The colour and physicalproperties of nuts and kernels in twelve hazelnut cultivars are presented in Tables 1 and 2. As indicated some colour parameters were significantly (p<0.01) effected by cultivars. Among hazelnut cultivars, cv. Sivri had more bright nuts with the highest l value (34.95) whereas cv. K-24/2 had the darker nuts (l -17.33). The a and b values of nuts and kernels were also widely varied among hazelnut cultivars which were between 8.67-14.33% for a and 13.23-23.82% for b values for nuts and were between 9.44-12.63% on a value and between 18.08-24.01% on b va- lue for kernels. The nut colour intensity (Chroma) were found between 15.90 and 27.84% among hazelnut cultivars. There were statistically important differences on nuts and kernels among hazelnut cultivars in terms of all physicalproperties. The axial dimensions (length, width and thick- ness) of cultivars varied from 18.91 to 25.47; 15.09 to 21.20, and 12.76 to 21.20 mm for nuts and 14.79 to 21.08, 11.27 to 16.33, and 8.91 to 16.06 mm for kernels.
A review of the literature has revealed that detailed measurements of the principal dimensions and the variation of physicalproperties of wheat at various levels of moisture content have not been investigated. The object of this study was to investigate some moisture-dependent physical pro- perties, namely, linear dimensions, size, sphericity, TKW, bulk density, true density, static and dynamic angle of repo- se and the static coefficient of friction of irrigated and dry land wheat varieties.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Abstract: Soybean varieties (cv. TAMS-38 and JS- 335) were evaluated for their physicalproperties that are often required in order to design production processes and equipments at moisture contents of 7.30% to 30.80% and 7.35% to 30.70% (d.b.) for TAMS-38 and JS-335 respectively. The grain size, thousand grain weight, and angle of repose were found linearly increased with increase in moisture contents. The grain sizes was found increased from 5.92 to 6.65 and 5.64 to 6.37mm; thousand grain weight 124.2 to 154.4 and 103.5 to 137.3 g; and angle repose 27.37 to 30.37 and 28.00 to 30.85 0 ., respectively, with the increase in moisture contents. The results indicated that per cent increase in terminal velocity of TAMS- 38 and JS- 335 were 20.0% and 13.79%. The bulk density, true density, porosity and sphericity were found linearly decreased with increase in moisture content. The bulk density was decreased from 673.5 to 608.6 and 662.4 to 598.4 kg/m 3 , true density 1192.1 to 983.4 and 1147.1 to 948.4 kg/m 3 , porosity 43.4% to 38.1% and 42.2% to 36.9% whereas, sphericity decreased from 85.1% to 77.4% and 86.3% to 78.3%, respectively for TAMS- 38 and JS- 335 with corresponding increase in moisture content. The values of static coefficient of friction varied from 0.390 to 1.428 against various surfaces.
The improvement of physicalproperties of biofuels concerns preparation of such a fuel ad- mixture that does not change basic physical pa- rameters of the basic fuel. If the defined amount of FAME biodiesel is added to the basic diesel fuel, appropriate amount of POC fuel should also be added in order to consider the density changes of the mixture. The required amount of the additive can be calculated on the basis of the mass balance or estimated on the basis of the graph from Fig. 5.
The given study investigates the mechanical and physicalproperties of pure PP and HDPE. Two polymers with different structures namely, PP and HDPE were studied. From the three-point bending, the flexural strength of PP is 31 MPa that is higher than that of HDPE (24 MPa). Also, from the compression test, the PP show higher resistance to force than that of HDPE. These tests prove that the PP is stronger than that of HDPE. The drawback of PP compared to HDPE is the lower resistance to impact force. This may be due to the fact that PP has methyl (CH 3 ) connected to the
This study follows on from previous work by Fitzgerald  and Pavı´a et al. . The authors discussed the hydraulicity of Mg-lime by comparing the physicalproperties of Mg-lime mortars with those of natural, feebly-hydraulic lime and CL mortars. The strength of the Mg-lime mortars tested was higher than that typically reached by CL mortars. Based on this and the petrographic analysis of the binder, the authors suggest that Mg-lime mortar posses a certain amount of hydraulic set. They also evidenced that, although the capillary suction of the Mg-lime mortars was initially higher, the overall suction was signif- icantly lower than that of the hydraulic mortars tested. The authors state that Mg-lime mortars would perform well in moisture areas, and would withstand the strains typically induced when confined within conventional masonry. The authors finally suggest that, provided the lime has been adequately burned and slaked, Mg-lime mortar can perform well as a building material.
In materials science great attention halogen film materials, which can be implemented and amorphous super lattice condition providing a range of useful properties of high hardness in combination with good corrosion resistance and conductivity [5, 6]. Structure and properties of any substances that are of practical interest, are largely determined by the method of their preparation. Since the phase composition and physicalproperties of amorphous or single-crystal films prepared by vacuum evaporation, may differ from those of bulk single-crystal glasses massive appropriate formulations, that due to differences in the methods of preparing the compounds of Bi-S systems and methods of interpretation of experimental results difficult to compare data from different authors.
Th e goal of this study was the determination of basic physicalproperties such as density, caloriﬁ c value and rheologi- cal properties of liquid biofuels. Biofuels on the base of bioethanol and rapeseed methyl ester were chosen. Following control samples were selected: diesel oil without admixture of methyl esters and commercially available diesel oils with small amount of methyl ester admixture (6.2 and 6.5%). Dynamic viscosities of individual samples were measured in the range from –10°C to 50°C. Th en dependence of shear rate on shear stress was measured at temperatures –10, 0, 20 and 40°C. Th e most of samples showed the Newtonian behaviour. However, samples with high content of methyl esters or pure methyl esters showed thixotropy behaviour at the low temperature.
samples each weighing 15 g was placed in an oven set at 103% for 72 h. The samples were cooled in a dessicator, reweighed and the moisture content of the seeds calculated. Physicalproperties were determined at the initial moisture. Thereafter, grains samples of the desired moisture level were prepared by adding calculated amount of distilled water and sealed in separate polythene bags. The grain was kept in refrigerator at a temperature of 5°C for one week to enable the moisture to distribute uniformly Razari et al. (2007). Prior to the experiment, the samples were taken out of the refrigeration and allowed to warm up to room temperature for two hours. All the physicalproperties of soybean were investigated at moisture level of 9.5, 14.4, 19.8, 31.6, 37.2, 42.9, and 49.7%. Ten replications of each test were made of each moisture level. For each of the moisture level, 100 soybean grains were randomly selected for measurement of length (L), width (W) and thickness (T) using a micrometer screw gauge with a reading of 0.01 mm. The geometric average diameter of soybean grain was calculated according Galedar et al. (2008) and Mohsenin (1986). The sphericity j (%) was calculated with use the relationship described by Koocheki et al. (2007) and Milani (2007). The surface area (S ) of soybean grain was found by analogy with a sphere of the same geometric mean diameter using the expression cited by Sacilik et al. (2003). The 100 unit mass was determined using precision electronic balance to an accuracy of 0.01 g. The grain volume, V s and true
Abstract—The research conducted is Effect on Coal Bottom Ash in Hot Mix Asphalt. The purpose of this research is to Effect on Coal Bottom Ash applications as aggregates in road bases, sub-bases and pavement. This study focused in three parts objectives in determining the stability of asphalt mixture that is mixed with a certain percentage of bottom ash using Marshall Method, determining physicalproperties of bottom ash when mixed with asphalt and determining the quality improvement of the Marshall cube in terms of appearance and texture. This study is basically conducted by experimental work and finally resulted in graphical plots. Coal Bottom Ash is obtained from Tanjung Bin Power Plant and laboratory test for this research is conducted at UPM Pavement laboratory. Coal Bottom Ash content specimen has high stability and has a good surface texture. Further research can be conducted to identify pavement with coal bottom ash under Tropical weathering and to increase the design life span of pavements. Of waste materials which are industrial wastes like coal ash policies Coal Bottom Ash span stone used by plants in the country to generate of electricity coal combustion is the result of coal ash policies are not used and discarded without producing any harm. The result of Marshall Test and Resilient Modulus was compared between samples. From the experimental results, the use of coal bottom ash meets the specification as stated in SPJ/JKR/rev2008 even though there is a slight difference in the parameter value. From the results obtain in this research , bottom ash can be considered as one of the alternatives to modify HMA properties but further research on the ability and reaction in mix need to be clearly determined.
