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Encryption Based Security for Position Based VANET Routing Protocol

Encryption Based Security for Position Based VANET Routing Protocol

Security is a key concern for communication among vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure in Vehicular Ad hoc Network(VANET), achievement of security is the purpose of this paper and comparison among parameters are also discussed for position based VANET routing protocol network. VANET is receiving a lot of attention from academicians, research & development (R&D) and industrial community as it plays a vital role in traffic safety besides ensuring a pleasant driving experience. Talking about expressways various vehicles moves with their maximum speeds and required to get information if any danger is ahead like accidents or construction are there, taking this advantage any disrupted unit can send false information about any situation. To prevent the network from this type of bogus. Symmetric key is used to cope with security challenges while communicating.
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The Prohibitive Link between Position-based Routing and Planarity

The Prohibitive Link between Position-based Routing and Planarity

Position-based routing is touted as an ideal routing strategy for resource-constrained wireless networks. One persistent barrier to adoption is due to its recovery phase, where messages are forwarded according to left- or right-hand rule (LHR). This is often referred to as face-routing. In this paper we investigate the limits of LHR with respect to planarity. We show that the gap between non-planarity and successful delivery is a single link within a single configuration. Our work begins with an analysis to enumerate all node configurations that cause intersections in the unit-disc graph. We find that left-hand rule is able to recover from all but a single case, the ‘umbrella’ configuration so named for its appearance. We use this information to propose the Prohibitive Link Detection Protocol (PLDP) that can guarantee delivery over non-planar graphs using standard face-routing techniques. As the name implies, the protocol detects and circumvents the ‘bad’ links that hamper LHR. The goal of this work is to maintain routing guarantees while disturbing the network graph as little as possible. In doing so, a new starting point emerges from which to build rich distributed protocols in the spirit of CLDP and GDSTR.
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Analytical Study of Position based Routing Protocols in VANET

Analytical Study of Position based Routing Protocols in VANET

Finding the next forwarding node to deliver the packet to the destination node using greedy approach does not support well in highly mobile ad hoc network such as VANET. Therefore, other position based protocols such as MFR, GEDIR, Compass routing, etc. have been used for VANET to improve its performance for high vehicular density environment. These protocols can be made better by utilizing farthest next-hop node in a dense and highly mobile network. Border-node based Most Forward within Radius (BMFR) [11] is a position based routing protocol that uses border-nodes with maximum progress towards destination node. This progress is observed by projecting the position of neighbor node on the line segment joining the source to estination. The BMFR utilizes the border-node to avoid the use of interior nodes within the transmission range for further transmitting the packet. This method selects the border-node as a next-hop node for forwarding packet from source to destination. Similarly that selected next-hop node follows the same procedure for selecting next forwarding node towards destination. The procedure continues till the destination node is in the transmission range of the current forwarding node.
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Position based Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Position based Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Adhoc wireless multi-hop networks (AHWMNs) are communication networks that consist of wireless nodes, placed together in an ad hoc manner, i.e. with minimal prior planning. All nodes in the network have routing capabilities and forward data packets for other nodes in multi-hop fashion. AHWMNs pose substantially different challenges to routing protocols than more traditional wired networks. AHWMN routing protocols are classified as topology-based, position- based. Topology-based routing protocols use the information about the links that exist in the network to perform packet forwarding. Position based routing is a routing principle that relies on geographic information. Position-based routing algorithms require information about the physical position of the participating node. Commonly, each node determines its own position through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). Decisions made based on destination position and position of forwarding nodes neighbours. A location service is used by the sender of packet to determine the position of the destination and to include it in the packet destination address. The Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol is a novel routing protocol for wireless datagram networks. Greedy perimeter stateless routing is based on greedy packet forwarding to forward packets to nodes that always progressively closer to the destination in each step using local information. Thus, each node forwards the message to the neighbours that are most suitable from a local point of view. Greedy forwarding can lead into a dead end, way there is no neighbour closer to the destination. The algorithm recovers by routing around the perimeter of the region by keeping state only about the local topology; GPSR scales better in per- router state than shortest path and ad hoc routing protocols as the number of network destination increases. Under mobility’s frequent topology changes, GPSR can use local topology information to find correct new routes quickly. In this paper performance of GPSR with the Ad hoc On demand distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is compared .
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REVIEW ON POSITION BASED REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE ROUTING IN VANET

REVIEW ON POSITION BASED REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE ROUTING IN VANET

(CAR) planned intended for between vehicle correspondence in a city and additionally thruway condition. A recognizing property of CAR is the capacity to find places of spots as well as to discover connected pathways amongst source and get-away spot sets. These pathways are auto-balanced on the take off, without another discovering procedure. "Monitors" help track the current position of any excursion spot, regardless of the possibility that it traveled an impressive separation from its first and foremost known area. For the investigation of the vehicle convention utilize characteristic portability follows removed from a minute vehicular movement test system that is dependant on a style of driver examples and the genuine interstate maps of Switzerland. Sascha Schnaufer et.al. [10] concentrate existing position-based directing conventions and present Offer, system of ravenous steering with a theoretical neighbor work area. It recreated every standard convention in city condition of the Karlsruhe, involving streets with a measure of 66 kilometers, 390 intersections, and radio checks created from top notch dish pictures. What's more, it mimicked the conventions with a FACE-2-and a separation vector-based reclamation technique.
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POSITION BASED ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN VANET

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POSITION BASED ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN VANET

Position based routing protocols requires the moving nodes knowledge through the GPS system, which is based on location services. Geographic routing protocols consider the position of the nodes in routing process. They requires the information of the neighbors location and the location of the target node to send packets successfully. When the source has the data to send it identifies its neighbor nodes within its communication range. The packet header releases from source node contains the position of the target node, speed of the moving vehicle, direction and current time. In this types of protocol there is no need of route detection and route repair, and knowledge of associated topology. Thus geographic based routing protocols are more suitable in highly mobile environments and thus more reliable for VANETs [5].These are categories into three types:
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Position Based Routing Technique: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks

Position Based Routing Technique: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks

VANET. GPSR outperforms AODV completely in both highway and city environments of VANET. While GPSR affected with the involvement of obstacles in the large city environments. On the other hand A-STAR outperforms both GPSR and AODV in city environments of VANET. As A-STAR uses the anchored based street information to find the routes in large city environments, therefore it is not an alternative for highway scenarios. So we realized that A-STAR is scalable for such environments of VANET where numbers of nodes are higher and radio obstacles involved, while GPSR is reliable for direct communication among nodes. Furthermore, all position based routing protocols cannot deal with all various environments of VANET. From the conducted study, we suggest that position based routing protocols are more promising than traditional ad hoc routing protocols for VANET. Although position based routing is scalable for VANET but it is hard to suggest any single routing protocol that can deal with different scenarios of VANET. The selection of a single routing protocol is hard in VANET because the protocol performance depends on vehicle speed, driving environment etc that may vary from one environment of network to another.
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Position based Adaptive Impedance Controller Design for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot

Position based Adaptive Impedance Controller Design for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot

Medical research has shown that patients with limb dyskinesia caused by nerve damage and healthy limbs can help them recover their athletic ability through scientific and effective exercise rehabilitation training. After the patient completes the initial passive training, the lower limbs have certain athletic ability, and the patient can perform some active output training. In active training, the rehabilitation robot tracks the desired human-machine contact force and follows the patient's active motion trajectory. Therefore, in order to meet the requirements of resistance following in the active rehabilitation training, the position-based adaptive impedance controller designed in this paper is used in the active rehabilitation training process.
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A prototype model of speculative dynamics with position based trading

A prototype model of speculative dynamics with position based trading

Within the field of asset pricing models with few groups of heterogeneous traders, we have started out from the observation that the overwhelming majority of these models leaves the positions of the agents as a residual in the background. As a consequence, the positions may easily become unbounded once some stochastic perturbations are introduced. This inconsistency can be avoided by modelling the agents’ strategies as position-based rather than order-based. There are a few examples of this approach in the recent literature, but it seems they have made relatively little impact as yet. One reason for the limited influence might be the lack of an elementary reference model with position-based trading. The main purpose of the present paper was therefore the design and analysis of such a prototype model, whose properties are well understood and which, in particular, can be contrasted with an order-based prototype model.
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Network Parameters Evaluation in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) Routing Protocols for Efficient Message Delivery in City Environment

Network Parameters Evaluation in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) Routing Protocols for Efficient Message Delivery in City Environment

for the chosen position-based routing protocols. The protocols chosen were; A-STAR, which uses street map to determine the series of junctions (anchors) path for packet to reach it destination [13]. GPCR, that relies on transmission of packet of data continuously to the junction node rather than allowing the packet of data to be transmitted everywhere on the junction [13]. CBF, which avoid utilization of beacon messages to conserves bandwidth, and only allows data packet transmission to all direct neighbors and identifies the most suitable node to forward the packet using a distributed timer- based contention process by suppressing other prospective forwarders [13]. Two important elements were considered for the simulation; the speed of the vehicle and the node density. The speed of the vehicle varied in the city for 40m/s, 60m/s, 80m/s and the node density also varied by increasing the node from 100 to 120, and 150. The simulation area was set to 2.5km x 2km. Other parameters and their values used for the simulation such as mobility type, simulation time limit, maximum transmission power, carrier frequency, and channel bit rate shown in Table I
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Challenges of Routing In Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks : A Survey

Challenges of Routing In Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks : A Survey

In the past few years, we have witnessed many developments in vehicular ad hoc network area. One of the major development was wide adoption of 802.11 technologies due to its affordable price. The other milestone was the standards of Federal Communication committee USA (FCC), which came into force in 1999. A dedicated frequency spectrum of 75 MHz (5.850-5.925 GHz) of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) was allocated to V2V and V2I communication. Consistent growth in automobile industry and increasing demand of safety and comfort factors led the research community to investigate the issue of vehicular communication deeply. VANETs are comprised of sensors and onboard units installed in vehicles and road side units. These devices enable the vehicles to communicate directly with other vehicles and roadside infrastructure. VANET and MANET are characterized by high node mobility, fast changing topology and self organization of node without any access point. But they are different in some ways like mobility patterns, scalability issue, efficient channel utilization, and security and privacy issues. From the above mentioned characteristics, it is evident that conventional MANET routing Protocols are not suitable in VANET environments. Therefore, more and more researchers have concentrated on proposing suitable routing protocols to deal with the highly dynamic nature of VANET. The routing Protocols in VANET are categorized into various types like Topology based, Position based, Geocast based, Cluster based, broadcast Based and Infrastructure based[12].
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Distance and Priority Based Routing Protocol in VANET

Distance and Priority Based Routing Protocol in VANET

As compared to topology based routing protocol position based routing protocol provides information of mobile nodes position in participating network. This helps for easy dissemination of information broadcasting if position is known in the network. The few types of position based routing protocols are greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR) [8] and distance routing effect algorithm for mobility protocol (DREAM)[9].

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Design of Cost Effective Single Phase Solar Inverter for Utilizing PV Energy

Design of Cost Effective Single Phase Solar Inverter for Utilizing PV Energy

decrease the cost of solar inverter. In this topology only two MOSFETs are used. And the isolation requirement between control and power circuit is less. In [3] the single phase inverter using PIC16F73 microcontroller and MPPT Microcontroller based advanced technique of generating sine wave with lowest harmonics is designed and implemented in this paper. The main objective of our proposed technique is to design a low cost, low harmonics voltage source inverter. In this paper PIC16F73 microcontroller is used to generate 4 KHz pwm switching signal. The design is essentially focused upon low power electronic appliances such as light, fan, chargers, television etc. In this paper author used STP55NF06 NMOSFET, which is a depletion type N channel MOSFET. For driving the MOSFET used TLP250 and totem pole configuration as a MOSFET driver. The inverter input is 12VDC and its output is 220VAC across a transformer. In this paper a single phase PWM inverter has been implemented with PIC16F73 microcontroller and gated river’s IC TLP250, totem-pole developed In [5] mechanical solar tracking system. Gear train operating system with the help of potential load is employed to rotate the solar concentrator with the movement of the sun. The comparison between the “Mechanical Solar Tracking System” and “Electro-Mechanical Solar Tracking System” shows that it consumes zero energy from the produced energy and thereby, increasing the overall efficiency by 5 to 8%. In [7] authors design of an efficient solar tracking system based on Real Time Clock (RTC) using microcontroller. The time at which panel is tilted to certain angles in a particular direction either in clockwise or anti clockwise is called tilt time. Then the controller delivers an output, the corresponding PWM signals to drive the DC motor, so that panel position can be adjusted. this paper refers to the solar tracking system that automatically adjusts the PV panel position based on the given tilt times with respect to the natural position of the Sun at different times of the day by means of a DC motor controlled by a intelligent microcontroller (AT89S52) that equipped with an algorithm to provide the tracking position using RTC (DS1307) In [9] authors used Worm gear mechanism is used to tolerate any environmental forces including wind or any backlash forces, Two photo-voltaic (PV) cells are used to detect the illumination in east and west direction. Outputs of PV cells are compared and given to PIC microcontrollerPIC16F877A for tracking purpose In [10] authors designed solar tracker in which Solar panels give maximum output when the plane of the solar collector is normal to incident radiations . The system discussed in this paper uses a PSoC device to control a small model of solar tracker.
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RF Based Automatic Vehicle Speed Limiter by Controlling Throttle Valve

RF Based Automatic Vehicle Speed Limiter by Controlling Throttle Valve

The Fig. 5 shows the Front panel of the drive by wire type, which simulates the work of acceleration position, speedometer and also the position of two throttle valves 1 & 2. When the vehicle is not present in the required speed limiting zone, the throttle valve never changes its position whereas throttle valve 1 changes it position based on accelerator pedal position. In this mode, the speed is not limited.

