In support of hypothesis 2, the media- tion model shows that the in ﬂ uence of alcohol ads at time 1 on the occurrence of alcohol-related problems at time 4 is mediated by the growth of alcohol use. Among girls, there was a signi ﬁ cant indirect effect of exposure to ads on popular shows in time 1 on problems in time 4 through the growth of alcohol use, and among boys, there was a sig- ni ﬁ cant total effect from the shows and liking interaction term in time 1 to problems in time 4. These relationships are signi ﬁ cant even after adjusting for a range of other covariates measured at time 1 that are known to be associated with alcohol use. The other 3 measures of exposure to alcohol advertising show similar ﬁ ndings, although these mea- sures are somewhat less predictive of the growth in alcohol use and alcohol- related problems.
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This is a survey and expository article. Some new developments on refinements, generalizations, and applications of Jordan’s inequality and related problems, including some results about Wilker-Anglesio’s inequality, some estimates for three kinds of complete elliptic integrals, and several inequalities for the remainder of power series expansion of the exponential function, are summarized.
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women to disclose menopause-related problems and obtain help (Griffiths et al, 2013). Previous research has shown that talking about the menopause was facilitated when women perceived they had empathic colleagues (Reynolds, 1999). Conversely, perceiving a lack of support, or the likelihood that discussing the menopause will create embarrassing, derisory or discriminatory reactions by supervisors or colleagues, can cause difficulties for women (Reynold, 1999; Morris & Symonds, 2004; Irni, 2009). An online survey in Australia by Bariola and colleagues (2017) found that having high supervisor support was independently associated with lower menopausal symptom reporting.
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The main objective of this paper is to introduce a split hierarchical variational inequality problem. Several related problems are also considered. We propose an iterative method for ﬁnding a solution of our problem. The weak convergence of the sequence generated by the proposed method is studied.
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Clearly, quantity of cannabis consumed can be an impor- tant predictor of problems. Further research can employ the three new measures of quantity to help clarify its role in outcomes. These single-item indicators each reveal unique aspects of the amount consumed and contribute to the prediction of negative consequences. Continued efforts to examine quantity can have important implica- tions for prevention and treatment of cannabis-related problems. As another astute and anonymous reviewer mentioned, these data support the idea that efforts to increase the safety of cannabis can emphasize decreasing amount as well as frequency of consumption. Despite the challenges to quantification, the present findings suggest that perhaps researchers and clinicians should not only ask people how often they smoke; they should also ask how much they consume and how high they get.
Recently, much attention has been paid to the complexity of the problems in graph classes dened by forbidden induced subgraphs. Many results of this type were mentioned above, some others can be found in [Brandt, 2002b; Broersma et al., 2009, 2012; Kami«ski and Lozin, 2007a,b; Kochol et al., 2003; Král' et al., 2001; Le et al., 2007; Maray and Preissmann, 1996; Randerath et al., 2002; Woeginger and Sgall, 2001]. In [Král' et al., 2001], the authors systematically study Vertex Colouring on graph classes dened by a single forbidden induced subgraph, and give a complete characterisation of those for which the problem is polynomial-time solvable and those for which it is NP-complete. In particular, the problem is NP-complete for triangle-free graphs. More generally, from the results in [Kami«ski and Lozin, 2007a] it follows that the problem is NP-complete in any subclass of triangle-free graphs dened by a nite collection of forbidden induced subgraphs, each of which contains a cycle. This motivates us to study the problem in subclasses of triangle-free graphs obtained by forbidding graphs without cycles, i.e. forests. In this chapter we prove polynomial-time solvability of the problem in many classes of this type. In particular, our results, combined with some previously known facts, provide a complete description of the complexity status of the problem in subclasses of triangle-free graphs obtained by forbidding a forest with at most 6 vertices.
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• Copeland, Jan, Frewen, Amie, & Elkins, Kathryn (2009). Practice guidelines for the management of cannabis use and related issues: A guide for practitioners and counselors. National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre, University of New South Wales: Sydney.
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Ayurvedic body purification management i.e. Panchakarmas such as Vamana (Emesis), Virechana (Purgation), Basti (Enema), Nasya (Nasal insufflation) and Raktamokshana (Bloodletting), as well as other external therapies such as Snehana (Oleation) and Swedana (Fomentation) show remarkable results in patients with Arthritis and related problems. Hence, it is a great necessity to spread awareness regarding these therapies. Moreover, Snehana and Swedana are therapies that people can easily conduct at home and at a cheaper cost.
Okuyama et al. evidenced a positive relationship between the length of radial crack and surface growth stress in Eucalyptus grandis logs . These data are consistent with the numerical simulations of radial cracks propagation at log ends by Jullien et al., based on the application of Griffith’s theory . According to that theory, the propagation of an existing crack allows the partial release of the elastic energy contained in a body, and the propagation is only possible when that energy release exceeds the amount of energy necessary to extend the crack. The simulations by Jullien et al. explained a number of well-known facts: (i) the increase of cracking risk is often observed in the case of tension wood occur- rence; (ii) fewer problems are encountered with softwood species at the crosscutting stage, even in the presence of compression wood; (iii) large-diameter logs tend to crack more than small-diameter logs; and (iv) some species with higher toughness exhibit less cracking defects than others. Other predictions ought to be verified experimentally: number and orientation of cracks in a log containing a reaction wood zone and the increase of cracking risk with wood density . Those investigations contributed to clarifying the direct role of residual stress—resulting from its release—in the occurrence of processing defects such as cracks and deformations. Some techniques, aiming at the reduction of processing defects responsible for the lower yield of harvested resources, will be detailed in the next section. In addition, the presence of reaction wood may cause various problems at the utilization stage because of differences of physical, chemical, and mechanical
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The study revealed that there are teacher-related problems caused by lack of security. These include low morale and productivity, patronage of cultism out of fear of family safety, condonmentof students’ indiscipline, high attrition rate and poor attitude to work. These factors, to a significant extent, result from lack of security in the secondary school system. This assertion tallies with the comment of Nnabuo and
Labour related problems are noticeable constraints as depicted in Table 4. The lack of timely availability of labour along with lack of timely availability of skilled labour and lack of skilled or trained labour gets Rank I, Rank II and Rank III, respectively. Less severe constraints are odd working hours (Rank VII), lack of recognition of research findings (Rank VIII) and least felt constraints are lack of working cordial relationship among the staff (Rank XI) and inadequate field and farmers problem oriented research (Rank X).
In this article, we generalize the concept of well-posedness to the parametric strong vector quasi-equilibrium problem. Under some suitable conditions, we establish some characterizations of well-posedness for parametric strong vector quasi- equilibrium problems. The corresponding concept of well-posedness in the generalized sense is also investigated for the parametric strong vector quasi- equilibrium problem. As applications, we investigate the well-posedness for strong vector quasi-variational inequality problems and strong vector quasi-optimization problems.
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We have developed a numerical algorithm to get a better view of the qualitative nature of the solutions to some of the free boundary problems mentioned so far. As these experi- ments are primarily meant to provide us with further insight into the problems at hand, the minute details of the implementation will not be presented here. Rather, an overview of the main ingredients of the experiments will be provided so that the interested reader can replicate the results and experiment with other sample problems of their own choice. 4.1. Setting the parameters. First of all, we only consider problems over two-dimensional domains, and focus on the case where the rearrangement class R ( f 0 ) is generated by a char-
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In our laboratory we quite often experience problems with the operation of steel ropes. There is a range of causes related to lifetime problems of ropes. These problems are related to poor quality of input material used for wire production, mixing of differ- ent wire strengths in the rope construction, improper roping of the rope into the hoist system, improper rope operation, improper rope design for a particular type of opera- tion as well as unfair practices of vendors. The subject of the article is the analysis of the rope showing the combination of a large number of the above factors leading to the damage of the rope. During the operation of the cargo cableway, the hauling ropes were damaged in a very short time. The Z wires from the surface layer of the rope started to release from the rope. Subsequently, the wires were unwinding from the layer, they created visible protuberant waves, they were braking and dropping out from the rope. The hauling rope had to be replaced. Than the samples were taken from the rope in order to find out the cause of the rope damage. Mechanical, metallographic and fractographic measurements were performed on the rope. The metallographic and fractographic measurements revealed the material defects of the wires of the rope caused during manufacturing of the Z wires from the surface layer of the hauling rope. The mechanical tests revealed differences in the tensile strength grade the operator required compering to the tensile strength grade the vendor declared. The above men- tioned problems unambiguously show that it is appropriate to introduce a mechanical control of the rope properties in advance to its deployment. Checks must be performed by an independent testing laboratory. This procedure overprices inputs needed for the rope replacement. On the other hand, it can reduce the costs when a poor quality rope is deployed. Some of our customers have already adopted this approach. It helped to the increase in the safety of the operation of the mechanisms and it eliminated the problems with exchange and climes on bad quality ropes.
A ﬁrst approach to extending the concept of minmax robustness to multi-objective opti- mization was presented by Kuroiwa and Lee . Here, the worst case in each component is calculated separately, and an eﬃcient solution to the problem of minimizing the vec- tor of worst cases is then called a robust solution to the original problem. This deﬁnition has been extended by Ehrgott, et al. , where the authors replace the objective function by a set-valued objective function. Furthermore, the authors present solution algorithms for calculating minmax-robust eﬃcient solutions, one of which is closely connected to the concept of robustness presented by Kuroiwa and Lee . Furthermore, in  the authors present solution concepts for obtaining robust points of uncertain multi-objective opti- mization problems and study optimality conditions for the special case of convex objective functions in .
