passive and active sharing. In geographical sharing or national roaming, a federation of operators can achieve full coverage in a short time, by dividing the service area into several regions, over which each of the operators provides coverage . Passive sharing refers to the sharing agreement of fundamental infrastructures, such as tower masts, equipment houses and power supply, in order to reduce operational costs. Active sharing, how- ever, is the sharing of transport infrastructures, radio spectrum and baseband processing resources. In , two types of sharing are introduced: multi-operator RAN and multi-core network. In the former, operators maintain a maximum level of independent control over their traffic quality and capacity, by splitting BSs and their controller nodes into logically independent units over a single physical infrastructure. In the latter, how- ever, operators give up their independent control, by sharing the aforementioned entities in conjunction with the pooling of radio resources. Although the cost items in multi-core network are identical to multi-operator RAN, radio resources pooling leads to further savings in extremely low-traffic areas over equipment-related costs. Moreover, a network-wide radioresourcemanagement framework is proposed , in order to achieve isolation in addition to the optimal distribution of resources across the network.
With the demand upsurge for high bandwidth services, continuous increase in the number of cellular subscriptions, adoption of Internet of Things (IoT), and marked growth in Machine to Machine (M2M) tract, there is great stress exerted on cellular network infrastructure. The present wire line and wireless networking technologies are rigid in nature and heavily hardware dependent. The embrace of SDN in traditional cellular networks has led to the implementation of vital network functions in the form of software that are deployed in virtualized environments. This approach to move crucial and hardware intensive network functions to virtual environments is collectively referred to as network function virtualization (NFV).we implement a virtualized eNodeB component (RadioResourceManagement) to add agility to the network setup and improve performance, which we compare with a traditional resource manager. When combined with dynamic network resource allocation techniques proposed in Elastic Hando. Agnostic approach can achieve a greater reduction in capital and operational expenses through optimal use of network resources and client energy utilization to better handle these agreements under peak network load.
source Management (CRRM). The next generation heterogeneous wireless networks’ requirements have force the Common RadioResourceManagement (CRRM) or Joint RadioResourceManagement (JRRM) to play a more important role than before. The challenges do not only on refer to the technical efficiency but also whether different constraints given by users’ preferences are met, and this will have adverse impact on the entire system. The ability to change parameters adaptively and automatically with- out operator intervention and sharing resources across other operators are amongst the new challenges to be addressed by CRRM. CRRM has been proposed to cater for mul- tiple choices of wireless access network and the challenge would be how to achieve the overall optimum trade-off between resource utilization and quality of service in heterogenous wireless networks .
People are becoming increasingly familiar with using wireless network mediums to transfer various forms of data such as emails, images and videos, all of which benefit from fast- growing wireless communication technologies. As more and more users gain access to wireless broadband systems and services, the network traffic in-turn is becoming increasingly congested. This situation becomes increasingly worse when users are using multiple or heterogeneous services concurrently, especially broadband video streaming applications and dynamically moving from one cell to another cell simultaneously. This leads towards the importance of needing RadioResourceManagement (RRM) to manage these type of situations effectively. RadioResourceManagement (RRM) is critical to achieving the desired performance requirements by managing key components of both the PHY and MAC layers . Also, this component is crucial for OFDMA wireless broadband networks where scarce spectral resources are shared by multiple users in the same transmission channel. This concept is fortunately well developed, as several techniques currently exist which are implemented in the latest releases of IEEE802.16m and 3GPP LTE Release 10, also known as 4G systems.
In IMT-Advanced systems, a cross-layer approach coupling network coordination and radioresource managements enables mitigation of intercell interference and throughput improvement of cell-edge users. To facilitate coordination among base stations, we propose a new radio-resourcemanagement framework where cell-edge users and cell-interior users are separately managed by two diﬀerent radio-resource managers. In the proposed framework, we address the issue of how to classify a user as cell-edge user or cell-interior user, and how much radioresource the cell-edge users may occupy. We present a solution where a user switches the user type so as to maximize overall network throughput subject to the condition that their own throughput does not decrease upon switching. We verify our solution using analysis and simulation experiments where two or three BSs are coordinated to support fractional frequency reuse or macrodiversity and demonstrate that our solution can guarantee superior cell-edge performance and achieve a high network throughput.
The need for higher network capacity has introduced novel technologies that improve resource allocation efficiency. Direct connectivity among user equipment terminals (UEs) circumventing the LTE-A infrastructure alleviates the network overload. Part of mobile traffic is offloaded to outband device-to-device (D2D) connections (in unlicensed spec- trum) enabling data exchange between UEs directly or via UEs-relays. Still, MNOs need additional spectrum resources and infrastructure. The inter-operator network sharing concept has emerged motivating the adoption of virtualization that enables network slic- ing, i.e., dynamic separation of resources in virtual slices (VSs). VSs are managed in isolation by different tenants using software defined networking and encompass core and radio access network resources allocated periodically to UEs. When UEs access OTT applications, flows with different QoS demands and priorities determined by OTT service providers (OSPs) are generated. OSPs’ policies should be considered in VS allocation. The coexisting technologies, business models and stakeholders require sophisticated radioresourcemanagement (RRM) techniques.
As different CCs may operate at different frequencies and bandwidths, questions arise as how to assign the CCs to each user, and how to multiplex the users within each CC. Different from the downlink, the UE is limited by the maximum transmission power in the uplink, especially for cell edge users since they usually suffer from unfavorable channel conditions. Furthermore, an additional power back-off is needed in the UE power amplifier (PA) with non-contiguous resource allocation in the uplink, which in practice means a reduction of the UE maximum transmission power . The UE trans- mission power constraint together with the additional power back-off required with non-contiguous resource allocation might counterbalance the gain brought by multi-CC and/or dual-cluster transmission and even results in a performance loss as compared to the case without CA where the SC-FDMA properties of the trans- mitted signals are maintained (single-CC and single- cluster transmission). Therefore, the selection of UEs to operate with uplink CA has to be carefully considered. The CC selection for uplink CA has been studied in  for the case of intra-band contiguous CA and single- cluster transmission. In this paper, we extend the work of  to design efficient radioresourcemanagement (RRM) algorithms for uplink CA for cases of both intra- band contiguous CA and inter-band non-contiguous CA, as well as the support for multi-cluster transmission. Our main contributions are as follows:
ABSTRACT: The performance of cellular networks will experience a considerable improvement by the use of newtechnologies such as distributed antenna systems (DASs), multi-cell cooperation (MCC), and cognitive radio (CR).However, several issues remain open in the system-level evaluation, radioresourcemanagement (RRM), and particularlyin the design of billing/licensing schemes for these types of system. This paper proposes a system-level simulator(SLS) that will help us address these issues. An advanced RRM solution is also proposed for a multi-cell DAS in adense urban Manhattan scenario with two levels of cooperation: inside the cell (intra-cell) to coordinate the transmissionof distributed nodes controlled by the base station of the cell, and between cells of a cluster (inter-cell) toadapt cell transmissions according to updated inter- cell interference measurements. The RRM solution blends networkand financial metrics using the theory of multi-objective and financial portfolio optimization. In this paper each network/spectrum resource is considered as a financial asset whose allocation has to be optimized based on economic metrics such as return and risk (i.e., variation of the return). The core of the intra-cell RRM algorithm is based on an iterative weighted least squares (WLS) optimization scheme where power levels and beam-forming vectors are jointlydesigned to comply with a target instantaneous SINR (signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio) threshold for each transmission.This instantaneous SINR threshold ensures the transmission of the selected modulation and coding scheme(MCS) with a given value of BLER (block error rate) and spectral efficiency. The WLS scheme allows for a smoothintegration of scheduling and adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) schemes with the underlying space division multiplexing(SDM) physical layer. Convergence speed is improved by reusing the outcome of previous WLS iterations.The weight coefficients of the WLS optimization contain network metrics such as queue length and fairness, as well aseconomic metrics such as return and risk. This process is complemented with a multi-objective and financial portfoliooptimization stage for joint spectrum selection and resource (chunk) allocation that attempts to maximize return and minimize risk. Cells within a cluster exchange the results of their optimization processes for purposes of rejectinginter-cell interference, thereby achieving MCC. All resource allocation schemes use an imperfect copy of channel and queueing state information, which is the result of inaccurate measurements, imperfect feedback, or sensing errors.
