Abstract: Generally asphalt used by the paving industries today is obtained by processing the crude oils. The price of the crude oil is influenced by the demand of the different grade of crude oil. Due to high prices of crude oil, the price of asphalt binder has increased tremendously. So scientist are looking for the alternative binders and the bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of municipalsolidwaste (MSW), is one of them, which can be best utilized for road construction due to which the environmental pollution get reduced and the problem of disposal of MSW get minimized.In view of search of alternative binder for flexible pavement, a research study on ‘Effective use of bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of municipalsolidwaste in flexible pavement’ is under taken. The pilot pyrolysis machin of capacity 10 Kg is developed at Transportation Engineering laboratory of Collage of Engineering, Pune. The machine contains reactor, feeder pipe, vapour line, condenser pipe, reciever of bio oil etc. The pyrolysis of various samples of combined municipalsolidwaste (msw) and waste plastic bags are carried out. It is noticed that the pyrolysis of combined msw occurs at maximum reactor external température of 450°C to 550°C where as the inside température of reactor at which reaction occurs is observed within range of 100°C to 110°C and vapour line temperature was observed between 85°C to 90°C. The various characteristic of bio oil obtained from combined msw are checked. The time study of pyrolysis cycle is taken in which the temperature of reactor, vapour line temperature and inside temperature of reactor are recorded at certain time interval. The physical and chemical characteristics of bio oil of msw shows the ressemblance with the characteristics of bio fuel and bitumen. Due to high water content, the tests of kinematic viscosity and flash point couldnot be conducted. Before testing, removal of water content by distillation of sample is essential. The calorific values will improve after removal of excess water content in bio oil. The FTIR spectra shows the alophatic carboxylic acids and aliphatic hydrocarbons groups which are also present in chemical composition of bitumen. There is future scope for further research and experiments to find out the effective utilization of msw bio oil for replacement of bitumen in flexible pavement.
One of the very important factors in keeping the environment clean and aesthetic is the efficient SolidWaste Management (SWM). The proper disposal of MunicipalSolidWaste (MSW) becomes more acute as the population of the cities becomes larger and larger. The improper disposal of the solidwaste causes pollution to the environment. In the absence of efficient collection of MSW, it will be dumped randomly in open spaces, streets, valleys and water bodies. The unsupervised process of dumping solidwaste becomes a source of diseases, leachate from the decomposition which infiltrates into the soil and percolates into the aquifers. In addition, the improper management of MSW causes harmful effects to the public health and environment. SWM involves activities associated with generation, storage,collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solidwaste which are environmentally compatible, adopting principles of economy,aesthetics, and energy and conservation. It encompasses planning, organization, administration, financial, legal and engineering aspects involving an interdisciplinary relationship , estimated that solidwaste related processes consume about 20% to 40% of municipal revenues in developing countries.
MunicipalSolidWaste Management (MSWM) is one of the most problematic and neglected aspect of Indian Cities. Improper management of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) causes hazards to inhabitants. Also, high population growth and industrialization put strain on the basic infrastructural and municipal services. Delhi being a commercial hub, provides employment opportunities, thus leading to accelerated pace of urbanization, which in turn results in a corresponding increase in MSW. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in Delhi. The study pertaining to MSWM for Delhi has been carried out to evaluate the current status and identify the major problems. The study is concluded with a few fruitful suggestions, which may be beneficial to encourage the competent authorities/ researchers to work towards further improvement of the present system.
In North America, temperatures nearing 100 ℃ have been reported in several municipalsolidwaste landfills. However, the temporal and spatial-dependent processes that result in excessive heat accumulation are still not well understood. The objective of this study was to develop a transient finite element three-dimensional model to describe the heterogeneity of landfills, to incorporate the impacts of boundary and initial conditions, and to consider spatially dependent heat transfer mechanisms to better understand heat generation, accumulation, and propagation. The model incorporates gas-liquid-heat reactive transfer with aerobic and anaerobic biological reactions, anaerobic metal corrosion, and ash hydration and carbonation. Increasing boundary temperature, biological reaction rates, and landfill height increases the maximum temperature in the central region of a landfill while the impact of thermal properties of MSW is negligible. Simulation results predict that placement of ash near the corner of a landfill reduces the size of the elevated temperature region relative to placement in the landfill center. Mixing heat-generating wastes (ash or Al) with MSW decreases maximum temperatures but results in elevated temperatures over a larger fraction of the landfill volume relative to segregated ash disposal.