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Design of Lyapunov Based Nonlinear Position Control of Electrohydraulic Servo Systems

Design of Lyapunov Based Nonlinear Position Control of Electrohydraulic Servo Systems

Before of closed loop controller design for electrohydraulic servo system, the analysis of the system dynamics is required, as well as, mathematical modelling and computer simulation of dynamic behaviour [15] and [16]. The complete mathematical model of the system is based on physical laws that expresses dynamic behaviour and are described through differential equations. However, this task is troublesome due to the multidisciplinary nature of the electrohydraulic system that requires electric, magnetic, mechanical and hydraulic knowledge. Meanwhile, the nonlinearities of this type of system, such as fluid nonlinear properties, nonlinear servovalve dynamics and flow rate characteristics, as well as, nonlinearities associated with hydraulic
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Radio Galaxy Zoo: cosmological alignment of radio sources

Radio Galaxy Zoo: cosmological alignment of radio sources

The alignment detection discussed above could be contaminated by large radio galaxies, whose lobes are aligned with each other, e.g. along the same position angle, but are counted as separate sources in the RGZ sample. This can occur because the volunteers are only presented with a 3 arcmin × 3 arcmin field centred on a FIRST cat- alogue position, so sources larger than that may go unrecognized. As a rough check on the impact of this potential contamination, we examined the FIRST images of 35 double-lobed radio galaxies, 3.5 arcmin to 10 arcmin in extent, drawn from a sample of 6000 such sources > 1 arcmin in extent and with secure optical identifica- tions, compiled by one of us (HA, see e.g. Andernach et al. 2012). None of these sources appeared in our RGZ sample as two distinct sources. We therefore conclude that the large source contamination is unlikely to be making a significant contribution, based on (a) the low (undetected) probability of having both lobes in our sample, (b) and the relative scarcity of large sources in general, (∼3.5 per cent of FRII radio galaxies are 1.5 arcmin , using Fig. 11 from (Overzier et al. 2003) and (c) the fact that our highest significance signal occurs between 1.5 and 2 deg, where there are only a handful of sources so large in the whole sky. However, the existence of a small fractional population of sources that RGZ volunteers may not find should be investigated further when detailed size distributions are being studied.
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R&D Management in Iran, Opportunities and Threats

R&D Management in Iran, Opportunities and Threats

The position of the R&D Units differs in an organization Based on the size and position status of the company, In the government units that constitute the big industrial units of the region , R&D is placed in higher managerial level, however in smaller industrial units that belonged to the private sector .The R&D unit received less attention most of these unit received less attention , most of these units are semi active they were be semi active ,they were mainly established for the mere purpose of benefiting from the privilege granted by the government,
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POSITION LOCATION METHODOLOGY BASED
ON RSSI USING RFID

POSITION LOCATION METHODOLOGY BASED ON RSSI USING RFID

This paper focuses on various technologies for the position location such as Global Positioning System, Radio Frequency Identification and Near Field Communication. Also proposes the system for the position location of the person using RFID for the indoor application for the organization using the reader, tag and AVR controller. Out of these various technologies, the RFID technique has been chosen. RFID technology is generally used for the indoor application .Cost involved in RFID is very less. As no. of readers increases more exact location can be found .So, accuracy is more than that of GPS. Network can be easily established. No use of internet for the application.
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Automatic Neume Transcription of Medieval Music Manuscripts using CNN/LSTM-Networks and the segmentation-free CTC-Algorithm

Automatic Neume Transcription of Medieval Music Manuscripts using CNN/LSTM-Networks and the segmentation-free CTC-Algorithm

Figure 7 shows the prediction of a page of the Assisi dataset using the best model which was trained on the four remaining pages with a pretrained model from the Nevers dataset. The centres of symbols are drawn at their predicted horizontal position, whereas the vertical position is computed based on the label of a symbol which is relative to the staff lines (for example the first red note in the first line is located in the 3 rd space). A qualitative evaluation showed that the position of the notes (red boxes) was very accurate, however, with a small offset to the left. This confirms that the neural net correctly learned the semantic concept of a NC on its own, but produced the output as soon as a note starts and not in the centre of a NC. In contrast to the notes, all clefs that are the first symbol of a line had a large offset to their actual position even though the network seemed to learn their shape because, in most cases, the prediction whether a C or F clef is present was correctly distinguished (see e.g., the C-clefs in lines 2 to 5 and the F-clefs in the last two lines). A closer look at the predicted
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Contract Damages in Montana Part II: Reliance and Restitution

Contract Damages in Montana Part II: Reliance and Restitution

While damages based on reliance restore plain- tiff to a previous position and damages based on restitution restore defendant to a previous position, damages based [r]

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