Abstract—In spite of the enormous popularity of Wi-Fi- enabled devices, the utilisation of Wi-Fi radio resources (e.g. RF spectrum and transmission power levels) at Access Points (APs) is degraded in current decentralised RadioResourceManagement (RRM) schemes. Most state of the art centralised control solutions apply configurations in which the network-wide impacts of the involved parameters and their mutual relationships are ignored. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for jointly adjusting the transmission power levels and optimising the RF channel assignment of APs by taking into account the flows’ required qualities while minimising their interference impact throughout the network. The proposed solution is tailored for an operator- agnostic and Software Defined Wireless Networking (SDWN)- based centralised RRM in dense Wi-Fi networks. Our extensive simulation results validate the performance improvements of the proposed algorithm compared to the main state of the art alternative by showing more than 25% higher spectrum efficiency, satisfying the users’ demands and further mitigating the network- wide interference through flow-based and quality-oriented power level adjustment.
RadioResourceManagement refers to a group of mechanisms that are collectively responsible for to provide services with an acceptable level of QoS. RRM mechanisms contains Power Control, Handover Control, Packet Scheduling or Congestion RadioResourceManagement new strategies are implemented RAT. RRM strategies is suitable for the heterogeneous network, because each RRM strategy only considers that situation of one particular RAT. CRRM strategy is also known as access RRM (MRRM) has been proposed. In this paper focus on JCAC algorithm has been presented. Considering four different simulation results are obtained and compared. Result show joint management of radio resources and bandwidth adaptation reduce call blocking or dropping
In this paper, base station supply power saving techniques are analyzed, examined and evaluated their performance with a model of base station power consumption. We defined and presented the scheduling problem of minimizing supply power consumption at base station for the downlink of multiuser MIMO-OFDM. Our efficient radioresourcemanagement algorithm for base station power optimization is proposed to solve the scheduling problem. The MATLAB simulation results presents that our proposed algorithm is capable of minimizing supply power consumption over all target link rates by large scale. Our power saving technique also works at low target data rates which are mostly attributed to discontinue transmission and adaptive antennas. This efficient radioresourcemanagement algorithm for base station power optimization can be applied to various types of base stations, the result of this simulation clearly depends on the used power model.
The combination of Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) and cloud-based radio access network (C-RAN) is a candidate approach for the next generation of mobile networks. In this paper, the novel concept of virtual radio resources, which completes the virtual RAN paradigm, is proposed. The key idea is to aggregate (and manage) all the physical radio resources, to create virtual wireless links, and to offer Capacity-as-a-Service. Due to the isolation among instances, network element abstraction, and a multi-radio access techniques (RAT) structure, the virtualisation approach leads to relatively more efficient and flexible RANs than former ones. Virtual network operators (VNOs) ask for wireless connectivity in the form of capacity per service, hence, not dealing with physical radio resources at all. A model for the management of virtual radio resources is proposed, which can even support the shortage of resources. A practical heterogeneous cellular network is considered as a case study, and results are presented, showing how the virtual radioresourcemanagement allocates capacity to services of different VNOs, with different service-level agreements (SLAs) and priority when the overall network capacity reduces down to 45% of the initial one.
In this paper we have analysed several eﬀective radioresourcemanagement techniques to provide MBMS, namely, use of nonuniform QAM constellations, multicode, and macrodi- versity to guarantee the optimal distribution of QoS depend- ing on the location of mobiles. In this study we have also presented the expected capacity gains that multicode and nonuniform 16-QAM modulations with more complex re- ceivers can provide to reduce the PtM MBMS channel power. The latter receivers are more power e ﬃ cient than current receivers based on QPSK modulation. We have shown that macrodiversity combining oﬀers better capacity gains than multi-code for broadcast/multicast services. The use of both techniques at the same time is suggested. Non-uniform 16- QAM receivers should be built in the near future with or without the macrodiversity combining already specified by 3GPP, as an eﬀective mean to increase not only the through- put, but also the number of simultaneous simulcast services.
In orthogonal frequency division multiple access networks buffer aided non-transparent in- band half duplex decode and forward relay nodes aim to improve coverage and capacity under fairness considerations. Existing centralized radioresourcemanagement and inter cell interference coordination schemes achieve these goals at the cost of heavy signalling overhead. Especially for frequency division duplex downlink transmission this is an criti- cal issue. Fully decentralized schemes often focus on different types of frequency reuse schemes with less amount of necessary feedback. Here, it is often overseen that in a practi- cal deployment, the backhaul link quality is the bottleneck of the two hop transmission and needs to be taken into account. Moreover, it is often modelled way too optimistic and necessary co-scheduling with single hop UE further limits the possible data rate. In order to minimize the required overhead this work proposes a hybrid radioresourcemanagement (RRM) scheme. The RRM includes synchronous adapted two-hop proportional frequency selective resource scheduling as the decentralized part. Asynchronous subband power allo- cation scheme with very limited feedback is proposed to maximize the wireless backhaul link quality with no loss for single hop UE. Comprehensive system level simulation results show stable fairness and throughput when minimizing the required feedback and improve- ments for the backhaul links based on the centralized adapted power allocation including no losses in the overall system. In addition possible energy savings for the shared channel are presented when applying the proposed scheme.
