Abstract: Generally asphalt used by the paving industries today is obtained by processing the crude oils. The price of the crude oil is influenced by the demand of the different grade of crude oil. Due to high prices of crude oil, the price of asphalt binder has increased tremendously. So scientist are looking for the alternative binders and the bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of municipalsolidwaste (MSW), is one of them, which can be best utilized for road construction due to which the environmental pollution get reduced and the problem of disposal of MSW get minimized.In view of search of alternative binder for flexible pavement, a research study on ‘Effective use of bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of municipalsolidwaste in flexible pavement’ is under taken. The pilot pyrolysis machin of capacity 10 Kg is developed at Transportation Engineering laboratory of Collage of Engineering, Pune. The machine contains reactor, feeder pipe, vapour line, condenser pipe, reciever of bio oil etc. The pyrolysis of various samples of combined municipalsolidwaste (msw) and waste plastic bags are carried out. It is noticed that the pyrolysis of combined msw occurs at maximum reactor external température of 450°C to 550°C where as the inside température of reactor at which reaction occurs is observed within range of 100°C to 110°C and vapour line temperature was observed between 85°C to 90°C. The various characteristic of bio oil obtained from combined msw are checked. The time study of pyrolysis cycle is taken in which the temperature of reactor, vapour line temperature and inside temperature of reactor are recorded at certain time interval. The physical and chemical characteristics of bio oil of msw shows the ressemblance with the characteristics of bio fuel and bitumen. Due to high water content, the tests of kinematic viscosity and flash point couldnot be conducted. Before testing, removal of water content by distillation of sample is essential. The calorific values will improve after removal of excess water content in bio oil. The FTIR spectra shows the alophatic carboxylic acids and aliphatic hydrocarbons groups which are also present in chemical composition of bitumen. There is future scope for further research and experiments to find out the effective utilization of msw bio oil for replacement of bitumen in flexible pavement.
In first Stage to find the strength of soil after stabilization with municipalsolidwaste bottom ash, experiments were conducted in first stage is characteristics of the soil were determined by moisture content, sieve analysis, specific gravity test, liquid limit test, plastic limit test, shrinkage limit test. In the second stage, UCS, CBR, Proctor test of the stabilized soil were determined by using respective apparatus.
Municipalsolidwaste management cannot be viewed in a one-dimensional perspective, as a lot of issues from different decision levels are inter-related. The combined decisions on these inter-related issues are often too complex to be solved at once. A possible approach is to decompose the total decision making problem into several sub-problems, which then are solved step by step. However, multidimensional problems often introduce differentiated optimization objectives. Separation of problems and pursuing the objectives on one decision level at a time will result in suboptimal solutions. Global optimal solutions can only be obtained using an integrated approach that takes into account problems at different decision levels simultaneously.
The proposed system is aimed towards the welfare infantry to minimize the causalities to a great extant. MunicipalSolidWaste collection from the households at door step and transportation of MSW through trucks and mini vehicles which is collected by from door to door and from small bins on street. This collected municipalwaste is transported for the disposal and treatment plants where a successful model idea is suggested which can give up good end results of complete treatment of solidwaste by automated solidwaste method where plastic is separated automatically and all the bio degradable material is formed as a slurry and released through the equipment.
Yadav et al.,(2013) has made an attempt to evaluate the environmental performance of municipalsolidwaste management options for Dhanabad, Jharkand, India was enumerated by LCA which an analytical tool (software) for assessing the environmental acceptability of municipalsolidwaste management (MSWM) options. LCA is currently being used in several countries to evaluate different strategies for integrated solidwaste management and to evaluate treatment options for waste fractions. According to the characteristics of solid wastes, and availability of disposal options, Also the identification of opportunities for pollution prevention and reductions in resource consumption while taking the entire solidwaste life cycle was conducted. The primary elements of solidwaste management are generation, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal. Different scenarios were developed and reported as alternatives to the current waste management systems. The most prominent is material recovery facility (MRF) and other methods involve source reduction, reuse, recycling, composting, incineration, energy recovery, on-site burial, open burning and bioremediation. They had set a goal to determine the most environmentally friendly option of MSWM system with the help of LCA.
Abstract--Management of municipalsolidwaste is the major challenge in many countries. Even from a small municipality to the metropolitan cities in India are struggling to manage the municipalsolidwaste. In 2013, the total MSW generated by 14.12 million people living in urban areas was 4837 metric tonne/ day . The open dumping and landfill leads to the various pollution such as air, land and water by the leachate comes from the waste. For doing the various disposal methods other than landfill, segregation process needed as the important one in municipalsolidwaste management. Our government spend more of the money for this segregation process only. This paper deals with the municipalsolidwaste management in which segregation done as source segregation and also maximum utilization of municipalsolidwaste in Sriperumbudur town panchayat, Kanchipuram district.