In this Study, the stabilization of a soil with municipalsolidwaste ash was investigated and the effects of the stabilization on the soil properties of a soil were studied. Experimental study of soil stabilization with municipalsolidwaste ash shows use of municipalsolidwaste in 10% with soil enhances soil properties like stength, compaction. This study shows instead of having simply disposal of msw, which is not possible due to lack of land availability, we can improve soil properties by using waste ash.Using waste ash as a stabilizing material is cheap as well as eco-friendly method of soil stabilization, which solves the waste disposal problems as well as enhances soil properties. For different areas soil and different waste , we can have different optimum percentage of waste ash which will enhance soil properties.
In the city area, street cleaning and collection involves collection of MSW from the streets (road sweeping) and households in handcarts. Thereafter, the waste is dumped at one of the 664 collection points (primary collection). MSW is then loaded into transportation vehicles (trucks) (secondary collection), which transport the waste (transfer) to disposal sites. In Kolkata province and its towns, open dumping is the only option that is presently used for the management of the MSW. The solidwaste collection method used in Kolkata is primary collection and secondary collection method. Kolkata’s municipalsolidwaste generally consists of waste generated from residential, commercial and institutional areas, parks and streets, and is not sorted at the source, but stored in the same waste containers. The dimensions and numbers of containers vary according to the width of the street and the quantity of the waste generated. The total number of waste bins in Kolkata is 664. Solid wastes stored in waste bins are collected and transported to the open dump area by vehicles belonging to the municipality of Kolkata.
The proposed system is aimed towards the welfare infantry to minimize the causalities to a great extant. MunicipalSolidWaste collection from the households at door step and transportation of MSW through trucks and mini vehicles which is collected by from door to door and from small bins on street. This collected municipalwaste is transported for the disposal and treatment plants where a successful model idea is suggested which can give up good end results of complete treatment of solidwaste by automated solidwaste method where plastic is separated automatically and all the bio degradable material is formed as a slurry and released through the equipment.
Abstract--Management of municipalsolidwaste is the major challenge in many countries. Even from a small municipality to the metropolitan cities in India are struggling to manage the municipalsolidwaste. In 2013, the total MSW generated by 14.12 million people living in urban areas was 4837 metric tonne/ day . The open dumping and landfill leads to the various pollution such as air, land and water by the leachate comes from the waste. For doing the various disposal methods other than landfill, segregation process needed as the important one in municipalsolidwaste management. Our government spend more of the money for this segregation process only. This paper deals with the municipalsolidwaste management in which segregation done as source segregation and also maximum utilization of municipalsolidwaste in Sriperumbudur town panchayat, Kanchipuram district.
quality. A major adverse impact is its attraction of rodents and vector insects for which it provides food and shelter. Unless an organic waste is appropriately managed, its adverse impact will continue until it has fully decomposed or otherwise stabilized. Uncontrolled or poorly managed intermediate decomposition products contaminate air, water and soil resources. Solidwaste management (SWM) of Mysuru is managed by Mysuru City Corporation (MCC). The total solidwaste generated by the Mysore city ranges from 380- 400 tons/day. The city practices door to door basis collection in all 65 wards and the waste is segregated only in ward 28. At present 3 tons of waste are being segregated and processed in ward-28 (ASCI 2011). At the present, there is no sanitary landfill facility in the city for disposal of the MSW generated and is processed in the compost facility. The non- biodegradable component of the MSW collected and the rejects from the compost facility are being dumped in the open areas adjacent to the compost facility. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for municipalsolidwaste management.
The MunicipalSolidwaste (MSW) was taken into the Waste container (Fig. 1), then the door was closed. The air pipe was connected from the top of the waste container to the heating chamber. The synthetic gas from the waste container to the heating chamber had direct contact with the flame from the burner in order to treat the generated emission from the carbonization chamber. The emission was burnt and raised temperature at the Heat chamber, which helped to reduced the fuel - diesel oil (DO) cost for the whole process.
