011). Method validation is an essential component of the measures that a laboratory should implement in order to produce reliable analytical data (EURACHEM 1998). Besides common method performance characteris- tics obtained in the validation process, testing laboratories shall have and apply procedures for estimating the uncer- tainty of measurements (International Organization for Standardization 2005). This clearly means that the ana- lytical result cannot be viewed only as a separate value. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guide (International Organization for Standardization 1995) recommends the calculation of uncertainty using a model equation, based on its uncertainty components, and by using the law of propagation of uncertainty in order to combine them into uncertainty. It has subse- quently been interpreted for analytical chemistry (Ellison et al. 2012). There are several possibilities to estimate the uncertainty, as reported in the literature (Ellison et al. 2012; International Organization for Standardization 1995; Magnusson et al. 2012; Baralkiewicz et al. 2013). The measurement uncertainty is estimated mainly by the top-down or bottom-up approaches. In the top-down ap- proach, the major sources of uncertainty are identified and evaluated, while in the bottom-up approach, all the uncertainty sources are systematically evaluated and only those with significant contributions are used to derive the measurement uncertainty. The top-down approach is time-consuming and requires extensive knowledge of the analytical procedure, but it enables identification of major uncertainty sources and consequently reduction of total
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Service-oriented design measurement and theoretical validation

Service-oriented design measurement and theoretical validation

The theoretical validation of the software metrics normally uses the property-based approaches to ensure that the attributes supposed to be calculated by metrics is measured [55]. In this work the property- based software engineering measurement framework proposed by Briand et. al. [28, 58] is used. This approach was chosen for validation the proposed measurement theoretically in this thesis for some reasons among them, it is based on measurement theory and applied successfully by other researchers [59, 60]. In addition, it is comprehensive framework which defines the structural properties of software system mathematically which matches with the methodology of the proposed metrics in this thesis. However, to validate the proposed metrics theoretically using property-based approach there are six properties each metric has to satisfy these properties [28]. These properties include Nonnegative, Normalization, Null Value, Monotonicity, Marging of Services and Disjoint Service Additivity. Following subsection provides the result of these properties for the proposed metrics to demonstrate its satisfaction.
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The validation of a swimming turn wall-contact-time measurement system: A touchpad application reliability study

The validation of a swimming turn wall-contact-time measurement system: A touchpad application reliability study

The validation of a swimming turn wall-contact-time measurement system: A touchpad application reliability study.. Victoria Brackley, Kevin Ball, and Elaine Tor.[r]

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Validation of an automated assay for measurement of bovine plasma ceruloplasmin

Validation of an automated assay for measurement of bovine plasma ceruloplasmin

Cp levels undergo physiological variations during dif- ferent lactation stages [3] and it is also a mild to moderate acute phase protein that increases in levels in association with inflammation [4] and infection [5]. In dairy cows, Cp levels are indicative the animal’s health status [6] and it has the potential for being a marker of copper status [7, 8]. However, despite the importance and clinical signifi- cance that this protein could have in bovine practice only manual methods for Cp measurements have been vali- dated in cows [9], while validation of automated assays for Cp measurement in bovine plasma has not been pub- lished. Therefore, the present study was performed for analytical validation of an automated assay for measuring
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Estimation of Nonparametric Regression Models with Measurement Error Using Validation Data

Estimation of Nonparametric Regression Models with Measurement Error Using Validation Data

Recently, statistical inference based on surrogate data and a validation sample has attracted considerable attention (see [2]-[13]), and the above referenced authors developed suitable methods for different models. However, all these works mostly are concerned with the parametric or semi-parametric relationships between covariates and responses, and these approaches are difficult to generalize to nonparametric regression model. [14] and [15] proposed two nonparametric estimators for nonparametric regression model with measurement error using validation data, but their methods are not applicable to our problem since [14] assumes the response rather than the covariable is measured with error, and the method proposed by [15] applies for one-dimensional explanatory variable only.
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Estimation of Nonparametric Multiple Regression Measurement Error Models with Validation Data

Estimation of Nonparametric Multiple Regression Measurement Error Models with Validation Data

A wide number of problems of similar type have attracted considerable attention in research literature over the past two decades (see, [1]-[6]). For instance, a quasi-likelihood method is intensively studied by [7]. A re- gression calibration approach is developed by [8] [9] and [10] [11] propose a method based on simulation- extrapolation (SIMEX) estimation. Other related methods include Bayesian approaches (see, [12]), semi-parametric method (see, [13] [14]), empirical likelihood method (see, [15]) and the instrumental variable method (see, [16]). Unfortunately, all these work mostly assume some parametric relationships between covariates and responses. Recently, nonparametric estimators of g have been developed by [17] and [18]. [17] develops a kernel-based approach for nonparametric regression function estimation with surrogate data and validation sampling. Howev- er, his method is not applicable for model (1) since it assumes that the response but not the covariable is meas- ured with error. [18] proposes a nonparametric estimator which integrates local linear regression and Fourier transformation method when both explanatory and surrogate variable are scalars. Nonetheless, their method cannot be extended to multidimensional problems in which the explanatory variable vectors can consist of va- riables being measured with or/and without errors. For additional references and relevant topics for nonparame- tric regression models with measurement errors, ones may consult [19] and the references therein.
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Designing and validation of an integrated performance measurement framework for medical equipment management system in the public hospital

Designing and validation of an integrated performance measurement framework for medical equipment management system in the public hospital

The present study utilizes the evidence-based medicine and expert consensus opinion to establish linkages between processes of care and their outcomes. The health-care activities and organizational routines are modified using the concept of key performance indicators developed by understanding the best practices of the MEMS. The selected KPIs were organized into domains and further into a framework. 30 items were proposed for the framework of MEMS and were organized into four domains of a simple logic model. The decision criteria for the statistical significance of reliability and validation testing was fulfilled by 28 KPIs viz. 8 KPIs were selected for input domain, 7 KPIs for the process, 5 KPIs for the output and 8 KPIs were finalized for the outcome domain of the framework. By analyzing the feedback of each domain keeping the quality improvement aspect of performance measurement as the main focus, in turn, can improve the health outcomes.
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Gingival inflammation assessment by image analysis: measurement and validation

Gingival inflammation assessment by image analysis: measurement and validation

There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference at the 95% level between first and second visits (Table 4). A few of the cases in this study when seen after a year, showed slight gingival redness level changes and reduced coverage of tooth surfaces from the measurement of the tooth area. However, most cases showed little change in short term assessments. The lack of change in the gingival colour and area of a patient may be accounted for by failure to achieve effective professional root surface cleaning, poor patient compliance, medical conditions affecting the host response or medication having an adverse effect on gingival inflammation and encroachment. However, in the group of patients examined, whilst good improvements were seen for some patients, the overall results within the group may have been adversely affected by a number of patients having a poor response to treatment.
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Gingival inflammation assessment by image analysis: measurement and validation

Gingival inflammation assessment by image analysis: measurement and validation

Background and objectives. Gingival inflammation may be caused by injury or plaque related diseases and reduction of inflammation can be a useful indicator of gingival recovery. There has been little research on development of non-index methods to measure gingival condition. This study aims to investigate the reliability of the measurement of changes in gingival redness and swelling, using image analysis, and to compare this approach with an established method for assessing gingival overgrowth. Method. Twenty volunteers with gingival inflammation were recruited and digital images were taken. Duplicate measurements were made on the first visit by two examiners. At a subsequent visit following periodontal treatment, second images were taken. Gingival changes were determined by assessing redness and tooth surface area visible between the level of the inter-proximal papillae and the gingival margin. Tooth area measurements were compared with an established gingival inflammation method. Results. The method showed excellent reliability for both intra- and inter-examiner measurements of 0.968-0.998 and 0.769-0.947 respectively, according to the classification by Donner and Eliasziw (1) of Fleiss (2) coefficient of reliability. Conclusion. This technique proved a reliable method for investigating changes in gingival redness. High correlation was found for gingival encroachment when compared with an established method.
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In vitro validation of measurement of volume elastic modulus using photoplethysmography

In vitro validation of measurement of volume elastic modulus using photoplethysmography

In relation to arterial stiffness, a host of indices derived from PPG and pulse pressure signals have been introduced to quantify AS [4,20,21,36–39] . When multiple indices exist, it is expected that none has proved any superiority, and all have problems in mea- surement and interpretation. Noninvasive measurement of AS en- tails measurement of parameters that are intrinsically associated with stiffness. The most widely used method is Pulse Wave Ve- locity (PWV), used for the estimation of AS by the Stiffness Index (SI) [21,40,41] . Further studies have explored the possibility of us- ing the PPG pulse counter analysis and provide the augmentation index (AIx) [39,42] . AIx is the measure of the contribution that the wave reflection makes to the systolic arterial pressure, and is ob- tained by measuring the reflected wave coming from the periphery to the centre. It is defined as the ratio of the height of the late sys- tolic peak to that of the early systolic peak in the pressure pulse. The second derivative of the PPG signal (SDPTG) has been utilised for the detection of the diastolic, systolic and inflexion points in the PPG for the estimation of arterial stiffness using AIx or the Re- flection Index [21,43] .
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VALIDATION OF THE ATHLETIC IDENTITY MEASUREMENT SCALE WITH A HONG KONG SAMPLE

VALIDATION OF THE ATHLETIC IDENTITY MEASUREMENT SCALE WITH A HONG KONG SAMPLE

Alfermann et al. (2004) asked the participants to rank six reasons for their career terminations. The results showed that those from the former Soviet Union mainly retired due to sport-related reasons that were mostly unplanned. As previously discussed, the researchers used a 5-item version of AIMS to measure the participants’ AIs during their careers. They found that those from Lithuania had significantly stronger AIs then others, but the estimation of the effect sizes showed that the differences were indeed small (ds were around .2). Alfermann et al. generated a separate one-item scale to assess the participants’ AIs after retirement. They found that participants from Lithuania and Russia tended to keep stronger AIs after their sport careers had ended than those from Germany. The researchers suggested that in these countries, privileges for elite athletes still existed in society, so athletes would prefer to extend their sport or status and identities as elite athletes. Maintaining a strong AI even after retirement could be considered a defence mechanism used to maintain high self-esteem despite some obvious difficulties in post career adaptation. In most studies, researchers have used AI as the independent variable to look for differences in how the athletes with strong and weak AIs experienced their retirements differently. This study, however, used AI as the dependent variable and explored how it was associated with the retirement process (i.e., voluntary vs. involuntary) and country of origin. One of the limitations of this study was that the researchers did not report the effect sizes of the findings. Also, the researchers measured the participants’ AIs during their careers retrospectively by a 5-items version of AIMS, and the AIs after retirement by a single item scale, without supplying any psychometric information of either measurement. Due to the
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Translation and validation study of the Persian version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

Translation and validation study of the Persian version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

The Persian AIMS2 showed significant good convergent validity, as assessed with the physical and mental compo- nent scores of the Persian SF-36 and clinical measures. Satisfactory significant correlations were found between the PCS score and most of the Persian AIMS2 scales, espe- cially mobility level, walking and bending, and arthritis pain. Correlation between support from family and friends and the PCS was not significant. Fair to good cor- relations were observed between MCS and most of the AIMS2 scales. The highest correlation was found between the MCS and mood, social activities and level of tension. No significant correlation was found between the MCS and arm function and self care. In a Chinese validation study the World Health Organization Quality of Life ques- tionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to test convergent validity of the AIMS2. In their study significant correlation were reported between physical and psychological dimen-
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Empirical Measurement and Model Validation of Infrared Spectra of Contaminated Surfaces

Empirical Measurement and Model Validation of Infrared Spectra of Contaminated Surfaces

The three BRDF models previously described provided the basis for microfacetized BRDF model development. The microDIRSIG radiative transfer model was developed by research professor Michael Gartley at Rochester Institute of Technology as a rigorous ray tracing physics-based model that could predict the DHR (2.33) of an accurate geometric surface without the use of empirical measurement [25]. The model is initiated by ”shooting” discrete bundles of incident energy at a virtual surface from a user defined incident di- rection and then utilizes conventional ray tracing techniques [21]. This virtual surface is typically constructed to micron or millimeter spatial resolution facets. Material charac- teristics are attributed by specifying the optical properties at the facet level. As a bundle of energy intersects a surface facet, the optical properties of that particular facet (namely bi-directional reflectance distribution and bi-directional transmission function) are queried and utilized to determine the intensity and direction(s) that the bundle will follow. At material interfaces, there may be any combination of reflected, transmitted, and absorbed light. A Jones Matrix (2x2) is used to describe all three events at every surface interaction and the bundle continues to bounce around surface facets until it leaves and intersects a hemispherical type virtual sensor that accrues its complex valued Jones Matrix value in the appropriate angular bin.
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Validation of a Device for Clinical Measurement of Frontal Tibiofemoral Alignment

Validation of a Device for Clinical Measurement of Frontal Tibiofemoral Alignment

The conventional method of measuring frontal knee alignment appeared to be unreliable, as subjects did not relax their muscles in this position [12]. In the study of Witvrouw et al., a new repositioning device (WRD) was developed to clinically measure frontal knee alignment (Figure 1) [12]. This WRD allows measurement of the intercondylar (IC) distance (distance between both me- dial condyles) and intermalleolar (IM) distance (distance

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Initial Validation of Cytokine Measurement by ELISA in Canine Feces