behaviour will not yield socially optimal outcomes in this area. Community intervention may be needed to promote the social good, with evidence accumulating in support of arrangements involving the participation of private firms. The authors' calculations also suggest that improvements made now in the handling of hazardous waste will be far less expensive in discounted terms than un- doing in the future the damage being caused by current practices. Ad- dressing these issues from a rational societal perspective will become increasingly urgent in the future, especially in the developing countries, where the authors project that municipalsolidwaste will increase at an annual rate of 2.7 percent through the year 2010. (Beede and Bloom 2017). So in the first paragraph author talks about the how the solidwaste, specially he focuses on the word municipalsolidwaste. So the Solidwaste which is collected by municipality under its locality, it is called as Municipalsolidwaste. So according to him municipalsolidwaste generation is varies according to population, according to countries, according people’s per capita income, how and which thing are they use most. Also he tells about the how the poor and least efficient practices carried out in the developing countries and because of that how it is affected on the health.
Abstract— Municipalsolidwaste (MSW) composition studies are essential to proper management of waste for a variety of reasons including a need to estimate potential materials recovery, to identify sources of component generation, to facilitate design of processing equipment, to estimate physical, chemical, and thermal properties of the wastes, and to maintain compliance with regulations. The composition of generated waste is extremely variable as a consequence of seasonal variation, lifestyle, demographic, geographic, and local legislation impacts.
Abstract-- This paper presents a general over view of the current municipalsolidwaste (MSW) management in Kolkata province, India. In order to characterize the solidwaste stream in the Municipality of Kolkata, a long-term study was conducted over a 56-week period between the winter of 2010 and the winter of 2011. In this study, percentage of components and specific weight of the MSW, the composting parameters (moisture content, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH), organic matter content, calorific value and heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fn, Mn, Co) of the compostable waste sorted from the mixed MSW were determined and evaluated. Kolkata city generates approximately 5114.76 ton/d i.e., 1.10 kg/cap-d of MSW daily. Approximately 700 ton of MSW were collected and stored in every day. Approximately 30% of the MSW generated is compostable wastes and yearly mean moisture content, organic matter content, C/N ratio and pH of these are 46%, 31.81%, 21.6 and 8.07, respectively, and approximately 15% of the MSW consists of recyclable materials. The recommended system deals with maximizing recycling and minimizing landfilling of the MSW.
ABSTRACT: Solidwaste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solidwaste. This paper presents a review of the existing situation of municipalsolidwaste management (MSWM) in Delhi, the capital of India. Also, an insight to the landfills in the city and the leachate generated from them has been provided. Delhi being the most densely populated and urbanized city of India, generates about 9000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000–25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. An attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review about the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in Delhi.
Municipal Corporation of Delhi and the Government of Delhi have realized the seriousness of the situation and framed guidelines in the form of the Master Plan (2005– 2021) for disposal and treatment of MSW for the entire state of Delhi. MCD took a big step towards improving municipalsolidwaste management practices, by privatizing the collection, segregation, transportation and disposal of waste. Non-government organisations, with the assistance from resident welfare associations (RWAs), have played an important role in establishing an infrastructure for Door To Door Collection (DTDC) services and segregation of waste at the source in certain areas of Delhi; this kind of cooperation needs to be replicated at a larger scale. Public co-operation is essential for successful operation of an effective and well-founded system. The Bhagidari scheme initiated by the Government of Delhi has been instrumental in promoting civil partnership in local governance, in the field of MSWM. More such initiatives need to be taken towards educating people about correct practices of solidwaste disposal. Initiatives taken by policy makers never yield results unless matched by proper implementation at every level. It is clear that any substantial change in the present scenario is not possible without a three-way partnership of the government, the private sector and the citizens. Government must promote composting, vermin- composting, incineration, refused derived fuel etc. processing and treatment methods for reducing the solidwaste disposal problems because the processing of the waste is the only answer to the current scenario of municipalsolidwaste. Finally, there is also a need to develop a methodology of research for developing interactive techniques for system’s design and operational control.
Recent investigations in 2010 resulted information that population of Kuala Lumpur City Area has reached 1.66 million people . With the population growth rate of 6.1 percent, then the population in the year 2010 can be estimated at least to 1.69 million people. The number of municipalsolidwaste generated from Kuala Lumpur State Territory and delivered to TBTS was recorded of 2,000 tonnes per day. Accordingly, the solidwaste generation average for any person is 1.2 kilograms a day. The amount and generation rate of solidwaste from Kuala Lumpur State Territory remaining unchanged and cannot be better from year to year, and strategic planning needed to avoid excess spending capacity that bring bad impact on TBTS management and in Kuala Lumpur State Territory environment primarily.