Like most cities in the world, population in Indonesia continues to grow every year. Problems that can arise from this are the increasing amount of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) production and the growing demand for electricity. To deal with the problems, Indonesian government runs 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) and WTE (Waste to Energy) Programs simultaneously. 3R program aims to reduce the number of waste, while WTE program aims to generate electricity as an alternative energy source. This study aims to find out the optimal proportion of MSW treated through the 3R and WTE programs. For the purpose, a goal programming model has been developed and solved using LINGO 11. The results showed that the optimal proportion of MSW through the 3R program is 49.90%, 12.37% through WTE program. This leaves 37.73% of waste untreated. The electricity generated from WTE program reached 1,229.695 GWh, total emissions that can be saved is 1,809,208.2 tons CO 2 equivalent and total land-use for the programs is 4,036,239.1 m 2 . This study
Waste generation is of human nature and it is a result of most activities. In all communities over the world, the management of waste generated within communities usually refer to as municipalsolidwaste has been a challenge. It is however managed very well in most developed countries. In developing countries, the challenge is yet to be overcome. The municipalsolidwaste (MSW) is a complex material and consist of various components. Just as materials have some properties, MSW also has same. Although waste is heterogeneous, many of the studies show that municipalsolidwaste has mechanical properties that vary in a consistent and predictable way (e.g. with respect to stress state and method of placement) (Dixon, N. et al, 2005). Most of the properties that are known for various materials are usually of relevant for some purpose. The coefficient of friction is one of the relevant engineering properties that is used in design. Cho et al (2010) estimated proportional effect of food waste on the friction coefficient in the MSW and found that to be directly proportional. The friction coefficient becomes very relevant in waste handling and disposal related designs. Friction is generally described as the resistance to motion when two surfaces slide against each other. In most cases friction is a useful phenomenon making many ordinary things like walking and braking of car possible. On the other hand friction can also cause undesirable eﬀects which mostly leads to attempt to eliminate such as much as possible. It can therefore be said that frictional effect may or may not be desirable depending on where it exist and function. In solidwaste handling and disposal situation, friction may be desirable at a point and undesirable at another point of application.
ABSTRACT: Solidwaste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solidwaste. This paper presents a review of the existing situation of municipalsolidwaste management (MSWM) in Delhi, the capital of India. Also, an insight to the landfills in the city and the leachate generated from them has been provided. Delhi being the most densely populated and urbanized city of India, generates about 9000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000–25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. An attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review about the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in Delhi.
MunicipalSolidWaste (MSW) is a socioeconomic activity that entails with solidwaste generation. Management of municipalsolidwaste is a national problem and is faced in all the cities of India. Urbanization contributes enhanced municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generation and unscientific handling and final disposal of MSW degrades the urban environment and causes health hazards. Various collection systems engaged by the municipalities collect less than half of the total waste generated. As a result, wastes are either scattered in urban centres or disposed of in an unplanned manner in low lying areas or open dumps, or fired by the residents in their backyards. Insufficient collection and inadequate have made the situation exasperating due to which various environmental and health related issues are increasing. Keeping in mind of the present situation, the current paper reviews about municipalsolidwaste management system in the country and initiative to be taken by education institutions.
Solidwaste is referred as any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, agricultural and from community activities. Any discarded or abandoned materials which can be solid, liquid, semi-solid or containerized gaseous material is considered as solidwaste. Increasing population, rapid urbanization, rise in community living standard and booming economy have greatly influenced Municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generation rate in developing countries like India (Minghua et al., 2009). India is an agriculturally based country with a present population of approximately 1.34 million (indiaonlinepages.com). Due to rapid industrial growth, the urban population is increasing rapidly. In the world, the MSW disposal has three primary ways such as landfilling, incineration, and composting.