A b s t r a c t. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of moisture content and stalk region on some physical and mechanical properties of safflower stalks. The experiments were conducted at four moisture contents of 9.98, 17.85, 26.37 and 38.75% w.b. and at the bottom, middle and top regions of stalk. The values of the stalk physicalproperties increased with increasing moisture content. Their values also increased towards the bottom region. The bending stress and Young modulus in bending decreased with increase in the moisture content and increased towards the top regions. The average bending stress values and Young modulus in bending varied between 47.71 and 25.9 MPa and between 2.52 and 1.28 GPa, respectively. The shearing stress and the specific shearing energy increased with increasing moisture content. Their values also increased towards the bottom region of the stalk. The maximum shear stress and specific shearing energy were found to be 7.66 MPa and 33.05 mJ mm -2 , respec-
This research was undertaken in order to ascertain the influence of some physicalproperties of pozzo- lans including particle size and specific surface, chemical and mineral composition, amorphousness and water demand on the pozzolan’s reactivity; and how these properties affect the water demand and mechanical performance of lime–pozzolan pastes. Reactivity was evaluated with chemical methods (measuring changes in conductivity of a lime/pozzo- lan solution over time) as well as mechanical methods (assessing compressive strength develop- ment over time) and mineralogical methods (moni- toring portlandite consumption by X-ray diffraction). It is hoped that this research will assist understanding and predicting the behavior and quality of pozzolan composites for building.
Abstract— Sandstones from QwaQwa in South Africa were characterised for their mineralogical and physicalproperties. Six samples (whitish, greenish, blackish, reddish, yellowish and greyish) were collected and studied. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the samples were quartz based. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) revealed the differences in the morphology and Silicon element was found present in all the samples. The X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) exhibited that the samples contained 43.14% of Silicon (whitish). The grain sizes of the samples ranged from coarse, medium to fine grains. The Greyish sample had the highest compressive strength value of 56.74 MPa. Dielectric properties measurements were also conducted on the samples; and the results were temperature dependant. The water absorption by total immersion revealed that the blackish sand stones had the highest percentage of 6.62%.
Abstract: Demolition waste materials, such as crushed concrete and bricks, have been utilised by the UK construction industry for applications such as the production of concrete, low level backfill and road sub- base. There has been increased research on the properties of the recycled aggregates in the past decade but it mainly concentrates on the strength of these types of materials through shear box and triaxial tests. Little research has been undertaken on the physicalproperties of recycled materials, such as particle shape, water absorption and freeze-thaw resistance. This paper addresses the investigation of the physical
Abstract: Nanofluids are new generation of thermo fluids. Researchers are attracted towards their application in various thermal energy systems. Before employing nanofluids in the heat exchangers, it is necessary to ensure superior thermo physicalproperties of nanofluids. In the present work, different thermo physicalproperties of nanofluids like thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat and density have been studied for a wide range of volume concentration (0.25-2.0 %) and temperature (30-60°C). TiO 2 / H 2 O and CeO 2 / H 2 O nanofluids show good
zian oscillators representing the IR-active phonons, a single Drude term representing either electrons or holes, and a high- frequency dielectric constant. Magnetization measurements with varying field and temperature confirmed the existence of SPM. The anomalous dc resistivities, although influenced by the magnetic states of the samples, are largely caused by antisite disorder. The Boltzmann formalism of conduction breaks down because of the very short mean free paths of the carriers. Localization due to site disorder, compounded with the low density of carriers in the ordered phase, is respon- sible for the very large residual resistivity and negative TCR. We found that Fe 2 VAl samples grown from the above meth- ods are not single-phase Heusler alloys with the FeVFeAl structure. Their physicalproperties are the direct result of this deviation.