Abstract— With rapid economic growth and increased urbanization, South Africa faces the problem of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) disposal and pressing the need for waste to energy recovery. Nowadays, renewable energy is the key consideration in the discussion of the sustainable worldwide energy system that reduces global climate change, human health problems, and environmental degradation. Sustainable development requires the sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy. The renewable energy source such as bioenergy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal is usually viewed as sustainable energy sources that drive economic development. Wastes are convertible to useful energy through waste to energy (WtE) technologies. In this study, renewable energy technologies from the organic fraction of municipalsolidwaste (OFMSW) and their relation to sustainable development are discussed. Via the application of the simple multi-attribute rating (SMART) technique of multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a decision support tool, the most preferred model option for WtE technology was selected from a list of potential alternatives available in the market base on environmental, sociocultural, technical and economical consideration. From our investigation into the City of Johannesburg Landfill, the OFMSW had the highest fraction that comprises of 34% in portion. From MCDA-AHP results, anaerobic digestion was the most preferred technology of choice, taking into consideration environmental preservation as the ultimate goal.
Solidwaste is referred as any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, agricultural and from community activities. Any discarded or abandoned materials which can be solid, liquid, semi-solid or containerized gaseous material is considered as solidwaste. Increasing population, rapid urbanization, rise in community living standard and booming economy have greatly influenced Municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generation rate in developing countries like India (Minghua et al., 2009). India is an agriculturally based country with a present population of approximately 1.34 million (indiaonlinepages.com). Due to rapid industrial growth, the urban population is increasing rapidly. In the world, the MSW disposal has three primary ways such as landfilling, incineration, and composting.
MunicipalSolidWaste (MSW) is a socioeconomic activity that entails with solidwaste generation. Management of municipalsolidwaste is a national problem and is faced in all the cities of India. Urbanization contributes enhanced municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generation and unscientific handling and final disposal of MSW degrades the urban environment and causes health hazards. Various collection systems engaged by the municipalities collect less than half of the total waste generated. As a result, wastes are either scattered in urban centres or disposed of in an unplanned manner in low lying areas or open dumps, or fired by the residents in their backyards. Insufficient collection and inadequate have made the situation exasperating due to which various environmental and health related issues are increasing. Keeping in mind of the present situation, the current paper reviews about municipalsolidwaste management system in the country and initiative to be taken by education institutions.
This project will be addressing the problem of municipalsolidwaste management, which Kosovo deals with, focusing in Prishtina region. While specifying the municipalsolidwaste management incorporates the waste type that is discarded by households on everyday basis. It includes the waste collection by municipalities from households, public institutions, and small businesses who contribute to the generation of similar waste disposal. Although in the capital city we see the efforts of the private companies, contracted by the municipal body, to collect and clean the designated areas for waste disposal, in our everyday life we still witness uncontrolled dumping and not very well maintained collection spots, talking specifically for the household areas of the capital city. Collective households, which include sites with buildings of many apartments where the number of inhabitants is higher and more concentrated, the treatment of waste disposal seems to pose a higher problem. With this being said, it is a question whether the municipal capacities to collect and manage the collection points are not adequate. Or, are
MunicipalSolidWaste is a complex material and can be difficult to handle. There is therefore the need to characterise the waste by composition. The municipalsolidwaste was initially characterised and components separated. The characterisation was into six classes, namely: organic, plastic, metal, paper, textile and ‘others’. Representative communities were selected such to represent various classes of communities that satisfy all kinds of municipalsolidwaste generation. The communities were within and around a University. A tribometer was designed and built for the measurement and six different surfaces of interest prepared. The sample areas, tribometer and the surfaces are further discussed in the following sections.
Abstract—The undisposed and untreated amount of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generated by different sources is a concern of the world today. There are millions of tonnes of solidwaste being produced every year and amount of MSW is increasing day by day. Co-digestion of waste with other substrate mechanism may be used to decompose the maximum biomass waste generated from different source. The MSW has to be safely disposed without any negative impact to the environment. On the other hand, the generation of energy from renewable sources of energy due to depleting natural non renewable sources of energy has been becoming world’s main interest. The MSW can be one of the energy sector dreamt by the world today by use of co-digestion process. Also, the energy produced by non renewable sources of energy contributes to environmental problems such as water, land and air pollution or even global climate change. Anaerobic co-digestion as a pre-treatment prior to landfill disposal or composting offers several advantages, such as minimization of masses and volume, inactivation of biological and biochemical processes in order to avoid landfill-gas and odour emissions, reduction of landfill settlements and energy production in the form of methane. Furthermore, co- digestion of biowaste with other substrate can be considered as an alternative option to improve the environment condition caused by organic solidwaste and at the same time taking an advantage as an environmentally-friendly resource of energy. In this paper a critical analysis of some research papers in the field of anaerobic co-digestion process is done. Keywords—Anaerobic co-digestion, methane, biogas, MSW, C/N ratio, hydraulic retention time
The MunicipalSolidwaste (MSW) was taken into the Waste container (Fig. 1), then the door was closed. The air pipe was connected from the top of the waste container to the heating chamber. The synthetic gas from the waste container to the heating chamber had direct contact with the flame from the burner in order to treat the generated emission from the carbonization chamber. The emission was burnt and raised temperature at the Heat chamber, which helped to reduced the fuel - diesel oil (DO) cost for the whole process.