Initial Validation of Cytokine Measurement by ELISA in Canine Feces

Measurement of fecal cytokines has been used as a marker of intestinal inflammation in people and correlates with en- doscopic findings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of canine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbant as- says (ELISAs) for quantification of cytokines in canine fecal samples as a non-invasive biomarker. Interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -10, -23/12p40 and TNF- were assessed by using spiked fecal samples from 3 healthy dogs. Standard curve valida- tion was performed, and the impact of time to freeze, duration of storage and number of freeze-thaw cycles on cyto- kine concentration were also examined. All the cytokines assayed could be detected, with varying accuracy. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for all standard curves ranged from 2.95% - 9.8%. The mean intra-assay CV ranged from 3.1% - 11.14%, and inter-assay CV from 4.36% - 18.83%. Recovery of IL-23 was poor (7.23% - 17.12%), precluding further interpretation of stability studies. Mean recovery did not appear to be affected by time to freeze and repeat freeze-thaw cycles in all cytokines investigated. Recovery for all cytokines after short-term storage of 30 days at −80˚C showed a recovery of <70% or >130%. In conclusion, although fecal IL-6, -8, -10, and TNF- could be used as bio- markers of intestinal inflammation in the dog, the quality of laboratory performance and poor recovery at lower concen- trations limit their application. Bench-top and freeze-thaw stability was acceptable, and samples should ideally be ana- lyzed within a week. Investigation involving dogs with acute and chronic inflammatory intestinal disease is required to determine the role of this methodology in a clinical setting.
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Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation

Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation

This study employed 150 respondents ob- tained using purposive sampling. Criteria of sample used were Muslim with age between 19- 25 years old. Selection of age group as criteria for sampling is based on differences which might occur between age groups or generations. This paper emphasizes on validating the measurement instrument with additional in-depth exploration and discussion regarding construct and concur- rent validity of the items used for measuring Ha- lal Literacy. Therefore, population representation is not the main concern thus the result of this study may not be generalized to the population. However, this study may be used as foundation for further research concerning this particular re- search context.
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Characterization and Modeling of Vegetation Effects on UHF Propagation through
 a Long Forested Channel

Characterization and Modeling of Vegetation Effects on UHF Propagation through a Long Forested Channel

Abstract—In this paper, measurement, modeling and validation of existing models on the effect of nonhomogeneous vegetation on UHF radio-wave propagation through a long forested channel at frequency of 1835 MHz are reported. The paper focuses on vegetation attenuation measurement through a long forested channel of about 8 km long with mixed vegetation of different density. The measured data were fitted using exponential decay function, and a new model was proposed from the fitted curve. The new proposed model will take care of the limitation in vegetation depth posted by some existing models. Generic models, mainly modified exponential decay and analytical models were also fitted to the data and validated, while RMSE was used to determine the best model that describes the data. The evaluated data results show that all the models tested give significant errors which show that they are not suitable for long forested channel scenario. Though COST 235 has the least error (17.05 dB), the error is still significant because COST 235 could only account for vegetation attenuation of short distance scenario. Attenuation shows corresponding increase with increase in leaves thickness in the forested channel considered, which was due to complex permittivity of the leaves moisture content and the dielectric properties of the leaves saline water. The developed model and other results obtained in this study will help to improve prediction accuracy of the effects of vegetation attenuation in nonhomogeneous vegetation along forested channels and also help in establishing efficient UHF radio link budget for long forested channel scenario.
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The ABCD Validation Management Tool for business excellence models

The ABCD Validation Management Tool for business excellence models

Deming Cycle the planning for results expected now and in the future “PLAN”. Accordingly, ABCD has defined the purpose and the approach in the first step (ANALYSE) of the model that includes planning and list of analysis required to be used as figure 1(a). Secondly RADAR systematically “Deploying” these approaches to ensure their implementation in full in order to “DO” as Deming Cycle; ABCD “Build” the theory and the measurement model as shown in the figure 1(b). In figure 1(c) the RADAR “Assess” takes place at this stage, The Deming cycle “Check” carry out the evaluation process, the ABCD also conduct tests under the stage of “Check”. The figure 1(d) RADAR is “Refine” which corresponds to “Act” as Deming Cycle or “Decide” the best from the evaluated options as in ABCD Model Analysis. The RADAR logic aims to identify the strengths and weakness of an organization and initiate a phase of continuous improvement or ongoing process improvement. It can also be used as method of problem solving throughout the company. Similarly to the Deming cycle, the RADAR logic can be seen as the basic building block of a management system. ABCD Management Theory takes into consideration both mentioned methods by analysing the purpose and approach (Plan/Result and Approach), Build the management model (Do/Deploy), Check by carrying out tests and (Check/Assess), and Decide the best action (Act/Refine).
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Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: protocol for a systematic review

Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: protocol for a systematic review

A study will be included if it is published as a full-text paper and concerns the development (‘development paper’) and/or evaluation of the measurement properties (‘validation paper’) of instruments that measure QoL or health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in adult people with eczema. A study with a mixed patient sample will be eligible either if it presents a subgroup analysis for adult patients with atopic eczema or if adult patients with atopic eczema constitute at least 50% of the study population. The measurement instrument must be a self-reported questionnaire. Articles that report indir- ect evidence, for instance, by using data obtained within the context of a clinical trial, will not be considered eligible. Articles assessing the measurement properties of dermatology-specific instruments in non-eczema samples will not be considered eligible.
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