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relatively slow. The state of the development of the three type of greenhouse is in line with the actual usage of our greenhouse. A solar greenhouse is working diffusely in the in northern China; it has the special structural features which include excellent heat preservation performance, low requirements for land area and so on. With the rapid development of steel structure technology, the solar greenhouse structure has experienced the soil-wood form, soil-bamboo form, soil-steel form to the developing of the whole cold bending light steel structure. The plastic tunnel has a bigger areal distribution than solar greenhouse for the base that it is used all regions in China. The application of it is temporary and seasonal, and it will be assembled and disassembled frequently compared with other two types. There are not heavy equipment installation requirements for its framework. The lower level of technical and practical demand leads to the slower development of tunnel greenhouse than that of the solar greenhouse. The formulation of the standard of multi-span greenhouse mainly referred to the international standards because these depend upon imported technology [54,55] . The related technic of it has been being localized and standardized since the development of greenhouse was promoted actively by the government. In the past several years, this type expanded little slower because it requires capital, land, and technology issues and Chinese farmers cannot support. This type of greenhouse has the greater potential for development according to the country’s new agricultural development strategy and with other particular advantages. It has high space, suitable for mass production and easy to maintain. 4.1.2 Distribution from standards hierarchy
To adequately capture the information required the study focused on three trades namely carpentry, mechanics and welding. The study concentrated two specific villages which are Mogoditshane and Tlokweng. These were selected on the basis of being identified as having a high concentration of informal sector within the Greater- Gaborone Area. A sample of 25 informal sector traders was selected randomly. These included garages with open area activities of car repair including welding, upholstery and painting; wood workshops of two types, permanent workshops with fixed wood machines carrying out sawing, cutting and carving and simple shelter workshops having workbenches with three or more workers polishing wood for furniture. Metal workshops were shelters with usually three workers, using heavy hammers, metal cutting scissors, soldering and welding equipment working on scrap metal and producing gates, window and door frames, buckets and bath basins. To collect the data, a combination of focus group discussions (FGD’s), observations and interviews were used. The enterprises were visited and all possible exposures listed and personal protective equipment used by welders, metalworkers and wood workers using a checklist. Four focused group discussions were done in the two villages. The FGDs were carried out among employees and employers of the trades. The FGD focused on; identification of perceived safety problems related to working in the informal sector; and identification of work related health issues. In addition to focus group discussions, the following were observed at the workplaces
We introduce a new class of equilibrium problems, known as mixed quasi invex equilibrium (or equilibrium-like) problems. This class of invex equilibrium problems includes equilib- rium problems, variational inequalities, and variational-like inequalities as special cases. Several iterative schemes for solving invex equilibrium problems are suggested and ana- lyzed using the auxiliary principle technique. It is shown that the convergence of these iter- ative schemes requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity, which are weaker conditions than the previous ones. As special cases, we also obtained the correct forms of the algorithms for solving variational-like inequalities, which have been considered in the setting of convexity. In fact, our results represent signiﬁcant and impor- tant reﬁnements of the previously known results.
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The system just described has to be coupled to some model for the excess poten- tials. The excess electrochemical potentials (obtained as variations of the excess en- ergy with respect to the particle densities) include the direct interactions between the ions, usually obtained from hard-sphere or Lennard-Jones models. The external con- ﬁning potential describes the external forces produced by the structure of the channel on the ionic groups of the protein that make up the permanent charge. This conﬁned permanent charge produces the selectivity of the channel. For our test computations detailed below, we use a speciﬁc model of the other components of the excess potential based on density-functional theory (DFT), as described in [GNE02, GNE03, NCE00]. Other models of the excess electrochemical potential require similar computational schemes and lead to the same kind of inverse problems. For a detailed statement of all equations used in the computation of the excess potentials we refer to the appendix of [BEE06].
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Hiring industry professionals as educators presents another dilemma, in this case related to media literacy’s function in counteracting the perception of media as an authoritative figure. Specifically, it is possible that students will inadvertently accept the infallible nature of media since they are being educated by a school-sanctioned industry professional. In this sense, learners are placed in a state of mystification, whereby a sage teaches his craft. Indeed, as one participant expressed in Komaya’s (2008) study, ” I have respect for industry professionals’ ability” (p. 87), a heightened mystification of mass-media may result from this teaching. Yet, Japanese educational institutions currently have no alternative to the practice of hiring industry professionals. Moreover, the notion that ideal instructors even exist in the field is erroneous because of the aforementioned deification of media professionals, and the inherent conflict this poses to the concept of media literacy.