Abstract— Today’s multimedia application has many requirements in terms of quality of service and users always want to be best connected anywhere, anytime, and anyhow. To satisfy these demands, many access technologies have become available: WLAN, WMAN, and Cellular networks. For service provider, it is difficult to select the best network for requesting services and to control the quality level of ongoing connections due to coexistence of these technologies in the same region. Thus, resourcemanagement is needed to prevent overloaded or underutilized networks as well as to best satisfy users is necessary. This survey paper addresses the problem of Radioresourcemanagement, existing resourcemanagement techniques and their limitations.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a Third Generation (3G) cellular technology representing an evolution of a heterogenous mix of services and increased data speeds from today’s second generation mobile networks. UMTS uses Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) as its radio air interface. The implementation of WCDMA is a technical challenge because of its complexity and versatility. Billions of dol- lars have been spent procuring these air interfaces. To exploit the flexibility of the air interface, development of ‘RadioResourceManagement (RRM)’ schemes are imperative. RRM is comprised of power control, handover control, load control and resource allocation algorithms. These ensure optimum network coverage, maximize the system throughput and , guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to users having different requirements.
Figure 2 shows a plan of the enterprise femtocell net- work in Figure 1. The aim of enterprise femtocell net- work is to meet the increasing demands for higher speed and higher-quality wireless data services within office buildings, factories, apartment buildings, and other indoor propagation environments, where the usual macrocell system can only provide degraded ser- vices or provide no coverage at all. In this article, we considered the proposed radioresourcemanagement schemes in a typical enterprise office scenario, in which there are two meeting rooms, five open offices, one demo room, and one sitting room. To provide high- quality services, each room is equipped with a FBS and totally M femtocells and N user equipments (UEs) are distributed in this network. There is also a femto gate- way which connects the FBSs with core network, col- lects and stores the information from all the FBSs and UEs, and allocates radio resources (power, channel etc.) between the FBSs as well as sends parameter adjust- ment prompt to the FBSs according to the predefined scheme.
Basic scheduling procedures, such as round robin (RR) or proportional fair (PF) scheduling methods in eNB only networks have been extensively studied, e.g. . As well in RN aided LTE networks, modified radioresourcemanagement (RRM) procedures are investigated and analyzed, e.g. , . In this paper several definitions of a weighting factor which prioritizes the RNs to be scheduled are introduced. The influence of these different approaches on the network performance is shown. The evaluation of different approaches is done based on the results of system level simulations (SLS) in terms of wideband average signal to interference plus noise ratio (wSINR) and UE throughput.
In  the author Nazmus Saquib ; Ekram Hossain ; Obstruction moderation between neighboring femtocells and between the femtocell and macrocell is viewed as one of the significant difficulties in femtocell systems on the grounds that femtocells share the equivalent authorized recurrence range with a macrocell. Further, conventional radioresourcemanagement the board strategies for the progressive cell framework isn't appropriate for femtocell systems since the places of the femtocells are irregularly relying upon the clients' administration prerequisite. In this article, give a study of the distinctive best in class approaches for obstruction and asset the executives in symmetrical recurrence orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)- based femtocell systems. A subjective examination of the various methodologies is given. In  To fulfill the nature of the administration of macrocell clients, a limit augmentation issue with the total and the upper power imperatives by allocation powers to subcarriers for a client in femtocell frameworks ends up significant. In this work, the ideal power distribution is inferred by utilizing the lagrangian strategy Based on the examination of the kush-Kuhn-exhaust conditions, subcarriers can be grouped into two sets with various power assignment procedures as per to the upper power imperative. One lot of subcarriers are assigned with upper power, and the other arrangement of subcarriers is prepared by utilizing the water filling approach. A direct straight search plan is exhibited to accomplish the ideal execution by finding the limit over the channel conditions of all subcarriers to decide the two sets. so as to decrease the computational burden, a diminished intricacy plan is intended for the ideal arrangement by using the relationship of the allotted