Abstract—The undisposed and untreated amount of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) generated by different sources is a concern of the world today. There are millions of tonnes of solidwaste being produced every year and amount of MSW is increasing day by day. Co-digestion of waste with other substrate mechanism may be used to decompose the maximum biomass waste generated from different source. The MSW has to be safely disposed without any negative impact to the environment. On the other hand, the generation of energy from renewable sources of energy due to depleting natural non renewable sources of energy has been becoming world’s main interest. The MSW can be one of the energy sector dreamt by the world today by use of co-digestion process. Also, the energy produced by non renewable sources of energy contributes to environmental problems such as water, land and air pollution or even global climate change. Anaerobic co-digestion as a pre-treatment prior to landfill disposal or composting offers several advantages, such as minimization of masses and volume, inactivation of biological and biochemical processes in order to avoid landfill-gas and odour emissions, reduction of landfill settlements and energy production in the form of methane. Furthermore, co- digestion of biowaste with other substrate can be considered as an alternative option to improve the environment condition caused by organic solidwaste and at the same time taking an advantage as an environmentally-friendly resource of energy. In this paper a critical analysis of some research papers in the field of anaerobic co-digestion process is done. Keywords—Anaerobic co-digestion, methane, biogas, MSW, C/N ratio, hydraulic retention time
Abstract— Municipalsolidwaste (MSW) composition studies are essential to proper management of waste for a variety of reasons including a need to estimate potential materials recovery, to identify sources of component generation, to facilitate design of processing equipment, to estimate physical, chemical, and thermal properties of the wastes, and to maintain compliance with regulations. The composition of generated waste is extremely variable as a consequence of seasonal variation, lifestyle, demographic, geographic, and local legislation impacts.
Abstract— With rapid economic growth and increased urbanization, South Africa faces the problem of municipalsolidwaste (MSW) disposal and pressing the need for waste to energy recovery. Nowadays, renewable energy is the key consideration in the discussion of the sustainable worldwide energy system that reduces global climate change, human health problems, and environmental degradation. Sustainable development requires the sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy. The renewable energy source such as bioenergy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal is usually viewed as sustainable energy sources that drive economic development. Wastes are convertible to useful energy through waste to energy (WtE) technologies. In this study, renewable energy technologies from the organic fraction of municipalsolidwaste (OFMSW) and their relation to sustainable development are discussed. Via the application of the simple multi-attribute rating (SMART) technique of multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a decision support tool, the most preferred model option for WtE technology was selected from a list of potential alternatives available in the market base on environmental, sociocultural, technical and economical consideration. From our investigation into the City of Johannesburg Landfill, the OFMSW had the highest fraction that comprises of 34% in portion. From MCDA-AHP results, anaerobic digestion was the most preferred technology of choice, taking into consideration environmental preservation as the ultimate goal.
Naturally, if the population is so large, the municipalwaste generated is also large. According to 2011 census, every day, Mumbai generates around 7,500 MT of municipalsolidwaste. The rate of waste generation is also increasing due to the increasing population. MunicipalSolidWaste (MSW) is dumped in the outskirts of the cities in low lying areas with no compliance of regulations. The dumped waste contains organic, inorganic and inert material like debris in mixed form. The garbage is sent to sanitary landfills for disposal but the amount of MSW is so high that these landfills cannot accommodate it. This results in the garbage being dumped for longer periods than should be and ultimately causes adverse effect on the environmental and human health.
According to World Bank Report 2018, waste generation is projected to drastically surge from the current generation rate of 2.01 billion tons to 3.40 billion tons annually. Presently, the world is on a course where waste generation will considerably outpace population growth by more than double by 2050. An estimated of 13.5 % of today’s waste is recycled and 5.5 % is composted (World Bank Report 2018). The report also estimated that between one-third and 40% of waste generated worldwide is not managed properly and instead dumped or openly burnt. These combine with global financial and economic instability, threats to health, and growing environmental degradation to affect all developing countries. These shared stressors shape national economics and people’s livelihoods. The types of solidwaste generated in the municipality, includes mixed or similar wastes mainly from urban, peri-urban regions. MunicipalSolidWaste (MSW) is a waste that comes from households, garden waste or street sweepings are also considered and contents of litter containers. Solidwaste encompasses all heterogeneous mass of throwaways from municipalities known as municipalsolidwaste as well as homogeneous accumulations from agricultural, industrial, commercial, and construction wastes. However, the Basel Convention defines MunicipalSolidWaste (MSW) as “Substances or objects that are disposed of, intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provision of law.” The management of these waste includes the control of its generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal in a manner that is in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation,